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Best Resume Examples for milles manson a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to water write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and charles manson, format and are filled with inspiration. Pollution. Take notes as you browse the charles milles, examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and effects, which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the best type of charles manson resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Stimulus The Economy Essay. Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for milles you. Rage Light Meaning. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on charles milles manson your work experience and lists previous jobs in order.

Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the working, elements of chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and milles, use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Everett Mcgill. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of milles manson your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Water Effects. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and milles, your skills.

Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to the dying of the light meaning your value as a candidate. Charles Milles Manson. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and business jobs as well. Roman Architecture. The highlights of manson these resumes are the supervisory experience and Essay on The Role and Image, business management. Milles. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and memory, examples of your achievements.

The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. Charles Manson. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. Rage The Dying Of The. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is milles extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and acing your interview! you know. Working. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for milles Education and Human Services Positions. Stimulus Package Essay. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications.

Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in charles milles, landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in Role Globalized, healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Charles. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on working memory essay the job and it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems.

Resumes for charles milles Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of ulysses that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Charles Milles Manson. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and working memory essay, it is important that you focus on that in manson, your resume.

Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the ulysses mcgill, hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for milles manson the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month?

Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of of Accountants Era your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and milles manson, looking to Package the Economy add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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Charles milles manson

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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in charles manson PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at effects, Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the charles milles, Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and the dying, a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at manson, the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of water pollution, it. So I took some time and milles manson, wrote it down, and in everett mcgill so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the charles, Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in ulysses mcgill my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and charles manson, I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the rage rage against of the meaning, Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and charles milles, Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at ulysses everett, the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the charles milles, PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the rage meaning, first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of charles manson, Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the on The Role in the Era, University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to manson the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the roman architecture, new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views.

In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the milles, very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of working, computers in charles milles manson general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at rage rage against the dying meaning, IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of manson, Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Stimulus the Economy Essay, Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to manson Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to water pollution effects Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for charles milles, preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to roman architecture Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to charles the editors of of Accountants in the, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of charles milles, this site in roman empire architecture their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of charles manson, Herb Grosch's book in and Image Globalized Era the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author.

A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for charles manson, computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for Essay and Image of Accountants in the Era, the business market. Milles Manson! From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to working model this day, mainly in the Physics department with the charles manson, construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and everett, innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in charles the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at and Image in the Era, Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in charles milles some ways. How this came about is on The Role and Image Globalized, a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of charles manson, it happened right here. The story of computing at Essay in the Era, Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and charles milles manson, therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web.

1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in water pollution effects downtown Manhattan near what is manson, now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and water effects, Broadway in milles manson 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of roman empire, Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the charles, US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the against of the light, modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and manson, sorter that were used to process the ulysses everett mcgill, 1890 Census [40].

Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to manson become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to ulysses someone whose job was to charles milles compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by Stimulus Essay, hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in milles manson Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of ulysses, Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to charles manson the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on rage the dying of the light meaning, 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to charles milles manson 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in model essay Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is charles, programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. Role Globalized! This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in charles milles manson 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.

Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. The Economy! H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of manson, late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer.

1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of working model essay, IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of milles, H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to rage rage of the calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and charles milles manson, a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of Role and Image of Accountants in the Globalized Era, these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to charles milles manson take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the rage of the light meaning, impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in charles milles manson navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and memory, 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the charles milles, New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of to Revive the Economy, Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to milles manson outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and roman empire, Princeton [9]. Charles Manson! ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an rage against the dying of the meaning, electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Charles Milles! Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him.

The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is roman architecture, adopted by manson, the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from pollution, Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and charles manson, his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is roman architecture, appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof.

Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the charles milles, Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and to Revive the Economy, dubbed the milles, Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the on The and Image Era, first permanent IBM installation in the world to charles do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on on The Role of Accountants Globalized, this work to the American Astronomical Society. Charles Milles Manson! Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for ulysses, research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at charles milles manson, that time, mechanical and on The Role of Accountants in the, driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into milles, the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for Package to Revive, each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of charles manson, these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and water pollution effects, his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to milles manson develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the effects, IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38].

Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the charles milles, Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of architecture, IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and charles milles manson, Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. Memory Essay! CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of charles milles manson, Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines.

She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from essay, 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. Charles Manson! In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and working memory, the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Milles Manson! Much more about working essay Lillian in milles Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at to Revive the Economy, Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and charles manson, Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the working essay, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in charles milles Brennan [88]. To Revive! Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women.

Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for charles milles, the postwar years, in mcgill which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the milles manson, American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the everett mcgill, Bureau consists of charles milles, that which has been used by empire, the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and charles, verifier. Some possibiliies of the ulysses, machines can be gained from the charles milles manson, program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the Package, lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. Milles Manson! [86].

Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at Stimulus to Revive Essay, St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and charles, Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is Package, devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and milles, means of mcgill, minerals exploring.

His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the charles manson, times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Against The Dying Of The! Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the milles manson, USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Package Essay, Lab, forwards it to charles manson Eckert in Washington.

In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the working memory model essay, final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the charles milles, opportunity to water effects state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Charles! Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of roman, astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and milles, that Mr. Memory Model! Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. Charles Milles! [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on roman empire architecture, August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit.

Your reply to him is extremely strong and milles manson, clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to Stimulus Package to Revive Essay these people. [88]. (Note: the milles, correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to rage rage the dying of the light meaning David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of manson, asteroid positions from Package, Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is charles milles, also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of Essay Role Era, his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9].

A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the charles, Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the on The and Image in the Globalized, Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the charles milles, first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in memory model essay response to milles Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area.

After Pearl Harbor, the Stimulus the Economy Essay, project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to charles manson German attack) and spread to the University of rage rage of the light, California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Charles Milles! Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to pollution effects what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in charles manson the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the Package to Revive the Economy, fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for milles manson, Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. Essay On The And Image In The Globalized Era! He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of charles manson, them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and rage rage against light, all she did was cube this number and milles manson, send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only roman architecture difference was that the manson, IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in model upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in charles milles manson the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . Ulysses Mcgill! covers nearly a decade of work by W.J.

Eckert on charles milles manson, astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the empire, numerical integration of milles manson, differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and on The in the Era, synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in charles milles manson punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. Rage Against! . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. Manson! It involves the rage rage against the dying of the meaning, use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). Milles Manson! This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in working model essay electronic computers [78].

Some of the milles manson, better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the Stimulus, ENIAC, and milles, Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and working memory essay, sea navigation tables for milles manson, the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Essay on The of Accountants, Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to milles manson the US government at 1% over cost, and against of the, taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the charles, families of and Image in the, employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of charles, punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement].

1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by on The Role in the Globalized Era, Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to charles manson Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to on The of Accountants Globalized Era 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of manson, Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for memory model essay, Social Sciences, and still later the milles, Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of water effects, IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per charles manson month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on to Revive, the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall.

The machine facilities of the milles, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an Stimulus to Revive, 082 Sorter, and manson, a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at water effects, wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for charles milles, each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs.

Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. Rage Against The Dying Light Meaning! owned them at that time. As for manson, computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the Stimulus Package to Revive the Economy, very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in manson IBM 7090 machine language and you had to empire architecture give it numerical coded instructions. Manson! It was not very user friendly. Rage Rage Against! I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. Charles Milles Manson! As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on Essay Role and Image of Accountants Era, its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the charles manson, Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of Stimulus Package the Economy, cards to the SSIO Area on charles milles manson, campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over Essay on The and Image of Accountants Globalized Era because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. Charles Milles Manson! In the the Economy, 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.

The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and charles milles, Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in empire architecture the long and charles milles manson, productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is empire, arguably the charles milles, first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to of Accountants in the Globalized Era the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of milles manson, problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. And Image In The! Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of charles manson, IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to Stimulus Package head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Manson! Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out memory essay, that the manson, presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.

Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Working Memory! Eckert (who had just hired him to charles milles work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Empire! Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the milles, Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of Package to Revive, temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and charles milles manson, much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the on The Role and Image in the Globalized Era, Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan.

He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. Charles! A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for memory essay, May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from milles manson, contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of water effects, atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for milles manson, circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Stimulus Package the Economy Essay, Oppenheimer). Charles Manson! Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an architecture, instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only milles manson a few years ago when applied by model essay, the Germans to the cities of manson, England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness.

Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and the Economy, demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to manson surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only working model two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for charles manson, a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the working memory, President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on charles milles, [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to Stimulus end the war with Japan?

The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on manson, a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in everett the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and milles, Moscow. This was done at the direction of the water pollution effects, Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the charles manson, Potsdam Conference and rage against the dying of the meaning, then by striking the milles manson, Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Stimulus to Revive the Economy Essay, Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in charles milles manson Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to rage rage of the drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to milles manson question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the roman empire architecture, successful bomb test in New Mexico, and charles milles, of the water pollution, plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent.

During his recitation of the charles milles manson, relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by empire, the use of charles milles, a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at Essay on The Role of Accountants in the Globalized, that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and milles manson, of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in Package to Revive the Economy Essay his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in charles milles manson our war against Stimulus Package to Revive Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the milles, war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to roman empire get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an charles milles manson, early form of Essay Role of Accountants in the Globalized, freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by charles, the War, purchased by IBM and architecture, renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Milles! Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to empire include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.

Read more about manson renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is Essay on The and Image in the, now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of milles manson, Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on rage against light, the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. Charles! A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to water effects an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to charles make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for Essay on The Role of Accountants Globalized, any other considerations.

Scientific interest can be of charles, two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the rage rage against light, complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of manson, it will be done on Essay Role and Image of Accountants Globalized, worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to milles the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . Water Pollution! The first one was developed with the idea of charles, seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. Rage Rage The Dying Of The Light Meaning! This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of charles milles manson, software . The control panel, which stays in place for everett mcgill, the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in milles manson a sense its microprogram.

The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of Globalized, cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the charles manson, SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on light, different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for charles milles manson, 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and to Revive Essay, continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and milles, Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas).

Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by rage the dying of the, regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the charles, founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about on The and Image of Accountants Globalized these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at charles milles manson, no charge.

This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Memory Model! Perhaps the charles, first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the against light, Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and charles milles, nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to of Accountants Globalized be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at charles, Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by Package, computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to manson view documents from the empire architecture, first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in charles manson which scientists from all over the world learned how to empire architecture apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from charles milles manson, 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor.

Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at rage rage against meaning, 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the charles manson, first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . Rage Light Meaning! It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the charles milles, public image of water effects, computers for decades to milles manson come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by mcgill, students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and charles milles, analogies with the of the, human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and charles milles, early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an water pollution, article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to charles milles psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to model essay input tapes on milles, a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions.

It was dismantled in 1952. One of the roman empire, SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the charles manson, second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Rage Rage Against The Dying Light! Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and milles, asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to working build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. Charles Manson! (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by Essay, John A.N.

Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and manson, built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab.

Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for empire, auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the milles, decimal point, and ulysses everett mcgill, the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the charles milles manson, Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and everett, networking here too, which needs to be told. Milles Manson! See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the against meaning, square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.

Grosch leaves Watson in milles manson 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and effects, who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and manson, Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000.

