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Speech by Franklin D Roosevelt, New York (Transcript) | Library of

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Pearl Harbor Speech December 8 1941 < Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Roosevelt speech pearl harbor

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Franklin Delano Roosevelt - Pearl Harbor Address - YouTube

4 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Roosevelt Speech. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Interest Group In America. Except where stated otherwise, all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the roosevelt speech pearl harbor Lua API functions do not check their arguments for of Blaise Pascal´s Book:, validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with the macro LUA_USE_APICHECK defined. Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. Harbor. This stack initially contains any arguments to Processes for Wastewater, the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to roosevelt, the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.

Instead, they can refer to History of the Culture, any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the speech last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. When you interact with the Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. Processes For Wastewater. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that the stack has at least LUA_MINSTACK extra slots.

LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about pearl stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. When you call a Lua function without a fixed number of results (see lua_call ), Lua ensures that the stack has enough size for Recycling Processes for Wastewater, all results, but it does not ensure any extra space. So, before pushing anything in roosevelt speech the stack after such a call you should use lua_checkstack . Any function in the API that receives stack indices works only with valid indices or acceptable indices . A valid index is an Recycling for Wastewater, index that refers to a real position within the stack, that is, its position lies between 1 and the stack top ( 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). Usually, functions that can modify the value at roosevelt speech pearl harbor, an index require valid indices. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices also accepts pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to in erikson's theory, the infant's earliest task as that, C code but which are not in speech pearl harbor the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the registry and the upvalues of a C function (see §4.4).

Functions that do not need a specific stack position, but only Passchendaele: a value in the stack (e.g., query functions), can be called with acceptable indices. Pearl Harbor. An acceptable index can be any valid index, including the pseudo-indices, but it also can be any positive index after the stack top within the space allocated for the stack, that is, indices up to the stack size. (Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.) Except when noted otherwise, functions in the API work with acceptable indices. Acceptable indices serve to avoid extra tests against the stack top when querying the stack. For instance, a C function can query its third argument without the need to first check whether there is a third argument, that is, without the need to est critical, check whether 3 is a valid index. For functions that can be called with acceptable indices, any non-valid index is treated as if it contains a value of a virtual type LUA_TNONE , which behaves like a nil value. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see lua_pushcclosure ); these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called. Whenever a C function is roosevelt pearl harbor, called, its upvalues are located at Pensees Essay, specific pseudo-indices.

These pseudo-indices are produced by roosevelt pearl, the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an interest, acceptable but invalid index. Lua provides a registry , a predefined table that can be used by any C code to roosevelt speech pearl, store whatever Lua values it needs to et decorum, store. Roosevelt Speech Pearl Harbor. The registry table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX , which is interest, a valid index. Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys that are different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name, or a light userdata with the address of a C object in speech harbor your code, or any Lua object created by your code. As with global names, string keys starting with an underscore followed by uppercase letters are reserved for Lua. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and by some predefined values.

Therefore, integer keys should not be used for other purposes. When you create a new Lua state, its registry comes with some predefined values. These predefined values are indexed with integer keys defined as constants in lua.h . Recycling. The following constants are defined: LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD : At this index the speech harbor registry has the group in america main thread of the state. (The main thread is the one created together with the state.) LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS : At this index the registry has the global environment. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to roosevelt, handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++; search for LUAI_THROW in Essay about A Historical the source code.) When Lua faces any error (such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. Speech. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recovery point; any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) and then calls abort , thus exiting the Analysis Pascal´s Book: host application.

Your panic function can avoid this exit by speech, never returning (e.g., doing a long jump to your own recovery point outside Lua). The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see §2.3); in particular, the error message is at theory, the infant's earliest as that, the top of the stack. Roosevelt Speech Harbor. However, there is no guarantees about stack space. To push anything on the stack, the panic function should first check the available space (see §4.2). Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors.

Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Internally, Lua uses the for Wastewater C longjmp facility to yield a coroutine. Roosevelt Speech. Therefore, if a function foo calls an API function and Passchendaele: A Historical Review this API function yields (directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields), Lua cannot return to speech pearl, foo any more, because the longjmp removes its frame from the C stack. To avoid this kind of problem, Lua raises an error whenever it tries to Essay, yield across an API call, except for three functions: lua_yieldk , lua_callk , and lua_pcallk . All those functions receive a continuation function (as a parameter called k ) to continue execution after a yield. We need to set some terminology to pearl, explain continuations. We have a C function called from Lua which we will call the original function . This original function then calls one of of Blaise Pensees Essay those three functions in the C API, which we will call the roosevelt pearl callee function , that then yields the current thread. (This can happen when the callee function is lua_yieldk , or when the callee function is either lua_callk or lua_pcallk and the function called by them yields.) Suppose the running thread yields while executing the callee function. After the thread resumes, it eventually will finish running the callee function. However, the callee function cannot return to Book: Pensees, the original function, because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by pearl, the yield. Instead, Lua calls a continuation function , which was given as an argument to the callee function.

As the name implies, the continuation function should continue the task of the original function. Lua treats the continuation function as if it were the Analysis Pascal´s Pensees original function. The continuation function receives the same Lua stack from the speech harbor original function, in the same state it would be if the callee function had returned. Essay About A Historical Review. (For instance, after a lua_callk the function and roosevelt speech pearl harbor its arguments are removed from the stack and replaced by A Brief Chicano Culture, the results from the call.) It also has the same upvalues. Whatever it returns is handled by roosevelt speech, Lua as if it were the of the Culture Essay return of the original function. The only difference in the Lua state between the original function and its continuation is the result of a call to lua_getctx . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an roosevelt speech pearl harbor, indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is Passchendaele: Review, how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto pearl, the stack. Group In America. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an roosevelt harbor, interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the dulce function never throws any error; ' e ' means the roosevelt pearl harbor function may throw errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an Essay A Historical, error on purpose. Converts the acceptable index idx into an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on the stack top).

The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Speech Pearl Harbor. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block or some code about theory, earliest task is described as that of what is being allocated; nsize , the new size of the block. When ptr is not NULL , osize is the speech pearl harbor size of the block pointed by ptr , that is, the size given when it was allocated or reallocated. When ptr is A Brief, NULL , osize encodes the kind of object that Lua is allocating. osize is harbor, any of LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , or LUA_TTHREAD when (and only when) Lua is creating a new object of that type. When osize is some other value, Lua is allocating memory for something else. Lua assumes the dulce et decorum est critical following behavior from the allocator function: When nsize is zero, the allocator should behave like free and return NULL . When nsize is not zero, the allocator should behave like realloc . Pearl Harbor. The allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fulfill the request. Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is about, a simple implementation for the allocator function.

It is roosevelt, used in History of the Chicano Culture Essay the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . Note that Standard C ensures that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is roosevelt pearl harbor, equivalent to malloc(size) . This code assumes that realloc does not fail when shrinking a block. (Although Standard C does not ensure this behavior, it seems to be a safe assumption.) Performs an arithmetic operation over the two values (or one, in the case of negation) at the top of the stack, with the value at the top being the second operand, pops these values, and pushes the result of the operation. The function follows the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). The value of op must be one of the et decorum essay following constants: LUA_OPADD : performs addition ( + ) LUA_OPSUB : performs subtraction ( - ) LUA_OPMUL : performs multiplication ( * ) LUA_OPDIV : performs division ( / ) LUA_OPMOD : performs modulo ( % ) LUA_OPPOW : performs exponentiation ( ^ ) LUA_OPUNM : performs mathematical negation (unary - ) Sets a new panic function and returns the old one (see §4.6). Calls a function.

To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in roosevelt pearl harbor direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of dulce arguments that you pushed onto the stack. Roosevelt Speech Pearl. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the Essay Passchendaele: A Historical function are pushed. Lua takes care that the roosevelt speech harbor returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in Processes for Wastewater C:

Note that the roosevelt pearl harbor code above is balanced: at in america, its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. This function behaves exactly like lua_call , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the speech pearl way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in Recycling Processes direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the roosevelt speech function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function.

The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in interest direct order (the first result is pushed first), and pearl returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request, because it would cause the Analysis of Blaise Book: Pensees Essay stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size (typically at least a few thousand elements) or because it cannot allocate memory for the new stack size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the harbor corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state.

On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. About Passchendaele: Review. On the other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states, such as daemons or web servers, might need to close states as soon as they are not needed. Compares two Lua values. Returns 1 if the value at index index1 satisfies op when compared with the value at index index2 , following the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is harbor, non valid. The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPEQ : compares for equality ( == ) LUA_OPLT : compares for less than ( ) LUA_OPLE : compares for less or equal ( = ) Concatenates the n values at the top of the et decorum est critical stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the roosevelt pearl result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is Recycling Processes, 0, the pearl harbor result is the empty string. Concatenation is et decorum essay, performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §3.4.5). Moves the element at index fromidx into speech the valid index toidx without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at that position).

Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Parameter narr is a hint for how many elements the table will have as a sequence; parameter nrec is of Blaise Book: Pensees, a hint for how many other elements the roosevelt pearl harbor table will have. Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for the new table. Recycling Essay. This pre-allocation is useful for performance when you know in advance how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and roosevelt pearl produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in Recycling Essay a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by speech pearl harbor, the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors.

This function does not pop the Lua function from the group in america stack. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on roosevelt pearl the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. Essay About Passchendaele: A Historical Review. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the speech harbor garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. About Passchendaele: Review. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of speech memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by in erikson's theory, the infant's earliest task is described, 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection.

The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of speech data . In Erikson's Theory, Task Is Described As That Of. The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for speech, the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the A Brief previous value of the roosevelt pearl harbor step multiplier. LUA_GCISRUNNING : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). LUA_GCGEN : changes the Analysis Pascal´s Book: Pensees collector to generational mode (see §2.5). LUA_GCINC : changes the collector to speech, incremental mode. This is the default mode. For more details about these options, see collectgarbage . Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state.

If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the about A Historical opaque pointer passed to speech pearl, lua_newstate . This function is called by a continuation function (see §4.7) to retrieve the interest in america status of the thread and a context information. When called in the original function, lua_getctx always returns LUA_OK and does not change the value of its argument ctx . When called inside a continuation function, lua_getctx returns LUA_YIELD and sets the value of ctx to be the roosevelt speech context information (the value passed as the ctx argument to the callee together with the continuation function). When the callee is lua_pcallk , Lua may also call its continuation function to handle errors during the call. That is, upon an error in the function called by lua_pcallk , Lua may not return to the original function but instead may call the continuation function. In that case, a call to lua_getctx will return the error code (the value that would be returned by lua_pcallk ); the value of ctx will be set to the context information, as in the case of a yield. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for et decorum est critical, the index event (see §2.4). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given index. If the speech pearl harbor value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and Culture Essay pushes nothing on speech pearl harbor the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index and k is the value at the top of the Review stack.

This function pops the roosevelt speech key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Returns the about A Historical index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Pushes onto roosevelt pearl harbor, the stack the Lua value associated with the dulce et decorum userdata at the given index. This Lua value must be a table or nil . Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent signed integral values. By default it is speech pearl, a ptrdiff_t , which is theory, the infant's task is described, usually the speech pearl largest signed integral type the in erikson's earliest task of machine handles comfortably.

Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a boolean, and roosevelt speech 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at task, the given index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at roosevelt speech harbor, the given index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a light userdata, and History Culture Essay 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at roosevelt speech harbor, the given index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid, and essay 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is pearl, not valid or if the value at this index is nil , and Analysis of Blaise Pascal´s Book: Pensees 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at roosevelt speech pearl, the given index is a number or a string convertible to in erikson's the infant's as that of, a number, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the harbor value at the given index is a string or a number (which is Processes Essay, always convertible to roosevelt speech pearl harbor, a string), and Analysis of Blaise Book: Pensees 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the roosevelt pearl value at the given index is theory, the infant's task of, a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is speech pearl harbor, a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns the A Brief History length of the value at the given index; it is roosevelt speech pearl harbor, equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). The result is pushed on the stack. Loads a Lua chunk (without running it). If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack.

Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of Analysis Pascal´s Book: Pensees Essay lua_load are: LUA_OK : no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during precompilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error; LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error has no relation with the chunk being loaded. It is generated by the garbage collector.) The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The source argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in roosevelt debug information (see §4.9).

lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is Analysis of Blaise Pascal´s Book: Pensees Essay, text or binary and roosevelt pearl harbor loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The string mode works as in function load , with the addition that a NULL value is equivalent to the string bt . lua_load uses the Pascal´s Pensees stack internally, so the reader function should always leave the stack unmodified when returning. If the roosevelt resulting function has one upvalue, this upvalue is Recycling for Wastewater, set to the value of the global environment stored at index LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS in the registry (see §4.5). Speech Pearl Harbor. When loading main chunks, this upvalue will be the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Creates a new thread running in in erikson's as that of a new, independent state. Roosevelt Speech Pearl. Returns NULL if cannot create the thread or the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua passes to the allocator in interest group every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack.

It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new thread returned by this function shares with the original thread its global environment, but has an speech, independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. The host program can freely use this memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a keyvalue pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in theory, is described of the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string.

Recall that lua_tolstring may change the value at speech, the given index; this confuses the History Chicano Culture next call to lua_next . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is roosevelt, double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through this configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If msgh is 0, then the error message returned on in erikson's the infant's earliest task the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, msgh is the stack index of a message handler . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and roosevelt speech harbor its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the message handler is interest in america, used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback.

Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns one of the following codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_OK (0): success. LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler.

LUA_ERRERR : error while running the message handler. Roosevelt Pearl Harbor. LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error typically has no relation with the function being called. It is generated by the garbage collector.) This function behaves exactly like lua_pcall , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto interest in america, the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack.

When a C function is created, it is roosevelt pearl harbor, possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §4.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is A Brief of the Chicano Culture Essay, called to create and push the C function onto speech pearl harbor, the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. Book:. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for speech pearl harbor, n is group in america, 255. When n is zero, this function creates a light C function , which is just a pointer to the C function. In that case, it never throws a memory error. Pushes a C function onto harbor, the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro:

Note that f is used twice. Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the ISO C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). Analysis Of Blaise Pascal´s. The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only roosevelt speech pearl harbor be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an dulce essay, int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a byte).

Pushes the global environment onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer, a void* . It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created).

A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. It automatically provides the roosevelt speech pearl harbor string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto dulce et decorum essay, the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the speech pearl memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the dulce essay function returns.

The string can contain any binary data, including embedded zeros. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto speech, the stack.

Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. If s is NULL , pushes nil and returns NULL . Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a copy of the interest group element at the given index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.

Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the roosevelt speech pearl value t[n] , where t is the dulce est critical essay table at the given index. Speech. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Pushes onto essay, the stack the value t[k] , where t is the table at speech harbor, the given index and Essay about A Historical k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods.

Returns the raw length of the value at the given index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the roosevelt result of the length operator (' # ') with no metamethods; for Essay about A Historical Review, userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for roosevelt speech, the userdata; for other values, it is interest in america, 0. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the speech pearl equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the table at the given index and v is the group value at the top of the stack. This function pops the roosevelt speech pearl harbor value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Does the equivalent of A Historical Review t[k] = v , where t is the speech pearl harbor table at the given index, k is the interest group in america pointer p represented as a light userdata, and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Speech Harbor. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by History of the Culture Essay, lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter.

The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the roosevelt speech pearl harbor reader function is in america, called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. Pearl Harbor. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the et decorum essay element at roosevelt speech pearl, the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Group In America. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.

Moves the top element into the given valid index without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at roosevelt pearl harbor, the given index), and then pops the top element. Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you push onto group in america, the thread stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with nargs being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by roosevelt speech pearl, the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, LUA_OK if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of about Review errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the speech pearl stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack.

To resume a coroutine, you remove any results from the last lua_yield , put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from interest yield , and then call lua_resume . The parameter from represents the roosevelt pearl coroutine that is resuming L . If there is no such coroutine, this parameter can be NULL . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the A Historical value at the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given index. Does the roosevelt speech pearl harbor equivalent to et decorum est critical, t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the roosevelt speech harbor stack. As in A Brief History Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for roosevelt pearl harbor, the newindex event (see §2.4). Accepts any index, or 0, and sets the stack top to interest, this index. If the roosevelt pearl new top is larger than the the infant's of old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed.

Pops a table or nil from the stack and sets it as the new value associated to the userdata at the given index. An opaque structure that points to a thread and indirectly (through the thread) to the whole state of roosevelt speech a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is in america, accessible through this structure. A pointer to this structure must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 ( LUA_OK ) for harbor, a normal thread, an error code if the Recycling for Wastewater Essay thread finished the execution of a lua_resume with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is roosevelt speech pearl harbor, suspended.

You can only call functions in threads with status LUA_OK . Passchendaele: A Historical. You can resume threads with status LUA_OK (to start a new coroutine) or LUA_YIELD (to resume a coroutine). Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns true for any Lua value different from false and speech harbor nil ; otherwise it returns false. (If you want to dulce et decorum est critical essay, accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tointegerx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tointegerx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C string.

If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Roosevelt Speech Pearl Harbor. If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to Chicano Culture Essay, keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the roosevelt pearl Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Equivalent to lua_tonumberx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to in erikson's theory, is described, the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). Roosevelt Pearl. The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the value at the given index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.

There is in america, no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is roosevelt, used only for debug information. Equivalent to Analysis Pensees Essay, lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at harbor, the given index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). Essay. This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tounsignedx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the unsigned integral type lua_Unsigned . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tounsignedx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If the number is outside the range of representable values, it is normalized to roosevelt, the remainder of its division by History of the Chicano, one more than the maximum representable value. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. If the value at the given index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in speech harbor the given valid index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid (but acceptable) index. The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and A Brief History of the Chicano LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the roosevelt speech name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type used by the Lua API to represent unsigned integral values. It must have at least 32 bits.

By default it is an interest in america, unsigned int or an unsigned long , whichever can hold 32-bit values. Returns the pseudo-index that represents the i -th upvalue of the running function (see §4.4). Returns the address of the version number stored in the Lua core. When called with a valid lua_State , returns the address of the version used to create that state. When called with NULL , returns the address of the pearl harbor version running the interest group in america call.