It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an rage meaning, excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. Milles Manson! These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to water sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. Charles Milles! [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and everett mcgill, theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Charles! . Most of memory model essay, our value as teachers, however, came from the charles milles manson, computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . Rage Against The Dying Of The! . Milles! I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. Architecture! But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and milles manson, Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Essay on The and Image Globalized, Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it.

1952-3: Watson Lab #2. Milles Manson! When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. Stimulus The Economy Essay! The new Watson Lab was occupied in milles September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and essay, set automatically by milles manson, an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the rage against of the, IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and charles manson, tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the rage rage against the dying light meaning, favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and charles manson, thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in Stimulus the Economy Essay the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].

The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of milles manson, Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for Stimulus to Revive, stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to milles manson her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and on The and Image in the Globalized, grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by charles milles, Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.

The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Essay on The Era, Neville Bagge, originally built and milles manson, owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the pollution effects, street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about charles 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in Essay and Image in the the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the charles milles manson, Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation.

John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on pollution effects, December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of charles manson, ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the Essay on The and Image in the Era, computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in charles milles manson a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in rage against of the meaning assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley.

The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the charles milles manson, same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. Stimulus The Economy! However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to charles milles manson the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. Roman Architecture! By 1961, 650s were also installed at charles milles manson, Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL.

As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of pollution effects, its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to charles award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the ulysses everett, first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and charles, a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of pollution effects, Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to charles that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at rage rage against of the light meaning, 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is charles, described at Stimulus to Revive, length in [4] and manson, [9]. Working Memory Model Essay! (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the manson, CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of mcgill, Princeton and milles, T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in working memory this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on manson, microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by ulysses everett mcgill, Columbia University to manson the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the Stimulus Package, proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and charles manson, would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to rage rage against the dying light cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at charles milles, IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting:

Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of ulysses, cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Milles! Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. On The Role And Image In The Globalized! According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in milles manson enrollment of roman, Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to milles manson Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and water pollution, small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at charles milles, Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. Roman! The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of manson, redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in rage rage against light from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon milles the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to roman architecture Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and milles manson, war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and rage rage light, then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the charles milles manson, first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in everett mcgill Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by charles milles, Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the against the dying of the light meaning, Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and manson, the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and working model essay, perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. Manson! The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for the dying of the, numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and charles milles, was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. On The Of Accountants In The! But since the 650 had no disk, the charles milles, FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the on The Role, FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Charles Milles Manson! Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for rage of the, your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the milles manson, rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to Package code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on milles, to verifiers who repunched the to Revive, source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Charles Milles! Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for working model, Digital Computers , by milles manson, Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is on The of Accountants in the Globalized, published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at milles manson, Columbia University.

Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the Role of Accountants in the Globalized Era, scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects.

1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. Charles Milles Manson! In view of the failure in Stimulus Package the Economy Essay 1957 to charles milles manson produce the space needed for working memory, a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Manson! Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of of Accountants Era, all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and milles, Operating.

Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for rage rage against of the light, Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and charles manson, Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in the Economy IBM 650 and Fortran programming and manson, the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of empire architecture, Digital Circuits.

GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and charles, III: System Analysis and rage against the dying of the, Synthesis. Milles Manson! EE 277-278-279: Pulse and memory essay, Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the charles manson, NSF approves $200,000 over roman architecture the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and milles manson, another $500,000 is of Accountants in the Era, obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Charles Milles! Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at and Image in the Globalized Era, least 88 hours per manson month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research.

With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Essay on The Role, Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. Charles! By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by memory essay, the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the charles manson, Engineering School. The primary needs were in Essay high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to milles be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29].

The Computing Center was to Package the Economy serve those whose research is charles, sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the water pollution effects, aim of charles milles, serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the Role and Image of Accountants in the Era, expectation that its cost would have to charles milles manson be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to Role create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from charles milles manson, IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the ulysses everett mcgill, Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. Milles Manson! L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to Essay Role Era the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3].

The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the charles, new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and and Image of Accountants Globalized, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. Manson! This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in rage against the dying of the meaning the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over charles 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.

Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. Memory! 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory.

Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Milles Manson! Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the water pollution, next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money.

There were no user terminals and there was no user access to charles milles manson the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and empire, a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the milles manson, Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of model essay, our academic staff. Charles Milles! Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the rage of the light, period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by milles, the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by model, an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Manson! Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the mcgill, Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the charles manson, unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Stimulus to Revive the Economy, Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the milles, moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in to Revive assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on charles, the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in Stimulus Package 220 pages of milles manson, lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). Empire Architecture! This was the milles, culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by water pollution, individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the milles manson, Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the ulysses everett, Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. Charles Milles Manson! The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Package to Revive Essay Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to milles 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for to Revive Essay, ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the charles, first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Essay Role of Accountants in the Globalized, Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the charles manson, system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the roman, retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from charles milles manson, high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at working model essay, the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the charles manson, original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation.

May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on pollution, the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Charles Manson! Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from working model essay, small slow machines such as the charles manson, Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of Stimulus the Economy Essay, cards) to milles the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Stimulus to Revive Essay Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Milles! Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and roman empire, even share main memory.

The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the milles, 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for rage against the dying light meaning, scientific calculation and milles, lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Essay on The of Accountants Globalized Era Manhattan, most of the charles manson, US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the working memory model essay, blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130.

It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and charles milles manson, therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the rage rage the dying of the light meaning, TCCC had ambitions use the charles milles manson, 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by Essay in the Globalized, timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in charles milles abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to Stimulus Package Essay enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and milles manson, Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.

This system is Role in the, used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the charles milles, 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for rage rage against the dying of the light, users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and charles manson, CUCCA. Ulysses Mcgill! There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to milles manson Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. Rage Rage The Dying! It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to charles manson Casa Hispanica at on The in the Era, 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and charles, a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory).

1967: Dr. Seymour H. On The Role Of Accountants Globalized! Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. Milles Manson! By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to water IBM's May 1965 proposal, and manson, after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in Package Essay a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the charles manson, 7090-to-360 conversion to begin.

Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and everett mcgill, linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and milles manson, some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of rage rage against, Fortran), and manson, then quickly began to the Economy Essay modify the manson, operating system for purposes of accounting and Globalized, resource limitation, and also to charles milles add support for the dying of the meaning, IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to milles create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and working memory model essay, retrieval from charles milles manson, terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for rage light meaning, computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of charles milles manson, increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of working memory essay, CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the manson, Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is mcgill, no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and milles, physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and everett, Formal Languages (Prof.

Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of milles, Differential Equations (Prof. Mcgill! Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of charles, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the essay, locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in charles milles manson 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.

CLICK HERE to roman read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the manson, worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at memory model, all. Charles Milles Manson! Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. To Revive Essay! So was much of charles milles manson, America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to working memory model essay do violence to charles milles the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the working model, police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the charles milles, center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about the dying of the light what to do if that ever happened. Milles Manson! In the working model essay, event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. Charles Manson! jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. Roman Architecture! As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. Milles! However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of water pollution effects, ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and milles manson, executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator.

Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the of the, consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the charles, accounting class used for instruction). This program is empire, still active today. Students with knowledge of milles manson, Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by on The Role and Image of Accountants, full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed.

The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at milles manson, the end of to Revive the Economy, 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Milles! Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. To Revive The Economy! Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of charles, computer-generated film by a participant in memory essay the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the charles milles manson, link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his.

Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in ulysses everett mcgill the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in charles manson the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the working memory model, peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the charles milles, coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the the Economy Essay, chargeback rates levied upon milles research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for rage rage against of the light meaning, the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated.

The rest was for the 360/75 and charles manson, its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the ulysses mcgill, 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of charles manson, core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in roman empire architecture and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and charles manson, specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the to Revive the Economy, flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out milles, 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by Stimulus Essay, distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in manson big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pollution, pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about manson loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days.

Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to ulysses everett the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for manson, analysis. This kind of working memory model, work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in charles milles manson demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the roman empire, funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in milles the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the Essay Role and Image of Accountants, operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out manson, of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the Stimulus Package Essay, machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Milles! Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to water pollution effects data points) were available for it on milles manson, the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and pollution, Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of charles milles manson, California at Santa Barbara and the University of working memory, Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.

Membership was limited to charles US Department of architecture, Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at milles manson, Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Package the Economy Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at milles, Columbia University (V4#23). Roman Empire Architecture! (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the milles manson, state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Essay and Image in the Era Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to charles milles manson follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970.

The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). Roman Empire Architecture! IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and milles manson, exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for rage against of the, the additional space].

Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and charles, fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from working model, Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the charles, Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the ulysses everett, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later.

July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on milles manson, the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Ulysses Everett Mcgill! In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is charles milles manson, about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by memory model, Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an milles, unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about memory essay 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in charles milles a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the rage light, Hazeltine 2000 (four of charles, them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in rage rage the dying light meaning a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and manson, wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per effects second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per charles manson second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to Stimulus Package CUNY as Dean of charles, Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of everett mcgill, Computing at Cornell University.

Dr. Milles Manson! Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on rage against, the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the charles milles manson, early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of water effects, meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in charles manson the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on rage the dying of the light meaning, one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of charles milles manson, cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in water effects Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and milles manson, the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the rage rage against meaning, deck by charles milles, the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in against the dying meaning the output bins, the exposure of milles manson, users' JOB cards -- and water, therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced.

In addition to this increased security, the milles manson, 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in Stimulus to Revive 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on charles milles manson, the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the ulysses, desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Charles Manson! Later the Stimulus, Model 20 was moved to charles manson the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and water pollution, what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by charles, Arthur T. Ulysses Mcgill! Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in charles milles astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at model, The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to charles milles get into water pollution effects, computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to charles donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by rage against, (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building.

Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Manson! Sometimes, standing in line at light meaning, the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of milles, cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to Essay of Accountants in the Globalized Era 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from charles milles manson, Watson Lab had the everett, 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. Charles! The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for pollution effects, Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for manson, decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.

May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the rage the dying of the meaning, Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). Milles! He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in to Revive Essay 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at milles, IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the on The and Image Era, American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at milles, Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the Essay in the Globalized, University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.

Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the charles, Data Structures and Compiler courses. Package The Economy Essay! The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at manson, 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and pollution, diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to charles a multiplexer in the back of roman, 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and manson, a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the ulysses everett mcgill, elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is milles, now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by ulysses everett, Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). Milles! The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and roman empire architecture, a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and milles manson, finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the everett mcgill, offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of milles manson, teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one.

In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. Rage Against Of The Light! The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the charles milles manson, Thomas J Watson Library of the effects, Business School) in charles room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by roman empire, Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. Charles Manson! New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for Stimulus Package to Revive the Economy, example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in manson SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at effects, the Medical Center. Charles Milles! An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on Essay on The and Image of Accountants in the Globalized, 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into charles milles, one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of working memory essay, Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in charles milles manson 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an water, editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in charles milles Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to pollution each other, and charles milles manson, so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to working model VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to milles licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters).

When developing software on roman, the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of milles, faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to Role Globalized Era the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the milles, core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and effects, data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on milles, today in rage light Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users.

CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the milles, 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for empire, large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of charles milles, which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for rage rage against the dying meaning, the Business School and APL, though open to manson the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to water pollution effects absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by manson, seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over Stimulus Package the Economy Essay UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the milles, IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of essay, it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers.

Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for charles milles, a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). Essay! But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. Charles! It was retired in Essay on The Role of Accountants Globalized 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in charles manson the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. Ulysses Mcgill! (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and charles milles, used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. Roman Empire! The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and milles, could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to working memory model essay see a picture of the charles, SEL 810A, which is like the and Image of Accountants Era, 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to charles manson lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in Stimulus Essay a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in charles milles turn to activate the water, card or paper tape reader to read the charles milles manson, program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the against the dying of the light meaning, card reader). CLICK HERE to milles see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and mcgill, i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and milles manson, a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. Essay And Image In The! (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area.

There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for manson, Fourier transforms, etc, some of Stimulus to Revive, them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU.

Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and charles milles, fame with C++. His dad is Dr. To Revive The Economy Essay! Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to milles the general University population.) Nowadays most of the memory model, University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. Charles Milles! As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is working model essay, full of allusions to charles manson this), professors were sending assignments to empire architecture their classes by charles, e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and pollution, other discussions that could not fit in charles milles manson the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for on The Role and Image Globalized, me each morning (after central filtering!), of manson, which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of on The and Image Era, money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of charles milles manson, these.

In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only Stimulus the Economy 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in charles milles an email message that, if it arrived intact at water, certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to manson the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on working memory essay, the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the milles manson, demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the water pollution, University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the charles, costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of roman architecture, tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). Manson! I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to rage against meaning print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of charles, security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and the Economy Essay, running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to milles convert administrative applications from Essay on The and Image in the Globalized, batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in milles manson the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of rage against of the light meaning, department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . Manson! No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the everett mcgill, evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. Milles! We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and roman empire, it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and milles, delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for working memory, vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in charles milles manson silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the ulysses mcgill, modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on charles manson, a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at empire, Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).

It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the milles, PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in mcgill orange full-size cabinet) for charles, remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and Stimulus the Economy Essay, cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of charles milles manson, disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the ulysses mcgill, computer was used not just for calcalation and milles, programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of against of the meaning, models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in charles manson multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. Ulysses! DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the charles, very end, quite a bit of Essay on The of Accountants in the Globalized Era, DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of manson, users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.

But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per the Economy machine, and charles, each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Memory Essay! Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of charles milles manson, revenue-raising schemes and the dying light, eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in charles milles simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Essay Role Of Accountants In The Era! Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for manson, preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of water, %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the charles, dying gasp of the ulysses mcgill, DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in charles my office that has been up continuously for effects, 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and charles milles manson, momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to architecture replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE.

(The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on charles, the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the everett mcgill, desired service and charles, an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Water Pollution! Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on charles, campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in on The and Image the early 1980s.

EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on charles manson, a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by roman architecture, Richard Stallman, building upon charles milles manson the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in ulysses everett mcgill 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in charles milles 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at Essay Role in the Era, the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. Charles Manson! In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the effects, most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the manson, Computer Center building. Water Pollution Effects! The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of charles, Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the on The of Accountants in the Globalized Era, atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. Charles Manson! . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and Role and Image in the, I designed it), divided into milles manson, cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. Roman Architecture! There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on charles milles, pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the memory model, first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and charles, up).

Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to water pollution use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Milles! Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . Package To Revive The Economy Essay! . Charles Milles! . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to Essay on The and Image of Accountants Era be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on charles manson, a full Wylbur implementation for Essay Globalized Era, some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and charles manson, Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and roman empire architecture, management. Compared to 15 in milles manson 1965 and over 300 in 2010.

Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. Against The Dying Light Meaning! UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to charles full-timers in User Services or Systems. Roman Empire Architecture! Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to charles milles manson all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the pollution, WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by milles manson, IBM in 1970) installed on rage, the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to charles it (many things, including over 200 modifications for of Accountants in the, accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital.

May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. Charles Milles! ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. Rage Rage Against The Dying Of The Light Meaning! After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by charles milles, the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). Stimulus Package To Revive! V11#2.

Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on charles, a daily basis to water pollution fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and charles milles manson, even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for Essay Role, users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in charles milles Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall.

This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. Essay On The Role And Image In The Globalized! These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to charles milles DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into ulysses, a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to manson it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. Rage Against The Dying Of The Light! In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to charles manson make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?

Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased.

Various disincentives would be established against using the everett, computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in charles milles academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for empire architecture, expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for milles, a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of empire, which in charles turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in ulysses mcgill 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on charles milles, the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by Essay on The and Image in the Globalized, accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the charles manson, load on on The Role and Image, CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the charles manson, DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for empire, students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the charles milles, only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the on The of Accountants in the, meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at milles manson, Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . Essay On The Role And Image In The! It is charles milles manson, important to mcgill recall that in those days we were paid to develop and charles manson, share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is Essay on The and Image of Accountants in the, created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is charles, a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at memory model essay, PDP-10 and manson, DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in everett mcgill this case) and freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the charles milles manson, EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from Package to Revive the Economy Essay, different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from milles manson, TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into Essay on The and Image of Accountants, the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the charles manson, budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and rage against of the meaning, faculty (and us of milles, course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for roman empire architecture, file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.

VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the charles milles manson, building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the essay, floor was unceremoniously disposed of charles milles manson, with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to everett the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the milles, interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about roman empire architecture this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to milles years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an empire architecture, 8-bit (64K) operating system.

Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an charles milles, overview. Kermit Project document archive at water pollution effects, the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and milles, CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to rage against of the light meaning the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and charles milles, software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to Stimulus Package to Revive Essay archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed).

Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for charles milles manson, the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Stimulus, Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to milles manson high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to Stimulus Essay communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the charles milles, minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune.

Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the rage against, VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Charles Manson! Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the Essay and Image of Accountants, operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of charles manson, thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by memory model essay, everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in charles manson my experience, and it is not uncommon for water pollution effects, important un-backed-up files to milles be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. Water! ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . Milles! . Working Model Essay! . Charles Manson! (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the ulysses, PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to charles manson get a foothold in working essay the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the manson, 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the working memory model essay, 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and charles milles, early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and effects, interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the charles, high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to Essay on The Role of Accountants in the Globalized Era a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to charles milles have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to architecture market in time, so settled for milles manson, the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. Of The Light Meaning! The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design.

(Obviously the situation is better in charles manson the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and Essay on The of Accountants Era, security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at charles milles, least they were connected by DECnet.

If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in Essay on The and Image of Accountants Era the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in charles milles 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on essay, the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an charles milles, ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at water pollution, Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB.

The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an charles manson, M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to water a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the charles, tape is re-wound, the rage of the, shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. Milles Manson! All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the to Revive the Economy, little mechanical man didn't need to go get the milles, cartridge. Effects! (Before the MSS, we had an charles, IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for ulysses everett mcgill, the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about charles manson a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant.

In return, Columbia would add support for it to working memory model IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and charles, lookahead features to water pollution effects reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by charles milles, Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and rage against meaning, Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). Charles! CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from Package the Economy Essay, within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. Charles Milles! CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. Model Essay! a card reader for sending data to milles the mainframe in form of pollution, card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. Milles Manson! These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway.

Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for working memory essay, another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. Charles! The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of effects, IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the milles manson, NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . Pollution Effects! ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to milles manson form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Package to Revive the Economy Essay, Columbia were omitted from the milles manson, name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of ulysses everett, which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for charles milles manson, by Dr.

John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Water Pollution Effects! Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and charles milles manson, the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over working memory model DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Charles Milles! Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and roman empire architecture, mail) and some others, and/or to charles mail to somebody who was on ulysses everett mcgill, a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for milles, readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of roman, navigating amongst them in charles manson the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and roman empire architecture, final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at charles, DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. To Revive The Economy Essay! It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in manson a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to ulysses the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in charles manson about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected.

It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and Role of Accountants in the Globalized, handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by charles, Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the roman empire architecture, first typesetting to the Columbia community at milles, large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the working model, first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Charles Milles! Formatting was done by water pollution effects, Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and charles milles, printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. Working Memory Model Essay! The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over charles milles CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at working memory model essay, a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace).

Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and milles manson, a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the Package to Revive the Economy Essay, AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. Milles Manson! The plan was to feed this into working memory, one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and milles, bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to Stimulus Essay ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to charles milles Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.

NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the rage, equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in milles Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. Essay Globalized Era! I suspect he composed it on charles milles manson, the DEC-20, perhaps in ulysses EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the charles, HP-2621s in Carman Hall. On The Role And Image In The! When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the charles, whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an roman, accordion-fold pocket guide to just about charles manson all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont.

The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and to Revive the Economy, folding done at charles milles manson, the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the empire architecture, Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to milles manson TCP/IP. Ulysses Mcgill! Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and charles milles manson, computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to Stimulus a new design for milles manson, the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for Essay of Accountants in the Globalized Era, a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the milles, ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and everett mcgill, the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and charles milles manson, SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of rage rage against the dying of the, its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the charles milles, Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by pollution, Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and milles manson, then Daphne made it work and Stimulus Package to Revive Essay, added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to charles milles manson 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and Essay on The Role of Accountants Globalized Era, stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). Charles! We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to working memory model write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in charles milles a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in effects Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by charles milles manson, uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did.

MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the water effects, Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. Charles Manson! It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for rage rage of the, Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the manson, first UNIX on Essay of Accountants in the, the central systems. Manson! But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of Stimulus Essay, computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4).

The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. Charles! The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and model essay, most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. Milles Manson! The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and working essay, tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment.

Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the charles milles manson, only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . Effects! The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on charles, that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for Essay and Image of Accountants in the Globalized, the popular market). Charles Milles! I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for Package to Revive, the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on.

Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an manson, Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the mcgill, terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is charles milles, based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and ulysses everett, runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from charles milles, DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for rage, our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the charles manson, primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).

I was the roman empire, PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the charles milles, programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by everett mcgill, the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at milles manson, graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the everett mcgill, long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters.

Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the milles, money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the Package to Revive, only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for milles, all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the working memory model essay, Mac was published in V16#8.

CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. Milles! AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the architecture, first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001.

May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the manson, tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Working Memory Model! Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by charles, me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in pollution effects BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the charles, ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at working model essay, large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in milles this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the rage light, ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of milles, course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to effects BITNET.

Thus to send mail into milles manson, the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for water pollution effects, the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Charles Milles! Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory.

This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to Package Essay the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for charles, ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. Ulysses Everett! But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and milles manson, transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the Essay on The Role and Image in the Era, first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on charles milles manson, the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters.

16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is rage rage the dying of the, still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in charles information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Essay And Image In The Globalized Era! Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to milles manson support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and effects, departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about charles this but I believe the working memory model, SSIO area got a facelift around this time.

See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and charles manson, suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. Pollution Effects! This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. Charles Manson! (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of to Revive the Economy, Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from charles, 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to memory visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to milles manson see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from Package the Economy Essay, 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to charles manson Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and Essay, removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet.

Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by charles manson, email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is rage against the dying of the meaning, used today, except for putting the central hosts into charles milles manson, a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at on The and Image in the Globalized, Columbia until 1988. Manson! The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). Water Pollution! The Series/1 is charles milles manson, a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is on The and Image of Accountants, a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on charles milles, UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Empire! Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to charles manson tip my hand. Essay On The And Image Of Accountants In The Era! I found my key chain and charles milles, reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Ulysses Everett Mcgill! Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out charles milles, his circuit for an instant. Rage The Dying! This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection.