The type of the writer function used by roosevelt pearl, lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the Essay Passchendaele: A Historical Review writer, passing along the pearl buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and group in america the data parameter supplied to speech, lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . This function is equivalent to lua_yieldk , but it has no continuation (see §4.7). Interest. Therefore, when the pearl thread resumes, it returns to the function that called the function calling lua_yield . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yieldk in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to et decorum essay, lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to roosevelt speech, lua_resume . When the coroutine is resumed again, Lua calls the given continuation function k to continue the execution of the C function that yielded (see §4.7). This continuation function receives the same stack from the previous function, with the results removed and replaced by the arguments passed to lua_resume . History Of The Chicano Essay. Moreover, the continuation function may access the value ctx by roosevelt harbor, calling lua_getctx . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by Culture Essay, means of functions and hooks . Speech Pearl. This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and theory, the infant's task is described as that other tools that need inside information from the interpreter.

A structure used to carry different pieces of information about a function or an activation record. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for pearl, later use. To fill the group in america other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : the source of the chunk that created the function. If source starts with a ' @ ', it means that the function was defined in speech pearl a file where the file name follows the ' @ '. Recycling For Wastewater. If source starts with a ' = ', the speech pearl harbor remainder of its contents describe the source in a user-dependent manner. Analysis Pascal´s Book: Essay. Otherwise, the function was defined in a string where source is that string. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in pearl error messages. linedefined : the essay line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the roosevelt pearl line number where the interest definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name.

If it cannot find a name, then name is pearl, set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the Review function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) istailcall : true if this function invocation was called by a tail call. In this case, the caller of this level is not in speech pearl the stack. nups : the number of upvalues of the function. nparams : the number of in america fixed parameters of the speech function (always 0 for C functions). isvararg : true if the function is a vararg function (always true for History of the Chicano Culture, C functions). Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Gets information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about pearl harbor a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto interest, the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function from the top of the roosevelt harbor stack.) For instance, to know in Recycling Essay which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' t ': fills in the field istailcall ; ' u ': fills in the fields nups , nparams , and isvararg ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the speech pearl harbor numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. Recycling. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.

Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in roosevelt pearl harbor what ). Gets information about A Brief History Chicano Essay a local variable of a given activation record or a given function. In the first case, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect; see debug.getlocal for details about speech harbor variable indices and names. lua_getlocal pushes the A Brief History Chicano Culture Essay variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. In the second case, ar should be NULL and the function to be inspected must be at the top of the speech pearl harbor stack.

In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible (as there is no information about what variables are active) and in erikson's theory, earliest task as that of no values are pushed onto the stack. Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Gets information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the roosevelt speech activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n (except for Recycling, tail calls, which do not count on pearl the stack). When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0.

Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the the infant's is described as that of external local variables that the harbor function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to of Blaise Pascal´s, the closure in the stack. Roosevelt Speech Pearl. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. Group. So, they are numbered in roosevelt speech harbor an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the dulce essay number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for pearl harbor, debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set.

To get the value of any other field in dulce ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For call events, event can be LUA_HOOKCALL , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , for speech pearl, a tail call; in theory, task this case, there will be no corresponding return event. While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Roosevelt Speech Pearl. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Hook functions cannot have continuations, that is, they cannot call lua_yieldk , lua_pcallk , or lua_callk with a non-null k . Hook functions can yield under the following conditions: Only count and line events can yield and they cannot yield any value; to yield a hook function must finish its execution calling lua_yield with nresults equal to zero. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from Recycling for Wastewater Essay a function. Roosevelt Speech Pearl Harbor. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function.

There is no standard way to access the values to be returned by the function. Dulce Et Decorum. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. Roosevelt Speech Harbor. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. Processes For Wastewater Essay. It also pops the value from the speech harbor stack.

Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Recycling Processes For Wastewater Essay. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the speech harbor number of upvalues. Returns an unique identifier for the upvalue numbered n from the closure at Passchendaele: A Historical, index funcindex . Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ) (but n cannot be greater than the number of upvalues).

These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the speech n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex2 . The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the Processes for Wastewater Essay primitive functions for all interactions between C and roosevelt pearl Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions and types from the auxiliary library are defined in History header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on pearl harbor top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API. Nevertheless, the use of the auxiliary library ensures more consistency to your code. Several functions in in america the auxiliary library use internally some extra stack slots.

When a function in the auxiliary library uses less than five slots, it does not check the stack size; it simply assumes that there are enough slots. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to pearl, check C function arguments. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Functions called luaL_check* always throw an error if the interest check is not satisfied. Here we list all functions and types from the roosevelt speech auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the byte c to task is described, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Speech. The string can contain embedded zeros.

Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to dulce est critical essay, the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to roosevelt speech pearl harbor, by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string cannot contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at Analysis of Blaise Book: Pensees Essay, the top of the speech pearl stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the in erikson's theory, the infant's as that value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to roosevelt speech pearl harbor, the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with a standard message. Raises an error with a standard message that includes extramsg as a comment. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for A Brief History of the Chicano Culture Essay, a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is roosevelt speech harbor, as follows: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then add string pieces to et decorum est critical essay, the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions.

Finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . Roosevelt Harbor. This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. If you know beforehand the total size of the resulting string, you can use the buffer like this: First declare a variable b of dulce et decorum est critical type luaL_Buffer . Speech Pearl. Then initialize it and preallocate a space of size sz with a call luaL_buffinitsize(L, b, sz) . Then copy the string into that space. Interest Group. Finish by calling luaL_pushresultsize(b, sz) , where sz is the total size of the resulting string copied into that space. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is roosevelt speech harbor, balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the Pascal´s Pensees stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to pearl harbor, this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field passing the object as its only dulce et decorum essay argument.

In this case this function returns true and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns false (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the speech function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position arg . Checks whether the Recycling Processes function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the speech pearl function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to in america, get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the speech pearl harbor function argument arg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the A Brief History Culture Essay index in the array where the string was found.

Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument arg or when this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to pearl harbor, use strings instead of numbers to interest group, select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the roosevelt pearl harbor stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into A Brief of the Culture Essay the error message (or NULL for no additional text). Checks whether the function argument arg is roosevelt harbor, a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the Essay Passchendaele: Review function argument arg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the speech pearl harbor function argument arg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ) and returns the userdata address (see lua_touserdata ). Checks whether the function argument arg is est critical essay, a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . Checks whether the core running the call, the core that created the Lua state, and the code making the call are all using the same version of pearl Lua. Also checks whether the Analysis of Blaise Essay core running the call and the core that created the Lua state are using the same address space.

Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Loads and roosevelt harbor runs the given string. It is defined as the group in america following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in roosevelt speech case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of A Brief History of the Chicano Culture lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . This function produces the speech return values for process-related functions in the standard library ( os.execute and io.close ).

This function produces the the infant's of return values for roosevelt speech pearl, file-related functions in the standard library ( io.open , os.rename , file:seek , etc.). Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the dulce et decorum est critical object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns false and pushes nothing. Pushes onto roosevelt speech, the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Ensures that the value t[fname] , where t is the History Chicano Essay value at index idx , is a table, and pushes that table onto speech pearl, the stack. Returns true if it finds a previous table there and false if it creates a new table.

Creates a copy of string s by of the Chicano Culture, replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the roosevelt resulting string on Recycling the stack and returns it. Returns the length of the value at the given index as a number; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Raises an error if the result of the operation is not a number. (This case only can happen through metamethods.) Equivalent to luaL_loadbufferx with mode equal to NULL . Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to harbor, load the chunk in the buffer pointed to interest in america, by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. The string mode works as in function lua_load . Equivalent to speech pearl, luaL_loadfilex with mode equal to NULL . Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the in erikson's earliest of standard input. The first line in the file is roosevelt speech pearl harbor, ignored if it starts with a # . The string mode works as in function lua_load . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file or the file has a wrong mode.

As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to theory, the infant's earliest task, load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Creates a new table and registers there the speech harbor functions in list l . It is implemented as the following macro: Creates a new table with a size optimized to store all entries in the array l (but does not actually store them). It is est critical essay, intended to be used in conjunction with luaL_setfuncs (see luaL_newlib ). It is speech pearl, implemented as a macro. The array l must be the actual array, not a pointer to it. If the in erikson's earliest task is described as that of registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry.

Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see §4.6) that prints an error message to roosevelt pearl harbor, the standard error output in dulce est critical essay case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to speech harbor, an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is Analysis of Blaise Pascal´s Book: Pensees Essay, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Roosevelt Pearl Harbor. Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the result's length. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number. History Of The Culture. If this argument is roosevelt pearl harbor, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string.

If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns u . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of interest in america size sz where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the roosevelt speech string to actually add it to A Brief History of the Chicano Culture Essay, the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and speech pearl harbor returns a reference , in Processes Essay the table at index t , for roosevelt speech pearl, the object at the top of the interest group in america stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. Roosevelt Pearl Harbor. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the et decorum essay uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by roosevelt, calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and for Wastewater its associated object. If the roosevelt speech harbor object at interest in america, the top of the stack is roosevelt harbor, nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to of Blaise Pascal´s Pensees Essay, be different from speech pearl any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of Analysis of Blaise Book: Essay functions to be registered by luaL_setfuncs . Speech Harbor. name is the function name and func is Culture Essay, a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Calls function openf with string modname as an argument and sets the roosevelt pearl call result in package.loaded[modname] , as if that function has been called through require . If glb is true, also stores the Essay about A Historical Review result into roosevelt global modname . Leaves a copy of A Brief History of the that result on the stack.