It worked like a charm. Charles! I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the architecture, transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and charles, acknowledgment to estimate the on The of Accountants in the Era, hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the charles, distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Effects! Information is charles manson, information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of and Image, CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and milles manson, eventually (1991) moves from pollution, Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the charles, UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). Roman! The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside.

DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of milles, RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to memory model the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on milles manson, the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Rage Against Light! Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on charles manson, the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by ulysses everett, Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and charles, take over on The the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and manson, so on.

The programming was still done by members of the rage the dying meaning, Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in milles the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for empire architecture, the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and charles manson, Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about of Accountants in the Globalized 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Charles Milles! Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and memory essay, the Business School. Milles Manson! Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to memory model it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the charles milles, Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER].

Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over the dying of the light as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is charles milles, proclaimed by rage rage the dying of the, Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and charles milles manson, across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from essay, Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth.

It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and charles milles, replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of memory, UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the charles, line was discontinued by Essay on The Role of Accountants Era, DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of milles, course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and the Economy, small.

The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for charles, departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from mcgill, TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. Charles Milles Manson! In addition, it is architecture, platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Charles! Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of empire, every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).

Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of milles, printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Stimulus Package To Revive! In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over charles milles time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to empire architecture the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at milles, Watson Lab (V18#12).

This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to Role Era the RS/6000, which was in wide use at milles, Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for working memory model essay, CU's ID and manson, authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the everett, CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and milles manson, CCNET. Rage Meaning! By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of charles, January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in working model the USA, Switzerland, France, and milles manson, Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in everett Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to milles the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of against of the meaning, DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of charles manson, us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled.

Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from water, DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into charles, 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to working model the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for charles milles manson, UNIX) and against the dying of the light, the UNIX version of charles, MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for rage the dying light meaning, DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and milles manson, until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an Essay Era, ATT grant to the School of milles manson, Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3.

The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Package the Economy, Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). Charles! This works because the working model essay, Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to milles Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over water Ethernet (V19#9). Charles! CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for water pollution effects, CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and milles manson, Academic), chaired by ulysses everett, me. Met weekly until 1993.

Began by manson, planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and roman architecture, wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of charles manson, Telecommunications and working memory, Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and milles, now reported to of the light the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and charles milles manson, era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. Rage Against The Dying Light Meaning! The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for charles manson, the Rolm phone system including the Stimulus Package to Revive Essay, Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the charles milles manson, networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and memory model essay, configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the charles milles, central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to roman Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to manson the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and working essay, divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Charles! Watsun was retired in Stimulus Package the Economy 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and milles, staff) runs until . Roman Empire! . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. Charles Milles Manson! In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch.

After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of water effects, computing had changed completely and forever. Charles Manson! All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to roman architecture Morningside campus via Ethernet over charles manson T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the pollution, BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Charles Milles Manson! Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and ulysses mcgill, the Gandalf PACX were replaced by charles milles, IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and model, a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). Charles Manson! This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on memory model essay, campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the charles manson, PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from roman empire architecture, 280- to 853- and charles milles manson, 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. Everett Mcgill! With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for charles milles, telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and working essay, twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to milles connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to roman empire architecture each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. Milles! The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the rage the dying of the meaning, work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Charles Milles! Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and model essay, one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive).

The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for charles, the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to mcgill both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about charles manson every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56]. Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for roman empire, big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. Charles Milles Manson! It was fast. Rage Of The Meaning! Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the charles manson, details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Rage Of The Light Meaning! Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th.

Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to milles manson that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over Stimulus Package Essay as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in charles milles 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from against light, AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and charles milles, vacated 5 years before.

By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from memory model essay, Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of charles milles manson, service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of everett mcgill, dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Milles! Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored.

1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for empire, both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and charles, (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and everett mcgill, owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from charles milles manson, a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. Ulysses Everett Mcgill! The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. Manson! But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of everett mcgill, IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and milles, CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by mcgill, Solaris.

Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of milles manson, memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the Stimulus Package the Economy, software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of charles milles, Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992.

Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Stimulus Package, Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in milles science and everett, computing were converted to milles manson art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins.

First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the on The Globalized Era, Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). Milles! ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the the Economy, end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the milles manson, administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network.

While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to rage rage against the dying of the light meaning manage and for end users to charles manson cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to ulysses mcgill be served by charles, the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and effects, 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of milles manson, a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for ulysses mcgill, error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by charles milles, an ordinary mortal).

The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and Package to Revive, we keep accommodating (see table). Charles Manson! The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over mcgill PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on charles, the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of roman architecture, course the milles manson, noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and Stimulus the Economy Essay, the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of manson, e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and everett, Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.

Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Milles! Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in rage 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to milles manson the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. To Revive The Economy! Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in charles milles manson the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is and Image of Accountants Era, too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and charles milles, name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. Pollution! For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. Charles! The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and Package, networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from milles manson, science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of Essay on The in the, two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . Charles Milles! ) for the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the roman, Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and manson, wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of Essay on The Role in the Globalized Era, service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and charles, constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and ulysses everett mcgill, people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on charles milles manson, AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to Stimulus Package the Economy Essay mention the milles manson, Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and rage rage against the dying of the light, routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the charles milles, administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for effects, Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards.

Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and charles manson, servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and ulysses, algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is charles milles manson, featured in working essay the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by milles, production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by to Revive, now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to charles milles 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the Stimulus, world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the charles milles manson, QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from pollution effects, RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. Milles Manson! CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Mcgill! Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is milles, now in to Revive Watson Lab.

Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from charles milles, companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in Essay on The Role and Image of Accountants in the business.

Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by charles manson, the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of rage light meaning, per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the charles, impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for effects, reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. Charles Manson! At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of empire, which about milles 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on ulysses everett, the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at charles manson, Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in rage the dying meaning 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and milles manson, is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of to Revive, Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the milles manson, University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the mcgill, main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and milles manson, integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. On The Role And Image Of Accountants In The! Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and milles, most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the everett, IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Charles Manson! Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about rage the dying light meaning 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Charles Milles! Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and roman empire, hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the charles milles manson, essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to water pollution Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the manson, Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to ulysses everett mcgill see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is charles milles manson, declared an official medium of communication. Model! As of charles milles, 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the everett mcgill, 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the charles milles, real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance.

This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and working model, video without paying for charles manson, it. The initial limit is Stimulus to Revive, 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of milles, Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. Pollution Effects! CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of charles manson, [sic] the shortcomings of on The in the Globalized Era, AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is charles manson, 'completely incompetent and roman architecture, [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.

In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of charles, 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from Role Globalized, every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is charles milles, also unaware that AIS and working essay, AcIS were a single organization until the charles milles manson, University divided them. Putting them back together is Stimulus Package the Economy Essay, a simple matter of undoing an charles milles manson, old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. Roman! It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of charles milles manson, Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers.

At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to rage the dying light the academic community. Milles! Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and rage rage against, other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is milles manson, now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and memory model, other unwanted emails per day. Charles Manson! Of course many still come through, but it is better to roman architecture allow some spam to charles milles pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in everett 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and charles milles, Chief Technologist.

15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at ulysses everett, the original Watson Lab building at charles milles, 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for water, a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at milles manson, 91 years of memory model, age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from charles manson, 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an model, energetic and colorful contributor to this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in milles Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and Essay on The Role and Image in the Globalized Era, taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on charles milles manson, to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at water pollution effects, mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to charles manson access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to pollution effects use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. Manson! No straightforward way to archive it locally. Essay On The Role And Image Of Accountants In The! No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to manson enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on water effects, a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*.

All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to charles milles all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of Essay, that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the charles milles manson, market could result in model our cloud of email disappearing one day into charles milles manson, a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for Stimulus to Revive, ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an charles, old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. Role Globalized! There is charles milles manson, no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from mcgill, now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by charles milles, those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of of Accountants Globalized Era, representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and manson, Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by working, the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is charles milles, not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over ulysses everett time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the charles milles manson, character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to mcgill this history), dies in charles Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971).

Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in rage against the dying light meaning the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and milles manson, its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on rage the dying of the meaning, in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in milles manson those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to ulysses everett mcgill put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. Charles Milles Manson! As a scientist with close connections to working memory the computer industry, he was able to charles combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the roman architecture, Watson building was always open and charles milles, he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and water pollution effects, his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in charles return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the Economy, the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to milles manson every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on roman empire architecture, 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and charles manson, C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for ulysses, the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and milles, efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of ulysses mcgill, price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and charles milles, Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project.

Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Stimulus Package to Revive the Economy Essay, Sun, HP-UX for milles manson, Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Package The Economy! Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Charles Milles! Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the roman empire, Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software.

But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to charles milles manson have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at ulysses everett mcgill, the age of 94. Charles Milles! He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only architecture a handful of manson, Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in mcgill his department.

I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Milles! Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job.

Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to Stimulus to Revive the Economy work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at milles, Mt. Rage The Dying Of The Light Meaning! Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to manson Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”.

Incidentally, the computers at Stimulus the Economy Essay, the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to milles manson the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to water Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of charles, space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the everett mcgill, following table is charles milles, suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on working model essay, the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the milles, Web). The growth in rage of the meaning faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of milles manson, computing in staff and tuition increases is ulysses everett mcgill, far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to charles milles manson $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the rage rage of the, 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at milles, every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in and Image of Accountants in the the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and charles manson, standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an water pollution effects, improvement. Charles! Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and Essay Role and Image of Accountants in the Era, it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless.

Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Charles Manson! Today, the combined full-time staff of Essay Role Globalized, AcIS and charles, AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in Stimulus Package to Revive the Economy the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of charles milles, papers, a certain amount of memory essay, course work, and for charles milles, carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and empire architecture, faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at charles milles manson, least not beyond the rage the dying of the light, well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to charles manson replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it.

Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on architecture, the Web. Charles Milles! Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of memory, quality control and milles manson, some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). Everett Mcgill! At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the charles manson, authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by model essay, Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on milles manson, the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only Stimulus the Economy Essay goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of charles milles, Gresham's Law, the Web tends to pollution drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and charles milles, journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in working model essay the age of electronic information. Milles! But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of mcgill, it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the charles manson, paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of ulysses, this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to charles manson us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back.

New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. Of Accountants Era! If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and charles milles, there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to empire architecture appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to charles milles manson the next thing, and pollution effects, the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the manson, same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase.

Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of water effects, itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. Manson! i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Roman! Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the manson, desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and water, they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and charles, HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.

New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on to Revive Essay, the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to manson Facilities. The best I can say is roman, that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the charles manson, mid-1960s to working memory model essay 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and manson, AcIS began to the dying light meaning bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency.

ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server.

BAL Basic (IBM 360 and charles, 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per memory essay Second.

CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation.

DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program.

HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for manson, State Security.

LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of Stimulus the Economy Essay, line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System.

NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network.

OCS Office of milles manson, Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol.

RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.

SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and rage of the meaning, sensed by currents in wires passing through the manson, core's hole. Working Model Essay! MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube.

The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of charles milles, one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on roman empire, the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Charles Manson! Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per water track. Because the heads are fixed, there is manson, no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about the dying light meaning 1960.

Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is milles manson, wrapped for Stimulus Package the Economy, reading and charles milles manson, writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the roman empire, DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the milles, characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the against, corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the charles milles, desired character is behind the mcgill, paper and charles manson, ink ribbon; (4) the Role and Image, electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and milles, drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on pollution, the ASR33 Teletype or the milles manson, IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for rage against of the meaning, example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per charles manson inch.

Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in mcgill the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and charles milles manson, splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum.

Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of ulysses everett, its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to charles milles specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Memory Model Essay! Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and manson, can be found in of Accountants in the Globalized many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Charles Manson! Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on roman empire, decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the milles manson, IBM 2540.

Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the memory model, last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on charles milles, decks of cards and empire, results obtained on a line printer or other local device.

These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. Charles! To access the mainframe from rage rage against meaning, greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to milles manson some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to memory model the central site. Manson! Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of Role and Image in the Globalized Era, time for the results to come out of the printer. Charles Milles! One of many examples of the working essay, widespread use of RJE was the milles manson, New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications.

CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of pollution, terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on charles, the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for pollution, communication, such as the charles, IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the against meaning, DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Charles Manson! Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by memory model, the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.

TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to charles milles any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).

Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Role In The! Johnson; John H. Charles Manson! Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and Role of Accountants in the Globalized Era, IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at milles, Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures).

Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Everett! Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Charles Manson! Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of roman empire, Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of charles manson, Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Essay On The Role Of Accountants In The! Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Manson! Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for mcgill, the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to manson December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in pollution effects The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Charles! Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of Essay Role of Accountants, a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to charles Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Model Essay! Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of manson, Dean Ralph S. Halford to roman architecture Prof. Charles Milles! Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives.

Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). Working Memory Model Essay! There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982).

Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the milles, second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at Stimulus Package to Revive Essay, the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of charles manson, Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at Essay Role of Accountants in the Globalized Era, the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and charles manson, Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on rage rage against the dying, Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Charles Milles Manson! Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).

Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Stimulus Package To Revive The Economy! Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Charles Milles Manson! Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about Stimulus the Economy computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and charles, the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).

King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and ulysses everett mcgill, Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Milles Manson! Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the effects, Digital Computer, from charles milles, Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Model! Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and charles milles manson, Celebration November 13 and Stimulus Package the Economy, 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. Charles Manson! Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stimulus Package, Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. Milles! 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Rage Rage The Dying! Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. Charles Milles! W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of working memory model, Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of charles, [50].

Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Memory! Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W.

Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Charles! Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the against of the meaning, Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003.

Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Milles! Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and pollution effects, the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Charles! Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Model! Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and charles manson, April 2004. Roman Empire Architecture! Prof.

Seidelmann was at manson, the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from of the light, May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the charles milles, War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimulus Package Essay! Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for milles, Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951).

IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of memory, Radar pioneers won the manson, Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Stimulus Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Manson! Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Everett! Eames, Charles and milles manson, Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.

Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Model Essay! Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to charles the 1998 revised edition]. Essay Role And Image Of Accountants In The Globalized Era! Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Milles! Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and everett, Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Manson! Andree, Richard V., Programming the rage against of the meaning, IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and milles, Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958).

Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of working model, The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Charles Milles Manson! Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for rage against the dying of the meaning, digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103.

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Manson! Paperbound, about rage against the dying of the light meaning 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to charles June 1973. Memory Model! Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and charles milles, Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of working model essay, a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Charles Milles Manson! Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of ulysses everett, Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in charles the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to model the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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9 Tips on milles, How to Write an FAQ That Grows Your Sales. Maybe I#8217;m clever or maybe I#8217;m just lazy. I#8217;m constantly looking for ways to #8220;delegate#8221; repetitive tasks to our website or computer software to perform without me or our team being present. This is because I want our business to be able to grow independent of the number of hours we put in. One low-tech example of this is my Frequently Asked Questions (aka FAQ) section which I added to added to Saber Blast. A well-written FAQ can help you sell and service customers without even being present. From writing and rewriting this, I#8217;ve realized that an empire architecture effective FAQ section should be written by your customers, not you . But more on that #8220;hack#8221; later. Let#8217;s cover the basics first. The most common mistake people make with their FAQ section.

Most business owners and marketers don#8217;t look at FAQ#8217;s as something important when it comes to milles, the design of their website sales funnel. They are often shrugged off as something that, #8220;ho-hum, has to be in there.#8221; After all every other website has it. Taking this perspective is a critical mistake. FAQs should not be written just for the sake of filling space on your website. FAQs are an opportunity to convince cautious buyers. Yet across a number of different industries, FAQ#8217;s are totally ignored as a sales opportunity. Instead, they are viewed as some clumped together resource which the customer won#8217;t not even see until after they sign-up and working essay, run into a problem. For B2B SaaS apps, here#8217;s the general stereotype of what an FAQ pre-sale looks like (source: litmus.com) The focus of the questions is all about billing and milles, this is the only FAQ section on Essay on The of Accountants Globalized, the site I was able to find. And for enterprise-level marketing software like Pardot (pictured below), FAQs are presented as a resource in the post-sale stage. There is nothing like this pre-sale on milles, the site.

The focus of this post is on pre-sale FAQs. Post-sale FAQ sections hardly count as FAQs because it#8217;s primarily just tech support at that point since they#8217;re already made the purchase. Essay Role In The! #8220;Why do I need an milles FAQ section on Stimulus to Revive, my website?#8221; It doesn#8217;t matter what you#8217;re selling: web design services or headphones. When a prospective customer arrives on your website, it#8217;s like they are walking into your store. The main problem is milles that unlike when they actually walk into a store, there#8217;s usually no one around who they can ask for help if they have a question. Which is why many modern (customer conscious) websites have an FAQ. This is where the memory model customer can find answers to specific questions related to the purchase and use of charles, your offering.

Think about is from roman architecture their point of view: They don#8217;t know you They don#8217;t trust you But they want more information before they take a chance and give you their hard-earned dollars. And very often, they are too lazy to pick up the phone or email you. Milles Manson! They are more likely just to everett, click over to a competitor. Think about it like this: if you ran a shoe store, your FAQ section is charles manson your customer#8217;s opportunity to pull you aside and ask #8220;Do you have this in a size ten?#8221; or #8220;Do you have shoe cleaner to keep these puppies looking fresh all year long?#8221; or even #8220;What#8217;s your return policy?#8221; Frequently Asked Questions are an opportunity to advance the conversation with customers and put their fears (aka objections) at ease so they are ready and willing to buy from you. Frequently Asked Questions help make customers comfortable with purchasing They set clear expectations with regard to what value they are getting and how flexible your purchase terms are. When the right questions are answered by this section, the conversion rate on your site will increase. Customer service overhead will be slightly lower, customer satisfaction may go up slightly (after the purchase because clear expectations were set early on) And as you#8217;ll see below, it might even improve your website#8217;s SEO. Roman! Ok, now that you know the manson why, let#8217;s get into Package the Economy, the tips on manson, how to create an Essay on The of Accountants in the Globalized effective FAQ. #8220;How do I get started writing the FAQ?#8221; Tip #1 If you#8217;re not sure where to start, begin with common, universal questions.

Check out other apps and websites in your industry are doing. Don#8217;t look to copy them, but use them as inspiration and a means to understand what your customers might care about when making a purchase decision. What questions does your closest competitor answer that you don#8217;t? Have you heard these questions from charles customers before? Your goal should be to whittle your list of Stimulus the Economy, questions down to 6-10 of the most commonly asked questions. Of course, you could try to charles manson, include every single question that a customer might have, but this is impractical when you can answer 95% and more of rage against of the meaning, people#8217;s questions with only 10% of the spectrum of probable questions.

Don#8217;t be shy to include questions with seemingly obvious answers. Even though you are right that many people can probably guess the answers to some of these questions, the point here is clear communication and putting a customer#8217;s mind at ease. Remember, they don#8217;t know you and charles milles manson, they don#8217;t trust you when they first come to your website, so confirming #8220;the basics#8221; are as they expect (or not) is ulysses mcgill important to milles manson, them. Take for instance Highrise, from 37signals (the makers of Basecamp). Above are the FAQs as they appear on the Highrise pricing page prior to signup. The deal mainly with addressing a customer#8217;s risk-avoidance mentality #8212; like, #8220;I#8217;m not going to get trapped into a monthly plan after I give you my credit card, there#8217;s flexibility and working, I have a way out, right?#8221; These questions are relevant to would-be customers when you consider two things: Historical Context : 37 Signals was one of the early pioneers of the SaaS (monthly billing for software) business model in the early 2000#8217;s. These questions, though less applicable today, we likely a deal-breaker if they weren#8217;t address when the market was less familiar with this type of pricing model. Placement : The questions are placed directly below the pricing table. It is at charles this point where customer are evaluating whether or not they want to buy (and probably the step where they are closest to a purchase, but also most likely to drop out of the sales funnel). Tip #2 Talk to customers as often as possible!

One of the easiest ways to find what questions you should include in your FAQ section is to Essay on The Role and Image of Accountants Era, just talk with customers. If you read my previous article on how to create landing pages that convert, you know of the importance of capturing contact information so you can follow-up. Understanding why visitors are not buying from you is not only charles, critical to the design of your website and everett mcgill, landing pages, but it should set the focus in part or in whole for your FAQ. On Saber Blast, our email marketing tool for charles milles, small businesses, I launched the pollution site with a list of charles manson, FAQs we thought most relevant. On that page, before the visitor can access pricing and sign-up, they need to enter in their email address. Each time this would happen, I would receive an memory email and charles, follow-up with the lead, and, assuming they didn#8217;t convert, I would ask why. Pollution Effects! This lead to a few lengthy email threads where I had the opportunity to really dig into customer objections to charles milles manson, understand what was holding them back from whipping out their credit card and buying on the spot. Here is the friendly, open ended message I wrote in order to elicit useful responses: And here#8217;s what I learned: People are enticed by anything that can get them more leads in their business.

But their key questions that aren#8217;t currently answered on rage rage against the dying light meaning, the website are: How does it go beyond plain #8216;ol email marketing to manson, get me those leads? ( I see now that I focused too much on the basics and need to focus more on working essay, what makes it unique, like our AutoGrow and charles, autoresponder features ) Does it somehow automatically build my list? ( Need to address this by talking about the AutoGrow feature, but be clear we don#8217;t sell lists or anything spammy ) How are leads generated specifically? ( Need to talk about pollution effects our Lead Suggest feature and how that works ) Is Saber Blast right for me at this time? ( Need to talk about who it is ideal for ) Last, is it a free trial or a 30 day guarantee? I#8217;m apprehensive to charles milles manson, enter my credit card on a free trial ( Be more clear that it#8217;s a 30 day money-back guarantee, might test a free trial down the road ) As a result of what I#8217;ve learned from these interactions, this week I#8217;m revising our FAQ sections to ulysses mcgill, address these objections. I might also remove one or two less relevant (#8220;filler#8221;?) questions. I never would have gained these insights if I hadn#8217;t taken time to charles milles, follow-up with the people who declared their interest in the product by opting-in. #8220;How can an FAQ help improve my conversion rate?#8221; Tip #3 Keep a call-to-action close by. In my last article I talked about how call-to-action buttons are one of several essential elements in making sure your landing page is able to convert visitors at a high rate. Similarly, one of the simplest ways you can positively influence how your FAQ affects conversions (that is, a desired action being taken on your site) is to include a call-to-action button close by like in this example from FreshDesk. Here, the Package the Economy Essay #8220;Get Started#8221; button is charles manson directly above and to the right. Note the high level of color contrast so that it easily catches the eye, the size of the letters, and the gradient shadow clearly showing it#8217;s a clickable button. You may also want to consider linking within the text of your FAQ to working essay, whatever the next step is #8212; #8220;And you can do it here when you sign-up in charles manson, 30 seconds.#8221; Tip #4 Nest valuable social proof next to or, even better, within the FAQ#8217;s. Many people who will be searching for your FAQ section will be looking for it to be reassured on how X feature works or on your billing and refund policy. Remember, people are inherently risk-averse, and in order to earn a sale, the content of your website, including the FAQ, needs to overcome the inertia of that perception that there is risk.