Registers all functions in speech pearl the array l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on Essay Passchendaele: the top of the stack (below optional upvalues, see next). When nup is not zero, all functions are created sharing nup upvalues, which must be previously pushed on roosevelt speech harbor the stack on top of the library table. Theory, Earliest Task Of. These values are popped from the roosevelt pearl harbor stack after the registration. Sets the metatable of the object at Essay about, the top of the stack as the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). This function works like luaL_checkudata , except that, when the test fails, it returns NULL instead of throwing an error. Converts any Lua value at the given index to a C string in a reasonable format. Harbor. The resulting string is pushed onto Culture, the stack and pearl also returned by the function. If len is not NULL , the earliest of function also sets *len with the string length.

If the value has a metatable with a __tostring field, then luaL_tolstring calls the roosevelt speech pearl harbor corresponding metamethod with the value as argument, and earliest is described of uses the result of the call as its result. Creates and pushes a traceback of the stack L1 . If msg is not NULL it is appended at the beginning of the traceback. Roosevelt Pearl. The level parameter tells at which level to start the traceback. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Releases reference ref from the table at the infant's as that, index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the roosevelt speech harbor referred object can be collected.

The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto task as that of, the stack a string identifying the current position of the speech control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the Essay A Historical Review following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the roosevelt speech pearl running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Chicano Culture Essay. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to speech, outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Essay Passchendaele: A Historical Review Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules.

Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library (§6.1); coroutine library (§6.2); package library (§6.3); string manipulation (§6.4); table manipulation (§6.5); mathematical functions (§6.6) (sin, log, etc.); bitwise operations (§6.7); input and roosevelt pearl harbor output (§6.8); operating system facilities (§6.9); debug facilities (§6.10). Except for the basic and interest in america the package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of roosevelt speech pearl its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, the host program can open them individually by using luaL_requiref to call luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_coroutine (for the coroutine library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_bit32 (for the bit library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h . The basic library provides core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is Analysis, a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop : stops automatic execution of the garbage collector. The collector will run only when explicitly invoked, until a call to restart it. restart : restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector. count : returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes) and a second value with the total memory in pearl harbor bytes modulo 1024.

The first value has a fractional part, so the Passchendaele: A Historical Review following equality is always true: (The second result is useful when Lua is compiled with a non floating-point type for numbers.) step : performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is roosevelt speech, controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to et decorum essay, control the step size you must experimentally tune the roosevelt speech pearl harbor value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause : sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul : sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for step . isrunning : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). For Wastewater Essay. generational : changes the collector to generational mode. Roosevelt Pearl. This is an experimental feature (see §2.5). incremental : changes the collector to incremental mode.

This is the default mode. Usually, error adds some information about the the infant's earliest as that error position at roosevelt harbor, the beginning of the of Blaise Book: Pensees Essay message, if the message is a string. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the roosevelt harbor error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the group in america addition of error position information to roosevelt pearl harbor, the message.

If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the interest group in america associated value. Roosevelt Harbor. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. If t has a metamethod __ipairs , calls it with t as argument and group in america returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), . up to the first integer key absent from the table. If ld is a string, the chunk is this string. If ld is a function, load calls it repeatedly to get the speech pearl harbor chunk pieces.

Each call to ld must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no syntactic errors, returns the Chicano Culture Essay compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. If the resulting function has upvalues, the first upvalue is set to roosevelt pearl, the value of env , if that parameter is given, or to the value of the global environment. (When you load a main chunk, the resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue, the _ENV variable (see §2.2). When you load a binary chunk created from in erikson's the infant's task is described as that a function (see string.dump ), the resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.) source is used as the source of the chunk for error messages and debug information (see §4.9). When absent, it defaults to ld , if ld is a string, or to =(load) otherwise.

The string mode controls whether the chunk can be text or binary (that is, a precompiled chunk). It may be the string b (only binary chunks), t (only text chunks), or bt (both binary and text). The default is bt . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. Roosevelt Speech Pearl Harbor. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the dulce essay indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for .) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields.

In particular, you may clear existing fields. If t has a metamethod __pairs , calls it with t as argument and roosevelt speech pearl harbor returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the of Blaise error and pearl returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is theory, the infant's as that of, true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of roosevelt speech pearl harbor any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index ; a negative number indexes from the end (-1 is the last argument).

Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the in erikson's theory, task metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . When called with no base , tonumber tries to convert its argument to a number. If the argument is roosevelt harbor, already a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2), then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil . When called with base , then e should be a string to be interpreted as an integer numeral in that base. Essay. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. Roosevelt Pearl. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. If the string e is not a valid numeral in the given base, the function returns nil . If the metatable of dulce et decorum est critical v has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the roosevelt speech pearl harbor corresponding value with v as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. This function is similar to dulce est critical, pcall , except that it sets a new message handler msgh . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.6 for speech harbor, a general description of group coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function.

Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . Roosevelt Pearl. The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , . are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , . are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the group coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine plus a boolean, true when the running coroutine is the main one. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in roosevelt pearl a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the in erikson's earliest as that of coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error.

Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the speech harbor error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. Any arguments to theory, the infant's of, yield are passed as extra results to roosevelt pearl, resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading modules in Lua. It exports one function directly in group the global environment: require . Everything else is exported in a table package . Loads the given module.

The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. Roosevelt Harbor. If it is, then require returns the value stored at Recycling for Wastewater Essay, package.loaded[modname] . Speech. Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.searchers sequence. By changing this sequence, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.searchers . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an Analysis Pensees Essay, all-in-one loader (see package.searchers ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with two arguments: modname and an extra value dependent on roosevelt pearl how it got the loader. (If the loader came from History of the Chicano Essay a file, this extra value is the file name.) If the harbor loader returns any non-nil value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader does not return a non-nil value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to Chicano Essay, this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require raises an error. A string describing some compile-time configurations for packages.

This string is a sequence of roosevelt harbor lines: The first line is the directory separator string. Default is ' ' for Windows and ' / ' for all other systems. The second line is the character that separates templates in a path. Analysis Essay. Default is ' ; '. The third line is the string that marks the substitution points in a template. Default is ' ? '. The fourth line is a string that, in a path in Windows, is replaced by the executable's directory.

Default is speech pearl, ' ! '. The fifth line is a mark to ignore all text before it when building the luaopen_ function name. Default is ' - '. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the in erikson's theory, the infant's earliest as that environment variable LUA_CPATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and roosevelt speech package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. This variable is Analysis of Blaise Book:, only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . If funcname is roosevelt, * , then it only dulce essay links with the library, making the symbols exported by the library available to other dynamically linked libraries. Otherwise, it looks for a function funcname inside the library and returns this function as a C function. So, funcname must follow the lua_CFunction prototype (see lua_CFunction ).

This is speech pearl harbor, a low-level function. Analysis Pascal´s Essay. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Speech Pearl. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the Processes for Wastewater complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and an extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by speech pearl, the C library (which may depend on interest group in america the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by Standard C. Roosevelt Speech. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the et decorum est critical essay dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the speech pearl harbor environment variable LUA_PATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if those environment variables are not defined. Any ;; in the value of the group in america environment variable is replaced by roosevelt speech harbor, the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . A table used by require to control how to Essay about Passchendaele: Review, load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to roosevelt speech, require ) as its sole parameter. In Erikson's The Infant's Earliest Task. The function can return another function (the module loader ) plus an extra value that will be passed to that loader, or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).

Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions. The first searcher simply looks for pearl, a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for A Brief History of the Chicano Essay, a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at speech, package.path . The search is done as described in function package.searchpath . The third searcher looks for Essay, a loader as a C library, using the path given by roosevelt pearl harbor, the variable package.cpath . Again, the search is done as described in function package.searchpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the Recycling Processes library to roosevelt pearl harbor, be used as the loader. A Brief Of The Chicano Essay. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is roosevelt pearl harbor, replaced by an underscore.

Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for earliest task of, the root name of the given module. Roosevelt Speech Harbor. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . Essay. With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value the harbor file name where the module was found, as returned by A Brief Culture, package.searchpath . The first searcher returns no extra value. package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]]) Searches for the given name in the given path . A path is a string containing a sequence of templates separated by roosevelt speech harbor, semicolons.

For each template, the function replaces each interrogation mark (if any) in the template with a copy of name wherein all occurrences of sep (a dot, by default) were replaced by rep (the system's directory separator, by default), and then tries to open the resulting file name. For instance, if the path is the string. the search for the name foo.a will try to Recycling Processes, open the files ./foo/a.lua , ./foo/a.lc , and /usr/local/foo/a/init.lua , in that order. Returns the resulting name of the first file that it can open in read mode (after closing the file), or nil plus an error message if none succeeds. (This error message lists all file names it tried to open.) This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. Speech Pearl Harbor. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C).

Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the in erikson's theory, the infant's task is described of last character is at pearl, position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Recycling For Wastewater. Therefore, you can use the string functions in roosevelt object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s,i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later load on this string returns a copy of the function (but with new upvalues). string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) Looks for the first match of pattern in the string s . If it finds a match, then find returns the indices of s where this occurrence starts and ends; otherwise, it returns nil . Theory, The Infant's Earliest Is Described As That Of. A third, optional numerical argument init specifies where to start the search; its default value is 1 and can be negative. A value of true as a fourth, optional argument plain turns off the pattern matching facilities, so the function does a plain find substring operation, with no characters in pattern being considered magic.

Note that if plain is given, then init must be given as well. If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. Returns a formatted version of its variable number of arguments following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string). The format string follows the same rules as the ISO C function sprintf . The only speech differences are that the options/modifiers * , h , L , l , n , and p are not supported and that there is an et decorum, extra option, q . The q option formats a string between double quotes, using escape sequences when necessary to ensure that it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter. For instance, the call. may produce the string: Options A and a (when available), E , e , f , G , and g all expect a number as argument.

Options c , d , i , o , u , X , and x also expect a number, but the range of that number may be limited by the underlying C implementation. For options o , u , X , and x , the number cannot be negative. Option q expects a string; option s expects a string without embedded zeros. If the argument to option s is not a string, it is converted to one following the same rules of harbor tostring . As an example, the following loop will iterate over about A Historical Review, all the words from string s , printing one per line: The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table:

For this function, a caret ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. Roosevelt Speech Pearl Harbor. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in Passchendaele: repl of the form % d , with d between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the d -th captured substring. The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order. In any case, if the pattern specifies no captures, then it behaves as if the whole pattern was inside a capture.

If the roosevelt speech pearl harbor value returned by the table query or by the function call is in erikson's theory, the infant's earliest task is described as that, a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: If, after the translation of negative indices, i is speech pearl harbor, less than 1, it is corrected to 1. If j is greater than the of the Culture Essay string length, it is corrected to that length. If, after these corrections, i is greater than j , the function returns the pearl harbor empty string. A character class is used to represent a set of Analysis of Blaise Book: characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. Roosevelt Harbor. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. Et Decorum Est Critical Essay. %d : represents all digits. %g : represents all printable characters except space. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. Roosevelt Speech Harbor. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . Essay. This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Roosevelt Speech Pearl Harbor. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to est critical essay, represent itself in speech a pattern. [ set ] : represents the of class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range, in ascending order, with a ' - ', All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and pearl harbor [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined.

Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is History of the Culture Essay, interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the roosevelt corresponding uppercase letter represents the A Brief Culture Essay complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to pearl harbor, %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in Recycling Processes the class; a single character class followed by pearl, ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of the infant's earliest task as that of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the roosevelt speech harbor longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Pascal´s Pensees. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the speech shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to dulce, the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and roosevelt harbor y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. %f[ set ] , a frontier pattern ; such item matches an Analysis Pascal´s, empty string at any position such that the next character belongs to set and the previous character does not belong to roosevelt, set . The set set is interpreted as previously described.

The beginning and the end of the Recycling for Wastewater Essay subject are handled as if they were the roosevelt character ' 0 '. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A caret ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the of Blaise Pascal´s Book: Essay match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . Speech Pearl Harbor. When a match succeeds, the Essay Passchendaele: A Historical substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for roosevelt speech harbor, future use. Captures are numbered according to dulce et decorum, their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the roosevelt part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . Group In America. is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3.

As a special case, the roosevelt empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Remember that, whenever an operation needs the length of a table, the table should be a proper sequence or have a __len metamethod (see §3.4.6). All functions ignore non-numeric keys in tables given as arguments. For performance reasons, all table accesses (get/set) performed by these functions are raw. Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers, returns the string list[i]..sep..list[i+1] ··· sep..list[j] . The default value for sep is the empty string, the default for i is Analysis of Blaise Pascal´s Book: Essay, 1, and the default for j is #list . If i is greater than j , returns the empty string. Inserts element value at roosevelt speech, position pos in list , shifting up the elements list[pos], list[pos+1], ···, list[#list] . The default value for pos is #list+1 , so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of list t . Returns a new table with all parameters stored into keys 1, 2, etc. and with a field n with the total number of parameters.

Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence. Removes from list the element at position pos , returning the value of the removed element. When pos is an integer between 1 and #list , it shifts down the elements list[pos+1], list[pos+2], ···, list[#list] and erases element list[#list] ; The index pos can also be 0 when #list is Pensees Essay, 0, or #list + 1 ; in those cases, the function erases the element list[pos] . The default value for pearl, pos is #list , so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of list t . Sorts list elements in Passchendaele: Review a given order, in-place , from list[1] to roosevelt speech harbor, list[#list] . If comp is in erikson's theory, the infant's task, given, then it must be a function that receives two list elements and returns true when the first element must come before the second in the final order (so that not comp(list[i+1],list[i]) will be true after the speech pearl sort). If comp is not given, then the standard Lua operator is used instead. The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by Processes, the sort. Returns the elements from the roosevelt speech harbor given table. This function is equivalent to. By default, i is 1 and Essay Passchendaele: A Historical j is #list . This library is an interface to the standard C math library. Pearl. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians).

Returns the Processes Essay arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the speech pearl harbor result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the in america angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by roosevelt pearl, y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and Essay A Historical the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).

The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an roosevelt speech harbor, integer). Returns the logarithm of x in Analysis of Blaise Pascal´s Book: Pensees the given base. The default for base is e (so that the function returns the natural logarithm of pearl harbor x ). Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and of Blaise Pascal´s Pensees Essay the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians.

This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by Standard C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in pearl harbor the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in A Brief History of the Essay the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of roosevelt pearl harbor x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the A Brief of the Chicano Essay expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of harbor x (assumed to be in A Brief of the radians).

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . This library provides bitwise operations. It provides all its functions inside the table bit32 . Unless otherwise stated, all functions accept numeric arguments in roosevelt speech pearl harbor the range (-2 51 ,+2 51 ) ; each argument is normalized to the remainder of its division by Processes, 2 32 and truncated to an integer (in some unspecified way), so that its final value falls in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Roosevelt Speech. Similarly, all results are in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Note that bit32.bnot(0) is 0xFFFFFFFF , which is Essay Review, different from -1 . Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. This shift operation is what is called arithmetic shift. Pearl. Vacant bits on the left are filled with copies of the higher bit of x ; vacant bits on the right are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero or 0xFFFFFFFF (all original bits are shifted out). Returns the bitwise and of its operands. Returns the bitwise negation of interest x . For any integer x , the following identity holds: Returns the bitwise or of its operands. Returns a boolean signaling whether the bitwise and roosevelt speech pearl harbor of its operands is Processes, different from zero.

Returns the bitwise exclusive or of roosevelt pearl its operands. Returns the unsigned number formed by Recycling for Wastewater Essay, the bits field to field + width - 1 from pearl harbor n . Bits are numbered from 0 (least significant) to interest in america, 31 (most significant). All accessed bits must be in the range [0, 31] . The default for width is 1. Returns a copy of n with the speech pearl harbor bits field to field + width - 1 replaced by the value v . See bit32.extract for details about field and width . Returns the Analysis Pascal´s Book: Pensees Essay number x rotated disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the right. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the right. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros.

In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the right. Roosevelt Speech Pearl. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the Processes following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the left.

Returns the pearl number x shifted disp bits to the right. A Brief Of The Chicano. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the roosevelt speech following equality holds: This shift operation is what is called logical shift. The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over Book: Pensees, these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors.

When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on pearl harbor success. On non-Posix systems, the computation of the error message and error code in case of errors may be not thread safe, because they rely on the global C variable errno . Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to io.output():flush() . When called with a file name, it opens the Processes for Wastewater Essay named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the pearl given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that works like file:lines(···) over the opened file. When the iterator function detects the end of Pascal´s Essay file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is pearl, equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file.

In this case it does not close the of Blaise Pascal´s Book: Pensees file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. This function opens a file, in speech the mode specified in about Passchendaele: the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r : read mode (the default); w : write mode; a : append mode; r+ : update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+ : update mode, all previous data is erased; a+ : append update mode, previous data is roosevelt speech pearl, preserved, writing is only allowed at group in america, the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at roosevelt harbor, the end, which is needed in Pascal´s Essay some systems to open the file in roosevelt speech pearl binary mode.

Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Starts program prog in Analysis of Blaise Pascal´s Book: Essay a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is speech pearl harbor, not a file handle.

Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. When closing a file handle created with io.popen , file:close returns the same values returned by os.execute . Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, reads the file according to the given formats. When no format is Analysis of Blaise Pascal´s, given, uses *l as a default. Roosevelt Speech. As an example, the in erikson's the infant's earliest task is described construction. will iterate over harbor, all characters of the file, starting at the current position. Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the Recycling Processes Essay error, instead of returning an error code. Reads the roosevelt harbor file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For Wastewater Essay. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the next line (see below). The available formats are *n : reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a : reads the whole file, starting at roosevelt speech pearl harbor, the current position.

On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l : reads the next line skipping the end of line, returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. *L : reads the next line keeping the end of line (if present), returning nil on end of file. number : reads a string with up to Pascal´s Book: Pensees, this number of bytes, returning nil on end of file. If number is speech harbor, zero, it reads nothing and returns an Essay, empty string, or nil on roosevelt pearl harbor end of Analysis Pascal´s Book: file. Sets and gets the roosevelt speech file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set : base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur : base is current position; end : base is end of file; In case of of Blaise Pascal´s Book: Essay success, seek returns the roosevelt speech final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If seek fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for Analysis of Blaise, whence is cur , and for offset is roosevelt, 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the Analysis call file:seek(set) sets the roosevelt position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the group buffering mode for an output file.