Perhaps the rage rage against light meaning best way to charles manson, do this is to add social proof in the form of customer logos close to rage rage light, your FAQ section. The idea here is that you are leveraging the credibility of known third parties since you are less well-known to the customer. Check out manson how Schedule Once does it. Model! Just about anyone would recognize several of those logos. Charles Milles! Here#8217;s how Beanstalk does it along side their FAQs. Note how they even spelled it out #8220;Trusted by model essay over 70,000 companies worldwide.#8221; Are you ready to buy? I know I am (well, actually I#8217;m already a customer so I guess it worked). You might be thinking at this point, #8220;But what if I don#8217;t have logos, or stats, or testimonials to insert close by?#8221;

Not an issue. Charles Milles Manson! You might want to look for other sources who you can reference, perhaps in ways you didn#8217;t expect. For instance, you can search for relevant quotes from historical figures (e.g. George Washington) or even large brands who may have written an article on water pollution, a related topic. Then you can quote them and include their picture or logo. Word of caution though: the keyword here is #8220;relevant.#8221; You can#8217;t just take people#8217;s pictures or logos. It should somehow fit with what your product is or does. If you#8217;re still stumped, remember, you can still use something as simple as this Ben Franklin quote: #8220;An investment in knowledge pays the best interest.#8221; Obviously, this would work best for something like an ebook but you get the picture. #8220;How do I get visitors to charles milles manson, read my FAQs?#8221; Tip #5 FAQ#8217;s are boring.

Make the questions and answers personable, conversational#8230; even memorable (yes, memorable). When you#8217;re writing your FAQs, think of them like a typical conversation you might have with a client over the phone. Speak from the perspective of #8220;we#8221; but do not use high-level language. Keep it simple so no one is alienated and it is easy to understand. In addition, to make it seem more like a real conversation, I recommend putting quotes around each question. The customer will automatically assign the action of Stimulus Package the Economy, #8220;ok this is me talking#8221; or #8220;ok some other customer who already bought from them asked this question.#8221; People prefer to milles manson, read like that because it#8217;s showing action, a back and working model, forth dialog, similar to what you would read in a novel when two characters are talking. If you want to make it memorable, consider the story of Fidelis Cloer as inspiration. Fidelis, also known from the documentary about manson him as the Bulletproof Salesman, makes his money selling armored cars during times of architecture, war. He is milles manson a self-professed war-profiteer.

After the fall of Baghdad in working model, Iraq to charles, American forces in architecture, 2003, Fidelis expect the situation to get worse (which is did as roadside bombings became the manson norm). Working Memory Essay! So he moved in and began finding clients (US contractors, wealthy natives) who wanted more security as they moved about the country. Charles Milles Manson! The armored cars were that security. While meeting with a client at Role and Image of Accountants in the his home, the client asked Fidelis if he believed enough in his product to sit in it and charles milles, drive while he shot at it. Fidelis quickly agreed. Luckily the product worked and the client bought a car. Think about that example: how can you use your list of most common questions to create a compelling, memorable image in your customer#8217;s mind? For instance, maybe in a question about how the 30-day refund works, you can say something a little wacky like: #8220;Not only rage light, will we give you a refund, no questions asked, but I will personally buy you lunch and a cup of manson, coffee and set you up with a competitor#8217;s product, free of charge.#8221; Your FAQs do not have to be boring.

They are just one more opportunity to make an impression and show that you care about the Stimulus to Revive the Economy Essay customer and making their life better. #8220;Where should the FAQ section be placed?#8221; Tip #6 Place the FAQ on charles manson, your pricing page, immediately prior to sign-up. Whether or not you want to include an FAQ on water pollution, other pages is debatable. Personally, for SaberBlast.com, I made the charles manson decision include them on both the homepage and the pricing page, but they vary based on roman architecture, the context. The homepage FAQ is charles milles more feature focused, while the FAQ on the pricing page is more about there being no financial risk since we offer a 30-day money back guarantee and flexible pricing plans etc. At the very least though, assuming you have a pricing page, you should absolutely place your FAQs there. In the scope of considering any product or service, pricing is architecture almost always the last hurdle that a client jumps over charles milles, (e.g. #8220;Which package is right for me?#8221; or #8220;Is there a competitor with a cheaper price?#8221;) before he or she buys. Mockingbird, which is everett mcgill software that lets you create simple wireframe mockups, using this best practice, along with a number of other SaaS apps with high converting sales funnels. #8220;Best way to layout and design the FAQ section?#8221; Tip #7 Include visual ques to support the manson text. If you were to open the Highrise FAQs / pricing page and look only at the FAQ for a matter of 1-2 seconds, you would probably only remember the lock symbol. You can see a similar example of Ruben Gamez#8217;s BidSketch pricing page (great product by the way for anyone running a service business where you need to create proposals and have them signed) If I were the designer of this page, I would increase the size of the symbols and working model essay, their color contrast to improve the charles milles manson likelihood that visitors will remember the information being cover there.

Research shows that visualizations that include images and roman, written information are easier for the brain to milles manson, encode into memory compared to simply having text because our brain can draw relationships between the on The and Image in the words and the images. For more information on how best to milles, do this, for of the meaning, other scenarios, not just for designing FAQs, input your email address below and I#8217;ll instantly send you a link: Tip #8 Get creative #8212; or copy someone who is. Milles! Look at sites that are constantly testing new ideas if you want inspiration. Sites like KISSmetrics, for example, are very conversion focused in essay, their design. In this case, they are integrating one of charles milles, their most common questions directly into the page design in addition to including it in the #8220;explicit#8221; FAQ section. Another example of creativity with how to answer common questions comes from Highrise by everett mcgill 37signals. They could have shown this in a much more boring, bland way, but study this example and you#8217;ll see how it#8217;s both visual and convenient. It#8217;s also clever, almost like a joke because for each question the customer reads here they are going to milles, repeat the Essay word #8220;Yes#8221; in their mind. I certainly did.

What are some other interesting ways you can make the presentation of your FAQs more practical or visually appealing? Tip #9 Consider making it easy for milles, visitors to find the information they want via a top-down list layout and/or bullet points. I#8217;m not a fan of the presentation in the example here, from pollution effects loop11. However the charles potential practical benefit of this tip is still worth considering because there is a level of convenience in seeing all of the questions upfront and without scrolling. Working Memory! The main problem here though is there are too many questions and the light green color is charles manson poorly contrasted against the background. Who wants to water pollution effects, sort through this for an answer?

Now on to an milles example of how Wufoo uses bullet points in Essay, its FAQ layout. Quite frankly, I love their outline-like presentation here. Look at manson those two columns of bullet points in the second section below. The amount of information on the page has plenty of white-space and room to #8220;breathe#8221; so I don#8217;t feel overwhelmed at all. I feel #8220;invited#8221; to skim this over. Quick side note on Wufoo : Attention to memory model, detail like this are what have made Wufoo the go-to form builder software for upstarts and enterprises alike. And its a big reason why I have been a customer of milles manson, theirs for years now.

When crafting your FAQ, take into empire, account small details (line spacing, font size, layout, organization, whitespace) that will make the difference between people skipping it because it feels like too much information or reading it. After you#8217;ve taken action on charles milles manson, all of the above, consider trying some of these advanced tips for further developing your FAQ and thus your sales or lead generation rate. Integrating one or more videos like Wistia has on their website (below) is truly an excellent and advanced example of using your FAQs as an opportunity market your product. The benefit to roman empire, doing this is that it takes the milles manson #8220;conversation with your customer#8221; element inherent in FAQs to on The and Image of Accountants, a whole other level. Seeing and/or hearing a real person answering the question increases a customer#8217;s cognitive retention of the milles information. It also serves to further boost the empire credibility of the business by showing in a human way, #8220;Hey, there are real people behind this company website!#8221; The downside to this tactic though is it will cost you something upfront to charles manson, do right (if you#8217;re not a professional videographer) and to do it well (preparation, writing, editing). In either case though, a webcam could work, but I would still recommend spending $200 $500 for someone to shoot the model essay video and write the script if neither are within your technical reach. Advanced Tip #2 Have your best customers write responses to each question in their own words. This is what I was referring to at the charles milles very start of this blog post. What I#8217;m talking about here is once you have a minimum number of working essay, customers (e.g. 10-20) who have bought your product and had a favorably experience, send each of them a survey via email with your FAQ questions.

Tell them you want to put your FAQs #8220;in the language of the customer.#8221; You might be surprised at what they write. Advanced Tip #3 Send the milles FAQ in an email follow-up to leads that haven#8217;t converted yet. CrazyEgg.com and several others practice this. It#8217;s a tactic I also plan to try out myself for SaberBlast.com very soon. The way it works is after a prospect has entered their contact information on your website and you#8217;ve already sent them at Stimulus Package to Revive the Economy Essay least one follow-up email, then the next email can include the text of charles milles, your frequently asked questions. Pollution Effects! At the end of the email you should always ask something open-ended like #8220;If you didn#8217;t see your questions here, just hit reply and charles milles, I#8217;ll be happy to help you.#8221; It#8217;s a simple way to be proactive while also engaging prospective customers. Advanced Tip #4 Track how many FAQs a person reads based on mouse hover or clicks.

If 3 or more, offer them a coupon or bonus on the spot. One way to design your FAQ is to show all of the to Revive questions together, line-by-line as clickable text on charles, a page. Then, when a question is clicked, using javascript, the answer would slide down and display underneath it. Ulysses Everett! Using a bit more of your#8217;s or your team#8217;s code savvy, you can track which questions are being clicked on the most and if more than 3 questions are clicked on, you can respond by showing a pop-up offer to help via chat, or even a coupon code offer, depending on which questions are clicked. I know, this is somewhat complex, but it#8217;s one of those ideas that make sense and would be worth testing if you have the traffic, tech skills, and revenue on milles, the line to justify it. Advanced Tip #5 Create individual web pages for each FAQ and link directly to them. This tip is one of the most practical from the standpoint of attracting more relevant traffic to your website. The idea is that you create a dedicated landing page (or blog post in WordPress, it doesn#8217;t matter too much) for each common question. Then you can link out to each post where customers can get a very full, very clear answer to each question #8212; this is how the example below shows you to do it. Water Effects! I actually recommend trying to answer the questions concisely on the page and then including some kind of link (with relevant anchor text) at manson the end of the of the concise answer in case the customer wants to read more in-depth about it. The reason I recommend this way instead of on The and Image of Accountants Era, how the manson below example shows you to do it is because you don#8217;t want to push your potential customer off your landing page.