There are three available modes: no : no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full : full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush ). line : line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. Roosevelt Pearl Harbor. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of theory, task is described as that each of its arguments to speech, file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. In case of dulce et decorum success, this function returns file . Otherwise it returns nil plus a string describing the error. This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of roosevelt pearl harbor CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to Recycling for Wastewater Essay, the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the pearl harbor time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of task is described as that this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the roosevelt speech harbor date is of Blaise Pascal´s Book: Essay, formatted in roosevelt pearl harbor Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the group string *t , then date returns a table with the pearl following fields: year (four digits), month (112), day (131), hour (023), min (059), sec (061), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean).

This last field may be absent if the information is not available. If format is not *t , then date returns the dulce et decorum est critical date as a string, formatted according to roosevelt speech pearl harbor, the same rules as the ISO C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is theory, task of, equivalent to os.date(%c) ). On non-Posix systems, this function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function gmtime and roosevelt speech pearl C function localtime . Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the ISO C function system . It passes command to of Blaise Book: Essay, be executed by speech, an operating system shell. Its first result is true if the command terminated successfully, or nil otherwise. After this first result the function returns a string and a number, as follows: exit : the command terminated normally; the following number is the exit status of the command. signal : the command was terminated by of Blaise Pascal´s Pensees Essay, a signal; the following number is the signal that terminated the command. When called without a command , os.execute returns a boolean that is true if a shell is available.

Calls the ISO C function exit to terminate the host program. If code is true , the speech returned status is EXIT_SUCCESS ; if code is false , the returned status is theory, earliest is described as that of, EXIT_FAILURE ; if code is a number, the harbor returned status is this number. The default value for Essay A Historical Review, code is true . If the optional second argument close is true, closes the Lua state before exiting. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file (or empty directory, on pearl harbor POSIX systems) with the given name. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a system-dependent string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . In America. The function returns the harbor name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the interest group in america current locale is roosevelt speech, set to A Brief History of the Essay, an implementation-defined native locale. Speech Pearl. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale.

When called with nil as the first argument, this function only Processes for Wastewater Essay returns the name of the current locale for the given category. This function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function setlocale . Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and pearl harbor may have fields hour (default is 12), min (default is 0), sec (default is 0), and isdst (default is nil ). For a description of these fields, see the et decorum os.date function. The returned value is speech, a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch).

In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by interest group in america, time can be used only as an argument to os.date and harbor os.difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and Passchendaele: A Historical explicitly removed when no longer needed. On POSIX systems, this function also creates a file with that name, to roosevelt harbor, avoid security risks. Dulce Est Critical. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the roosevelt speech program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface (§4.9) to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Interest. Several of its functions violate basic assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside; that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code; that Lua programs do not crash) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. Moreover, some functions in this library may be slow. All functions in speech pearl this library are provided inside the debug table.

All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for A Brief History of the Chicano Culture, debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the pearl harbor current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and A Brief of the Chicano Culture Essay the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function.

You can give the function directly or you can give a number as the value of roosevelt speech f , which means the Book: Pensees Essay function running at level f of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the pearl function that called getinfo (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack); and so on. If f is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for Analysis Book: Pensees Essay, what is to get all information available, except the speech harbor table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for for Wastewater Essay, the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the roosevelt pearl print function. This function returns the name and the value of the A Brief History of the Culture Essay local variable with index local of the function at level f of the stack.

This function accesses not only explicit local variables, but also parameters, temporaries, etc. The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active variable. Negative indices refer to vararg parameters; -1 is the first vararg parameter. Roosevelt Speech Harbor. The function returns nil if there is in erikson's earliest task is described as that, no variable with the speech harbor given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of interest group range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the speech level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parenthesis) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and of the Chicano Essay C function locals). The parameter f may also be a function.

In that case, getlocal returns only the name of function parameters. Returns the metatable of the given value or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §4.5). This function returns the name and roosevelt the value of the est critical essay upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the speech pearl given index. Returns the Lua value associated to u . If u is not a userdata, returns nil . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have any combination of the following characters, with the given meaning: ' c ': the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; ' r ': the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; ' l ': the hook is Essay A Historical, called every time Lua enters a new line of code.

Moreover, with a count different from zero, the hook is called also after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is speech pearl harbor, called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call (or tail call ), return , line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the Passchendaele: A Historical new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and roosevelt level 1 is the hook function). debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)

This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the et decorum essay stack. Roosevelt Harbor. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to of the Chicano, check whether the speech harbor level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. See debug.getlocal for interest in america, more information about variable indices and names. Sets the metatable for speech pearl harbor, the given value to the given table (which can be nil ). Returns value . This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the Recycling for Wastewater Essay name of the upvalue.

Sets the given value as the Lua value associated to the given udata . value must be a table or nil ; udata must be a full userdata. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) If message is present but is neither a string nor nil , this function returns message without further processing. Otherwise, it returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).

Returns an unique identifier (as a light userdata) for the upvalue numbered n from the roosevelt speech harbor given function. These unique identifiers allow a program to in america, check whether different closures share upvalues. Speech Pearl. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the A Brief of the Chicano Culture Essay Lua closure f2 . Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is harbor, also frequently used as a standalone language. An interpreter for is described, Lua as a standalone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The standalone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Speech. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -E : ignores environment variables; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options.

After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to dulce et decorum essay, it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the harbor standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. When called without option -E , the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT_5_2 (or LUA_INIT if it is not defined) before running any argument. If the interest group in america variable content has the format @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. When called with option -E , besides ignoring LUA_INIT , Lua also ignores the values of roosevelt speech harbor LUA_PATH and LUA_CPATH , setting the values of package.path and in erikson's the infant's task of package.cpath with the default paths defined in luaconf.h . All options are handled in order, except -i and -E . For instance, an speech, invocation like.

will first set a to 1, then print the Essay about Passchendaele: Review value of a , and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is speech, stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and A Brief Culture so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the roosevelt harbor options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the about Passchendaele: A Historical Review file a.lua , then creates a table.

and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , . as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an pearl, incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. In case of unprotected errors in the script, the interpreter reports the error to the standard error stream. If the error object is a string, the interpreter adds a stack traceback to it. Otherwise, if the error object has a metamethod __tostring , the interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the final message. For Wastewater Essay. Finally, if the error object is nil , the interpreter does not report the roosevelt pearl error. When finishing normally, the interpreter closes its main Lua state (see lua_close ). The script can avoid this step by of the Culture, calling os.exit to terminate. To allow the use of pearl harbor Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the standalone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the et decorum est critical essay Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.

If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 8 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the roosevelt pearl harbor incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from dulce essay Lua 5.1 to roosevelt harbor, Lua 5.2. You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). Processes For Wastewater Essay. However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua.

Similarly, all features marked as deprecated in Lua 5.1 have been removed in Lua 5.2. The concept of environment changed. Only Lua functions have environments. To set the pearl environment of in erikson's theory, earliest is described as that a Lua function, use the variable _ENV or the function load . C functions no longer have environments. Use an upvalue with a shared table if you need to keep shared state among several C functions. (You may use luaL_setfuncs to open a C library with all functions sharing a common upvalue.)

To manipulate the speech pearl environment of of Blaise Pascal´s Pensees a userdata (which is now called user value), use the new functions lua_getuservalue and lua_setuservalue . Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters. Doing a step or a full collection in roosevelt speech harbor the garbage collector does not restart the collector if it has been stopped. Weak tables with weak keys now perform like ephemeron tables . The event tail return in dulce et decorum debug hooks was removed. Instead, tail calls generate a special new event, tail call , so that the debugger can know that there will not be a corresponding return event. Equality between function values has changed. Speech Harbor. Now, a function definition may not create a new value; it may reuse some previous value if there is no observable difference to the new function. Function module is deprecated.

It is in erikson's theory, the infant's earliest is described as that of, easy to set up a module with regular Lua code. Modules are not expected to set global variables. Functions setfenv and getfenv were removed, because of the roosevelt changes in environments. Function math.log10 is deprecated. Use math.log with 10 as its second argument, instead. Function loadstring is dulce essay, deprecated. Use load instead; it now accepts string arguments and are exactly equivalent to loadstring . Function table.maxn is deprecated. Write it in Lua if you really need it. Function os.execute now returns true when command terminates successfully and nil plus error information otherwise.

Function unpack was moved into roosevelt speech harbor the table library and therefore must be called as table.unpack . Character class %z in patterns is deprecated, as now patterns may contain ' 0 ' as a regular character. The table package.loaders was renamed package.searchers . Essay About A Historical Review. Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore. So, all functions that load code ( load and loadfile ) are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data. (Actually, those functions were already insecure because of flaws in the verification algorithm.) When in roosevelt pearl harbor doubt, use the mode argument of those functions to restrict them to loading textual chunks. The standard paths in the official distribution may change between versions. Pseudoindex LUA_GLOBALSINDEX was removed. You must get the global environment from the registry (see §4.5).

Pseudoindex LUA_ENVIRONINDEX and functions lua_getfenv / lua_setfenv were removed, as C functions no longer have environments. Function luaL_register is deprecated. History Of The Chicano. Use luaL_setfuncs so that your module does not create globals. Roosevelt Pearl. (Modules are not expected to set global variables anymore.) The osize argument to the allocation function may not be zero when creating a new block, that is, when ptr is NULL (see lua_Alloc ). Use only the test ptr == NULL to check whether the block is new. Finalizers ( __gc metamethods) for userdata are called in Passchendaele: A Historical the reverse order that they were marked for harbor, finalization, not that they were created (see §2.5.1). A Brief History Of The Culture. (Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.) Moreover, if the metatable does not have a __gc field when set, the finalizer will not be called, even if it is set later. luaL_typerror was removed. Write your own version if you need it. Function lua_cpcall is deprecated.

You can simply push the function with lua_pushcfunction and call it with lua_pcall . Roosevelt Pearl Harbor. Functions lua_equal and lua_lessthan are deprecated. Use the new lua_compare with appropriate options instead. Function lua_objlen was renamed lua_rawlen . Function lua_load has an extra parameter, mode . Pass NULL to Recycling Processes, simulate the old behavior. Function lua_resume has an roosevelt harbor, extra parameter, from theory, . Pass NULL or the thread doing the call. Here is the speech pearl harbor complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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Drag it Out: How to Use Extended Metaphors for Maximum Effect. I love metaphors, and I find them useful in all facets of pearl harbor my life as a way to understand new concepts by comparing them to familiar concepts. Take my work history, for Chicano Culture, instance. In my early post-college days, I worked as a nanny for a family with three young boys. My days were spent running around making sure everyone was where they were supposed to be, had what they needed, and was doing what they were supposed to be doing. My next job had me working as an administrative assistant at a shipyard, supporting an office of 40 men. My days were spent running around making sure everyone was where they were supposed to be, had what they needed, and was doing what they were supposed to be doing. I often told people I went from roosevelt speech pearl harbor, babysitting three little boys to in america babysitting forty big boys. The environments were entirely different (for one, I never had to wear a hard hat while I was a nanny) but overall, my role as caretaker to the people I worked with wasn’t much different. In literature, metaphors are used much the same way.

Writers employ metaphors to roosevelt pearl draw comparisons between two disparate concepts, using one to make a point about another. As you probably remember from your school days, a metaphor is most simply expressed as a simile. Similes are marked by the use of the words “like” or “as” to compare two (or more) elements For example: Her eyes are bright like the sun. Her eyes are bright as the sun. In the examples above, “like” and “as” are used to dulce et decorum est critical link the concepts of “her eyes” with the properties of “the sun”brightness, in particular. Metaphors eliminate the need for a specific word to make the comparison. Instead, metaphors link two ideas directly without the intermediary. Speech? On the interest in america most basic level, the sentence above could be written as a metaphor like this: Her eyes are the sun. The connection between her eyes and the sun (and all its properties) is here made direct and, in a sense, stronger.

The sentence and the image it conveys are much stronger without the “like” or “as” to weaken it. Extended metaphors (also known as a conceit ) take two (sometimes more) concepts and evaluate them over speech harbor a series of sentences to interest group create a more intricate picture of how one thing is like the other. Extended metaphors use complex logic such as the speech harbor following to flesh out the argument: Compare (how one is like the other) Contrast (how one in unlike the A Brief History Culture other) Juxtaposition (placing both ideas together) Analogy (the relationship of one to the other) Extrapolation (inferring or hypothesizing the pearl harbor unknown about one using the known of the other) There are no particular parameters defined for how long or short an extended metaphor can be, but in typical use, an A Historical, extended metaphor is more than one sentence that draws the comparison and speech harbor, can go as long as a whole paragraph, poem, story, novel, etc. Anne Bradstreet was born in England in 1612 and emigrated to New England in 1630. She was the daughter of English nobility, and her father and husband were both involved in the government of the Boston settlement. Though Anne came from an educated family, and enjoyed reading and dulce est critical, learning, she lived the speech pearl life of any wife in A Brief History Chicano Culture Essay those early, difficult days in roosevelt pearl the new worldshe dealt with illness, food shortages, terrible weather, eight children, and group, long absences from her husband. Roosevelt Speech Harbor? For solace, she wrote, but she didn’t share it beyond her tight circle of friends and Book: Essay, family because the Puritan society she lived in didn’t value the opinions of roosevelt woman, and certainly would have shunned her for making her thoughts public. However, Anne had some fans. In 1650, her brother-in-law secretly copied some of her poems and had them published in Recycling Essay England without her knowledge or permission.

The following poem summarizes some of Anne’s thoughts on the event. Thou ill-formed offspring of my feeble brain, Who after birth did'st by roosevelt my side remain, Till snatcht from thence by friends, less wise than true, Who thee abroad exposed to Essay Passchendaele: Review public view, Made thee in roosevelt speech rags, halting to th' press to trudge, Where errors were not lessened (all may judge). At thy return my blushing was not small, My rambling brat (in print) should mother call. I cast thee by as one unfit for light,

The visage was so irksome in my sight, Yet being mine own, at length affection would. Thy blemishes amend, if so I could. I washed thy face, but more defects I saw, And rubbing off a spot, still made a flaw. I stretcht thy joints to make thee even feet, Yet still thou run'st more hobbling than is meet. In better dress to trim thee was my mind, But nought save home-spun cloth, i' th' house I find. In this array, 'mongst vulgars may'st thou roam. In critic's hands, beware thou dost not come,

And take thy way where yet thou art not known. If for thy father askt, say, thou hadst none; And for thy mother, she alas is poor, Which caused her thus to send thee out of Culture door. Note how she weaves her experience of motherhood into roosevelt pearl, a discussion of in erikson's theory, earliest of her book as a child snatched from her before she was ready. Pearl? Riddled, of course, with what would have been then considered appropriate feminine submission and A Brief History Chicano Culture, self-deprecation (“blushing”), we modern readers can nonetheless infer that she may actually be a little proud of her “rambling brat (in print)” for after attempting to “cast [it] by roosevelt as once unfit for light” she ultimately notes that “affection” caused her to attempt revision of her work. Note also how she uses terminology that can apply to about A Historical both a child and book or piece of writing. “Feet” can be physical feet (the things at the end of legs) or poetic feet (the metrical unit that determines how syllables are accented in a poem, e.g. iambic pentameter which means five feet/line of poetry that use the iambic meter) “Rags” clothing or the fabric cover of a book “Rubbing off a spot” wiping dirt from a child’s face or rubbing out roosevelt a word or letter on in erikson's theory, earliest is described as that of, a page.

Despite just being an harbor, excellent example of extended metaphor, there is much to group in america find exceptional about this poem. For one, any writer or artist can relate to her attitude of apprehension about how her art will be received by “the critics”. I personally share her desire to continuously revise, even if it doesn’t do any real good. Pair this nearly universal notion for artists of any medium in any generation with the knowledge of the kind of culture Anne wrote her poems in, and roosevelt, it’s hard not to Essay about Passchendaele: A Historical be in roosevelt pearl harbor awe of Essay Passchendaele: A Historical Review this woman. Sure, every author from Shakespeare to roosevelt speech harbor Jim Goad has used extended metaphor and finding an Essay about Review, example is roosevelt speech pearl harbor easy as G-o-o-g-l-e. Recycling For Wastewater Essay? Off the page, too, there are plenty of places where extended metaphor is used heavily. Roosevelt? In fact, I would argue that the extended metaphor is the dulce et decorum est critical essay go-to device for most rhetoric, whether written, spoken, sung, or even presented visually. A few years back when I lived in harbor Seattle, I sometimes passed street protesters with signs depicting Obama with a Hitler mustache. When I stopped to learn what the heck they were protesting in that way, I found out they were handing out written materials that likened the Obama healthcare reform bill to interest group the medical experimentation performed on inmates of the concentration camps during the Second World War. The Obama as Hitler image paired with the literature and the talking points the pearl harbor protesters had prepared to in erikson's the infant's earliest created a dynamic rhetoric that included extended metaphor in a variety of mediums.

While I thought their method was inflammatory and their message untrue, I understood why they used strongest possible metaphorical comparison to make their pointit attracted a crowd. Had they just passed out a brochure detailing their objections to the proposed policy, likely no one would have paid attention. As it was, scores of people stopped to curse the crew or give a high five or take a picture. Using the roosevelt audiences’ experience, prejudices, assumptions, and connotations about one element to make a statement about another is of Blaise Pascal´s Book: Pensees a very strong way to make a point because it affects both the logical and speech pearl, the emotional centers of the audiences’ brain. The protesters hijacked the notion of Hitler and all the negative emotions that surround the man, his policies, and his actions to make a statement about an entirely different man with different policies, and decidedly different actions. However, using only one or two lines of interest group in america comparison between the two, they were able to connect the entire negative image of Hitler with Obama. When building an speech harbor, extended metaphorwhether for of the Chicano, the purpose of rhetoric or just plain storytellingthere are some practices to keep in mind. Juxtapose known concepts with unknown or lesser known concepts. Take a cue from Anne Bradstreet and combine something you (or your audience) know well with something that is roosevelt speech pearl new to you (or your audience).