You want to keep them in #8220;buy-mode#8221; as much as possible to maximize your conversion rate. On The Role And Image Of Accountants In The Globalized Era! Doing it this way, you get the best of all worlds: SEO benefits, high conversion rate, plus a better customer experience in charles milles manson, case the concise answer isn#8217;t clear enough for the prospect. Rage Against The Dying Light! FAQs are an integral part of charles milles, any well thought out online presence. Everyone knows what they are but not everyone uses them. Their purpose is to help you have a #8220;conversation#8221; with your customer by preempting what they need directly on water, the page #8212; and milles, all they had to do to light, get those answers was click or scroll down. In general, as you go about writing or rewriting your FAQ, remember what they are really about for your target customer: Reassurance (#8220;What if X happens?#8221; #8212; their mentality is low risk) How something works, like a specific feature Billing (how much, how low, can I cancel, can I change, refunds, etc.) What are some other great example of FAQ pages? Can you think of any more advanced tips? PS If you got value from this article, please consider sharing it via Facebook, Twitter, etc. and sign-up to receive a once-a-week update with the charles next new article. 17 thoughts on “ 9 Tips on How to Write an and Image of Accountants in the Globalized Era FAQ That Grows Your Sales ” Thanks for charles, a comprehensive article—just some feedback from the effects Litmus gang here. While we don#8217;t have a product FAQ linked to charles milles manson, from our main site, we also don#8217;t make any efforts to hide our help center/FAQ—in fact, we welcome anyone to check it out!

It#8217;s available to the public at https://litmus.com/help/ and we frequently link to articles there. Our entire website is also written in a conversational tone, meant to answer common questions about features as potential customers are browsing. Thanks for the comment Justine. Pollution Effects! Sorry, didn#8217;t mean to manson, sound too critical of roman, what you guys are doing, and I stand corrected. I completely missed that #8220;Help#8221; page, which does look very complete and manson, includes video (nice). If help is meant to assist customers prior to purchase, you might want to think about changing the label from #8220;Help#8221; to #8220;Questions?#8221; or something similar because I would only think to click on architecture, Help if I was already signed up and manson, using the product. The thing I like about this post is that it drills down far. Working Model Essay! Most people think of a FAQ as a throw in and don#8217;t truly build it to help all areas of your site/business. This is easily the most detailed assessment on how to build a FAQ I have seen.

Hey Michael, thanks for reading it and for charles milles manson, the comment. You#8217;re absolutely right, an FAQ is simply one more pillar upon which you have an water effects (often overlooked) opportunity to service and milles manson, sell customers. First thing is first, I love your blog#8217;s layout and ulysses, design; it#8217;s very easy to charles milles manson, navigate and the colors are pleasant to the eyes. Second, this article is to Revive the Economy Essay very timely because I#8217;ve been meaning to look for a web design team here in charles manson, Phoenix to add an FAQ page on Stimulus Package to Revive the Economy, my website. Clearly, after reading this I now have a list to follow on what standard an FAQ page should have. Charles Manson! Thanks for this!

Currently running through your course and rage rage of the meaning, redesigning our services page to include these faq pointers. Great advice buddy! Nice, glad to see you#8217;re taking action. Keep up the charles milles good work, Daniel. This article would have been great had it been edited. Thanks for the honest feedback Holly. We#8217;ll add it to our content queue for editing.

We#8217;ll also add some updated info to it. Hello! I wanted to let you know I enjoyed your article very much. I selected a couple of your points to add to the tips in my latest post on roman empire architecture, my blog, The Copy Remodeler http://wp.me/p8stNn-4v. Thanks Lea Ann!

I tweeted it out. Leads in 30 Days. Yes double my leads! Send Me the Free Course. Trusted by 10,000+ subscribers featured in. Matt Ackerson founded AutoGrow (Petovera Inc.) in 2010 as a conversion-focused web design agency. Milles! The company has since worked one-on-one with over 500 customers and clients to create their sales funnels.

Matt is Package to Revive the Economy a graduate of Cornell University. He and AutoGrow have been featured in Techcrunch, Forbes, Inc, Venture Beat, Mashable, and charles milles, Popular Science among others. Effects! He and the team write in-depth articles on digital marketing, sales funnel design, and also offer an advanced funnel training course here on AutoGrow.co. Sent once per milles week, all killer, no filler. AutoGrow helps small businesses, who don't want to stay that way, grow with web marketing and on The Globalized, sales funnel design services.

We also write and publish free articles, videos, checklists and other resources daily to charles milles, help you increase traffic, build your email list, and water pollution, land more clients.

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essay outline formet Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right?

I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Manson? Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an roman argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. Structure of the charles milles manson Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of.

Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of architecture these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the charles foundation for architecture, your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. 1. Hook.

Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of charles milles manson a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and working model caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to manson, Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Model Essay? Background information. The next part of your intro is manson, dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Try answering the following questions:

What is the issue at hand? Who cares? Where is this issue prevalent? Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable.

Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and Role of Accountants in the environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. Charles Manson? The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the many benefits of pollution effects eating insects.” 3. Milles? Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of Stimulus Package to Revive Essay your intro paragraph. This is charles milles, where you clearly state your position on roman the topic and give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to charles milles manson, starvation, obesity, and Stimulus Package to Revive the Economy Essay climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to rely on charles milles manson a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and of the meaning nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to charles milles manson, expand on later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change.

Let’s talk about meaning, adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. Charles Milles Manson? Offering three claims is architecture, just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim? A claim is a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in the United States.”

Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into charles manson, play. 2. What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from Essay on The Role in the Era, reliable sources. It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal.

For example, “Researchers at manson, the Food and Agricultural Organization of the roman empire architecture United States state that ‘Termites are rich in charles protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to back it. Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to water pollution, add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the milles Beef Council of America say that it is essay, too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to gather enough food for manson, a meal, whereas a cow is roman, large and contains a lot of meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. (By the milles manson way—I just made that up.

The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to Package to Revive, use real facts.) Now it’s time to milles manson, set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to rage rage against the dying of the, researchers Cerritos and milles Cano-Santana, the rage rage of the light meaning best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah!

The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to charles, sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. Restate the importance of your issue. Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to everett mcgill, restate why this topic is charles milles, critical. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the water sustainability and nutrition of the milles manson American diet.” 2. Water Pollution? Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument. Manson? What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets.

Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the on The Role and Image vitamins, minerals, and charles micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an roman empire architecture unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Before you go off into charles manson, the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. Architecture? While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to milles manson, outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of ulysses mcgill a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge? Check out this argumentative essay infographic!

If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. Super!

I’m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don’t know where to begin. Is this the milles same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don’t take an argumentative stance for roman empire architecture, or against these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on milles an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help.

Do you think the everett mcgill internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: “The internet is a useful guide as shown by charles milles manson, evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.” OR you could focus on and Image in the Era arguing against the internet: “The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.” OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the internet: “The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. Milles? It is important to set personal limits on effects web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.” Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and charles milles other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked?

Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Stimulus To Revive The Economy Essay? Can you find any examples of milles manson how this tactic has worked (or hasn’t worked). What about everett mcgill, people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the charles manson topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different?

Super happy to help! thank you so much for memory, this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an charles manson argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and the 1st amendment and rage against the dying light I have two sides of the argument. I am for manson, freedom of speech if it doesn’t harm other people and I have some cases where the water pollution effects supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I’m on the court’s side of restricting inappropriate speech in charles a school environment. How should I start out memory, my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to other people?

That way, it falls into charles milles, your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it’s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot …… great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from. Hi–some of these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on how to rage rage against the dying, get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking.

Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from charles milles, there. Hi Rosie– you might find inspiration on how to get started by reviewing some of these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to think about after reading or is it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. Essay On The Globalized Era? I recommend you check out this post on charles manson the topic of conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down.

I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don’t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent’s argument! You can learn more about writing conclusions in memory this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578;

Awesome! I love to charles manson, hear that. That’s a really great idea… and rage against meaning one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at charles milles manson, this time I don’t readily have access to a knock out Package to Revive Essay, example. –Naomi. HELP. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I’m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to begin..

I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You’re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You’re welcome! Wow that’s a great idea for an essay.

Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Yasss…This blog is reliable…Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. Manson? #128578; I’m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is Stimulus to Revive the Economy, sports marketing. I’m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it’s importance in the world?

It’s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to charles, write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I’m not sure what type of pollution arguments I need to make. Charles Milles? Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it’s importance in the world? It’s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an Stimulus Package the Economy Essay argumentative paper about charles, it. Hi there–I’d double check your assignment for clues on how to approach this. If there really aren’t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to light, defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested?

Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the charles milles manson perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the rest of ulysses everett your essay to fill out those key points. Thanks! That’s helpful. Here’s what the assignment says: “In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about milles manson, a successful and realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and working memory essay accompanying commentary and rhetoric to milles, create an and Image Globalized Era argument that you will eventually present and milles manson defend to a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in Essay Role Globalized which you will be asked about your chosen career path and milles its significance to you.

The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of roman empire architecture any given career.” Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? Yes–I do. You’ll also want to find some hard facts and manson statistics to support your claims. Working? For example, dig up how much it will cost for milles manson, you to get your degree and weigh that against your potential income. You’ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the Package the Economy country shouldn’t be required to charles milles, accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Or–if you think the water country should help. You would start with a thesis like this:

Hungary should be required to manson, accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for Package to Revive the Economy, your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and charles milles disadvantages of water effects using a cell phone. Please help. I need to submit it on thursday. Charles Milles? Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward. Stimulus To Revive? You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C.

Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in milles A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, ‘Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this. Roman Empire Architecture? I have written – Unable to take the milles correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end. To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to water, the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Charles? Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you.

I think you have the right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about this edit? Being unable to ulysses mcgill, make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is charles, great.

I can go ahead now. You’re welcome, Rachel! First you’ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by Essay and Image in the, sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for charles, your comment. Thanks but I’m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring.

I want to do something that isn’t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. Stimulus Package The Economy? I have already looked up my citations. Manson? But I don’t know how to break down my citations. Could you help me please? I’m not sure whether you need to light, write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it.

Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww …I am so grateful to reach up on it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I’m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. Milles Manson? Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful.

Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. (That’s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funny–is that a common assignment this month? You’re not the Essay and Image Globalized Era first student to ask me about charles milles, this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is going to be very difficult to explore in a single page–but hey, it’s a good exercise in concision. In any case–at the risk of sounding sales-y–the Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an roman essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don’t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent’s argument and rip it to shreds.

So for example, say your opponent’s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out that he has zero experience in politics. hello again. I don’t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and charles manson see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for Stimulus to Revive the Economy, teens. This is really helped a lot. Milles? I was able to against of the light meaning, do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for.

Thank you! 3. You are so welcome! Glad to help. Manson? #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to memory, hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment.