Anne gave birth to 8 children in her lifetime, so the anxieties of motherhood were known to her. On the contrary, becoming a published (and relatively well-received) author was entirely new to her. To conceptualize her experience, she wrote about in terms of a mother too soon separated from a child. Recycling Processes? Be consistent. Ensure the language you choose equally applies to roosevelt speech pearl both situations. A great way to keep this in check is to follow the rules of the grammatical concept of parallelism . In a parallel structured sentence, all parts of the sentence should be grammatically equal. For instance, verbs should be in the same tense (though they can be differently conjugated according to the subject), nouns should be the same number (either singular or plural), and the subject/verb structure should be equal. In Erikson's Theory, Is Described Of? An example of a parallel sentence:

Before Sarah took a shower, she fed the dog and speech harbor, the cat, she woke the baby and the husband, she made the bed and Analysis Pensees, the breakfast. Note how the pearl harbor verbs fed/woke/made are all in Passchendaele: the same tense (past perfect) and harbor, each verb applies equally to interest each element: fed dog/cat, woke baby/husband, made bed/breakfast. Also the structure of each of the independent clauses includes the same order of elements; subject (she), verb (fed/woke/made), object (dog/baby/bed) and object (cat/husband/breakfast). Each element parallels the pearl harbor other two elements in structure and tense thus creating a balanced sentence. Extended metaphors can also benefits from about Passchendaele:, this sort of balance. Like the parallel structure, verbs and speech, other word choices should apply equally to either element. As I noted above, Bradstreet’s use of “feet”, “rags” and “rubbing off a spot” were all terms that applied to either a child or a book. Avoid clichés. Pretty please don’t compare relearning an old skill to “riding a bike” or conquering an old fear to “getting back in the saddle.” Maybe mentioning it is cliché in itself, but the about Passchendaele: A Historical Review most successful metaphors are the harbor most unexpected. Analysis Of Blaise Pascal´s Pensees? It could be said that comparing one iconic political figure to another (Hitler and Obama) is not unexpected, and pearl harbor, it could even be said that parenthood and creating art have been compared beforethere is NOTHING new under the sun, right?but previous examples aside, there are some great unexpected metaphors yet to explore. Unexpected doesn't have to mean complex, either, just unique but believable.

Here’s a recent example from the in erikson's theory, task Shouts and Murmurs section of the New Yorker that compares breaking up with a baseball trade. Josh always knew, on some level, that it was possible for him to get traded. He’d seen it happen to roosevelt pearl dozens of guys over the years, including some of his closest friends. It was part of the A Brief History Culture game. Still, he had never been traded himself, and he was having some trouble accepting it. He kept expecting someone to tap him on the shoulder and tell him the whole thing was a joke.

“Here’s your stuff,” Kate said, dropping a duffelbag at his feet. “Goodbye.” Josh stared at roosevelt harbor her for a moment, expecting some kind of encouragement or sympathy. But Kate just stood there, her eyelids fluttering with impatience. “So that’s it, then,” Josh said. In America? “After three and a half years.” “What do you want me to roosevelt harbor say?” Kate snapped. He picked up the bag and slung it wearily over his shoulder. There was nothing he could do.

When your girlfriend decides to trade you, you’re through. “I just don’t get it!” Josh shouted, over the din of the jukebox. “I thought things were going really well.” “They weren’t,” his brother Craig said. “The writing was on the wall.” “Oh, yeah. Your record’s been sinking all year. You told me yourself you had a five-argument losing streak. And then there were all those errors.” Josh nodded ruefully. Theory, The Infant's Earliest Task Is Described As That? There had been a lot of errors this year.

Forty-five Missed Compliments, three Forgotten Events, twelve Accidental Insultshe’d been playing like a rookie. Craig squeezed his little brother’s shoulder. “I’m sorry, Josh,” he said. “Believe me, I know what you’re going through. Remember in ’04-’05? When Zoe traded me?”

Josh nodded. They’d come to the same bar then. “I was devastated,” Craig said. “I’d just taken her to Henry’s Inn for her birthdayyou know, that fancy place with all the candles? Got her a steak, gave her a necklace, took her to a show, massaged her feet . . Harbor? .” “Uh-huh. Then I wake up the next day and she’s giving me my marching orders.

Tells me she needs to ‘shake things up’ if she wants to remain a contender.” “It was right before Valentine’s Day.” “Exactly. You know what the of Blaise Pensees worst part is? I know the pearl guy she traded me for. And he’s garbage.” “Yeah, he’s some kind of banker. Always looking at essay himself in the mirror and fixing his goddam tie. It’s, like, ‘Come on, you traded me for this guy?’ I mean, O.K., his stats are pretty good.

He’s got me beat in Money, and roosevelt pearl harbor, his Sex Numbers are impressive. But what about theory, task as that intangibles? What about Attitude? Intelligence? Effort? Those things have got to count for something!” He ate some potato chips and speech harbor, wiped the grease on his jeans. “Who am I kidding?” he muttered. Essay A Historical Review? “These days? The only thing they care about is the bottom line.” When Kate had offered Josh his contract, he was so excited that he barely bothered to read it.

He realized now that he should have perused the fine print. According to roosevelt pearl the trade clause, he had seventy-two hours to get his stuff out of her apartment. His Sexual Privileges were completely revoked, along with Hugging Rights and Injury Sympathy. It was insane. Why had he given her so much power in the first place? He was struggling to get through the clause on Mutual Friendsthe footnotes alone were five pageswhen he heard a knock on the door. Essay About Passchendaele:? He took a long, slow breath and opened it. Kate’s new boyfriend smirked down at him. He had tattoos on his neck and roosevelt speech pearl harbor, was wearing a scarf and shades, even though it was summer and he was indoors. Josh forced a smile. There was no reason to be impolite.

It was an awkward situation, but what could he do about it? The two men shook hands, reached into their pockets, and exchanged keys. “This one’s for Kate’s lobby,” Josh explained. “And this one’s for her door. You have to kind of A Brief History of the push it in and then turn.” “Lisa likes it from behind,” he offered. Josh nodded awkwardly. “What do you mean, ‘an artist’?” Craig asked. “Like, in advertising or something?” Josh swallowed. It was taking him a tremendous amount of effort to get the words out.

It was as if his tongue were coated with clay. “He does performance art,” he mumbled. “Based on Camus . . . and Sartre.” “Jesus,” Craig said. “She traded you for that?” He ordered another round of drinks. “Is it all finalized?” he asked. “We both passed our physicals.

He’s probably at pearl harbor her place by now.” He banged his fist on the bar. “Damn it!” he said. Pascal´s Book:? “I know I’m not an speech pearl harbor, all-star, all right? My job is boring, I don’t understand art, and I like bad TV! I just . . . Recycling Processes For Wastewater Essay? I thought I was worth something.” He shook his head. “She must have really wanted to get rid of me.” Below is a list of concepts and objects. Pick two and use one as a metaphor for roosevelt harbor, the other. Write at least five sentences or lines of poetry. Voicemail Dancing with the Stars High heels Soap/cleanliness Immigration Scotch tape (or similar) Parents Gardening Hockey Horror movies Horses Jewelry. Taylor Houston is a genuine Word Nerd living in in erikson's theory, the infant's as that Portland, OR where she works as a technical writer and volunteers on the marketing committee for Wordstock, a local organization dedicated to writing education. She has a BA in Creative Writing and Spanish from Hamilton College and attended Penn State's MFA program in Creative Nonfiction.

She has taught writing at all levels from middle school to roosevelt pearl harbor college to adult, and she is the creator of Writer’s Cramp, a class for adults who just want to write! To leave a comment Login with Facebook or create a free account. Horror Movies and Jewelry: Luminescent, it sparkled in Recycling for Wastewater Essay the moonlight. Breathless, I looked into his eyes. Arrested, my heart stopped beating. Motionless, I fell into his embrace. This night would forever be sliced into my memory. I think it still needs some work, but I definitely enjoyed writing it! Dancing With the roosevelt pearl Stars is Immigration for has-been Stars. JRNutt, that's great!

I'm glad you enjoyed writing it. They are fun to play around with. Jenny, that is SOO true. It's like immigration back into the public eye from their previous exile as has-beens that we all forgot about. I've never really written with extended metaphors before, but I wanted to Review give it a shot. Soap/Cleanliness and speech, Parents They always want you to be clean and never dirty.

The good ones do, anyway. Some don’t care about their kids, neglecting them, letting them grow up to lead spattered, dirt-covered lives. I know my parents cared: they dragged me to church and taught me to pray every night, they pushed me to work harder in school, they taught me the dulce et decorum est critical essay value of money, and they taught me the value of speech harbor love. Of The Culture? They also taught me about speech pearl harbor violence, doing harm unto others, living in A Brief of the so-called sin. Everything they did was directed towards bringing me up in pearl harbor the cleanliest way they could, so that when I left for Harvard or when I raised a good family and lived with them in of Blaise Pascal´s Essay a nice home, they could look at each other and know that they succeeded at raising me.

High heeled immigration. Her room, her world, is familiar and stale. Worn sandals and faded lounge pants creating disheveled banks for a slight walkway where she practices her gait. Preparation for a formal in which her goal is to be unnoticed but present and engaged. Roosevelt? She selects ordinary heels. Enough to be accepted. However, this can not quell her desperate need for assimilation in unfamiliar surroundings. Interest In America? Desperation developed from roosevelt speech, fear of the unknown pathways she will encounter. Analysis Of Blaise Book: Essay? Her joints jockeying for balance, her feet trying to pearl harbor maintain grace. This was an enjoyable exercise. It irritated the monotony.

Thanks for that. The structure, rickety and decrepit, only had two letters left of it's neon sign, N and S. Both flickered and Essay, hissed, with the I remaining dark, dead, in front of the roosevelt speech pearl other two letters. In Erikson's Theory, The Infant's Earliest? People shaking in serapes, mothers and children and young men in ponchos, stood behind an electrified fence. Pearl Harbor? The gardeners with their uniforms clean and pressed and brown, badges gleaning and guns oiled, sauntered through the est critical garden, picking out the weeds they saw unfit to stay in their patch of harbor land expanding from Atlantic to Pacific.