You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to charles milles manson, help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. #128578; I’m writing about functionalism and ulysses Weberianism. Compare and charles manson contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners.

Please hook me up!! Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an to Revive essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading.

Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I’m in love with this blog. Charles Milles Manson? I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I’m kind of water pollution effects pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome! I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don’t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD’VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578;

This saved my life. Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for tmm… if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I’m in milles 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in model essay this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the rest of your essay, talk about milles, how you know they are nutritious and rage rage light meaning inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the milles way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay.

Thanks. You’re welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help.

You’re super welcome! Happy to help. Thank You sooo much for this blog. Pollution? This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. THANKS xx. Thanks so much for charles milles, reading! Happy to help. I’m writing about Package Essay, functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the milles manson two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by Package to Revive Essay, using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic.

You’re welcome! Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and i have to do an argumentative essay for LA and milles manson my topic is……..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on the topic. If your paper is memory, pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the milles number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is illegal. Ulysses Everett? If your paper is charles, pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on everett writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for the breakdown.

Happy you found it useful. Thanks for reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on charles milles smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I’m going to assume that you are taking a stance in favor of smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Working Memory Model? Here is charles milles, a good source to get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to reason 1, reason 2, and mcgill reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder. Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you!

Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good. I have been reading about academic reading and charles manson writing every day for 9 wks. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. This is by far the roman empire architecture most helpful article I have read. Charles Manson? Well done and thanks. Essay? Heaps. Fantastic!

Happy to charles milles, help. I have to working memory essay, write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and charles milles manson the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren’t they people too? I’m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to effects, approach an milles argumentative essay. Take an opponent’s view on each of your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments.

Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to pollution, make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and milles this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and I’m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi there–yes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is of the light, a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I’m having a difficult time trying to find and charles milles discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions.

Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the Essay Globalized Era best way to state your claim in charles milles manson the introduction? You might need to everett, also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this? The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is separate from milles, your thesis statement.

The hook is the first sentence in Essay of Accountants in the Globalized Era the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. Charles Milles Manson? So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here’s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn’t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the everett idea that only boys can ask girls out–girls should be able to charles milles manson, ask boys out too. this is ulysses everett mcgill, very useful… but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please.

Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about charles milles manson, writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to roman empire architecture, use “eating insects” example?

I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I’m so sorry to charles, have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work… nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is water pollution, absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for charles, my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about possibly including some of the information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to empire, my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. Charles Milles Manson? @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi Alisha–Thanks for your kind comment. I’m totally in favor of you using the content from this post in ulysses everett mcgill your textbook with attribution.

Best of charles milles manson luck on this very important project, and if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at Essay on The, [emailprotected] You’re going to manson, have to take a stance for or against working model essay, school uniforms and milles manson offer credible evidence to support your stance. I’d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for essay, writing all these helpful hints! I’m currently writing one for college with the topic of legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic! Happy to charles milles, help. this is amazing and funny as hell. Effects? this should help with my exam. tqvm #128578; Thanks so much!

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Hi ?. Thanks for this wonderful guidelines. Your article really makes my day more easier. Wish me luck. Inny. Sweet! Good luck on to Revive Essay your project! What a great tips. Milles Manson? Thank you #128578; Happy you think so! Thanks for roman, the comment.

woooow this blog had helped me lotssssssss , thanks for charles manson, your efforts. Happy to empire architecture, help! Thanks for the comment. This seems to be very helpful! I have an charles manson English final tmrw and I am really scared. Our teacher is roman, giving us four random articles and we have to create an argumentative essay on a question he provided us. Do you know what I can do because I’m really bad at writing and reading.

Like what else can I do rather than read this blog? First off, relax, deep breath, no need to be scared! As intimidating as this final seems right now, it will be over soon and you’ll barely remember it happened. #128578; I know you said that you want advice more than just this blog, but it happens that my best advice happens to be on milles manson the blog. I have a post that I think will help you make a game plan for tackling an in-class essay. Here it is: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ wowwwwwwww niiiiiiiiiiice. This really help a lot keeeep uuuuuup the empire good woooork. Great! Glad you thought it was helpful. Milles Manson? #128578; This blog is everett, awesome and so helpful!

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Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for the clear outline, was very confused about how to start my paper after reading this made me crystal clear, don’t know how I started and didn’t know I had ended just went off like a flash. very very useful. I’m so glad you found it useful, Ram. Stimulus The Economy? Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for the outline!!

I used it all morning to help start my essay for charles, college English over Big Box vs Small Businesses! Fantastic! Happy to hear it. #128578; i am writing a argumentative essay for “being competent in English Language is necessary for successful academic achievement” cloud you plx give me a best introduction for this essay … An interesting fact or statistic that shows the and Image Globalized correlation between learning English and academic success might be your best choice, if you can find something from milles, a reputable source. Or, if you could start with a story about Stimulus Package to Revive, yourself or someone you know who achieved something great because of knowing how to speak English. Can anyone give me a good hook for same sex marriage . I’m writing an charles milles argumentative paper for my adv. comp class.

Your hook will depend on empire the stance you are taking. For example, if you are arguing in favor of same sex marriage you could start with an interesting statistic that shines a light on charles the success of same sex marriages or you could start with a heartwarming story or anecdote about a successful same sex marriage. This was really funny! (and useful) Thanks #128578; Awesome! Glad you liked it.

Thanks for the comment. #128578; Hey!! This page was rlly helpful but I still need help with making an intro for “Why Teenager Should Not Have TVs In Their Bedrooms” I would really appreciate it if u could help ASAP plz!!O That will help you write a strong intro — including a strong thesis #128578; Ths for this it helped a lot. Awesome! Thanks for the comment. #128578; I really appreciate your help. didnt help at all sorry.

Sorry that it wasn’t more helpful, Trent. Let us know if you have any questions that are still unanswered! I’m going to write about how humanity should strive for immortality. Essay On The In The? Do you think the topic is too hard and broad for a 10th grader like me? May I know your thoughts and suggestions, please? Thanks! Nah, you can totally handle that topic! I don’t think it’s too broad, either, and I really like that it take a strong stance. Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and specific reasons to back up your claim that we should strive for immortality, as you’ll want to charles milles manson, include those reasons in roman empire architecture your thesis and charles manson defend them throughout your paper.

So the first question to rage against of the light meaning, answer as you write your thesis is “Why do I believe this?” Hi, there. Milles Manson? I saw your question asking for advice on the difficulty of writing a paper on immortality. Architecture? I have a few views on that myself but of the opposite point. I would be very interested in reading your thoughts on the matter. So perhaps you would be inclined to charles milles manson, email me your assignment once it’s finished. thanks this blog was very helpful. Awesome!

We’re happy you think so and thanks for the comment. #128578; Super helpful! About to write a 6-7 page paper for Package the Economy Essay, my college professor and I needed advice on an effective argumentative structure outline. This is exactly what I needed to look at. Well designed. Sweet!

Love to hear that it helped. Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; Is Misdiagnoses of Mental Disorders a good topic to write about? And is charles manson, it too broad? I want to include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and impact to ulysses mcgill, mental illness. I need direction– Please help!!

It is milles manson, a bit broad, yes. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. Maybe depression or ADD. Working Model? You could narrow it down even further to manson, talk about these diagnoses in young adults or children rather than everyone. Finally, make sure you have some evidence to support your argument that toxic thinking is the contributing factor here! That’s a pretty big statement and you’ll definitely need to back it up. I COULD KISS YOU RIGHT NOW YOU SAVED MY LIFE. 3. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] nice .. In The Globalized Era? great work you have done.. thanks for help Naomi… Thanks for reading and for charles milles, your kind comment! Thanks for your comment!

Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the thing you break it up, that was a sick info. Thanks so so much. Rage Rage The Dying? P.S. loved your sense of manson humour. Aww, shucks. Effects? Thanks for your sweet comment! #128578; bless you!! i have a paper due and this helps so much ^^ Woot! So glad to hear it.

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A history paper isn’t necessarily the same as an argumentative essay, though it *can* be. Charles Milles? It really depends on how you approach your topic. Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started! man, i think you dont no what you did to me. Water? thank U a lot. Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Milles Manson? Thanks for the thank you. And Image In The Era? #128578; this helped me so much. Thank you . Sweet! Happy to hear it.

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I was having trouble writing an argumentative essay from milles manson, avid elective class you are greatly appreciated! *bows down to you* You will be a great writer I promise #128578; P.S. have you made any more of these? Haha, thanks for the super kind comment. I really appreciate it! Yes, I’ve written quite a few other posts for this blog (though not so much any more since I manage it now). Here are a few that you might like:

Yay! Final complete! Congrats and happy this helped. Thanks for the kind comment. Package To Revive The Economy Essay? #128578; I was stumped in class by the prompt for a six paragraph essay. This article is great. THANK YOU! Noiiice! Happy this helped you. Thanks for the comment.

Congratulations on your upcoming graduation! So happy that this post helped you get to the finish line. Thanks for the kind comment #128578; Naomi. omg you just saved my life i could kiss you 3. What if you are writing at school and milles manson they don’t allow you to use your computer to look up information for the text. In that case you’ll want to prepare in model essay advance as best you can by becoming as familiar as possible with the type of essay you’ll be writing and the type of material you need to know for charles milles, the essay. You might check out this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ if you reply to me ill be so happy. You’re awesome! Thanks a lot for this excellent blog post Naomi. Thanks so much for rage the dying light meaning, the comment! #128578; Wow i love this.

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Thanks in advance #128578; Ooh! You must be feeling the pressure. I’m sure you’ll do great, especially since you are reaching out for advice. It’s about writing a timed (in-class) essay, and a lot of the advice can apply to other types of timed essay tests too. Charles Milles? Point #5 is Package to Revive Essay, especially important: “If you’re really nervous, practice writing under pressure before your test. Charles Milles? Set a timer for the same amount of working model time you’ll have during the actual test, and work on writing a coherent essay about a sample prompt or an important topic.”

I’d also research the different types of essay prompts that they’ve given in the past to use for your practice writing session. Charles? Maybe this resource will help? http://www.firstcertificatewriting.co.uk/live/paper-2-writing-part-1-essays/ I wish you the best on your FCE! Thanks for the dying light, the comment. Manson? #128578; So glad you think it’s helpful!

Thanks for reading! xoxo. i really like the explanation bcoz it’s clear and it’s not explained in a boring way like how most people did. thanks a lot! this really helped my homework :)) Great! That’s exactly what I was going for. Ulysses Mcgill? So happy it helped you.

Thanks for the comment! #128578; You’re awesome! Thanks for reading. Very helpful article! Thank you so much! Great! Happy to help. Hi, it is really a clear and detailed graph.

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Amazing. Charles? Helped me like hell. So glad you found it useful, Dana! Thanks for reading. Thank you this saved my butt. Sweet! So glad we could help #128578; Is this good for an argumentative essay titled ( Animals in Captivity )??

Have you thought why animals roar,cry, weak, looking upset? And why caged birds sing? In 2014 a research from Harvard University showed that 10,000 animals from different species around the world. die every year out of loneliness, violence, shortage of food and air and lack of freedom. Architecture? Animals are living organisms as humans and plants and need a lot of rights that we should put them in charles milles manson consideration.