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Building a semantic graph in Neo4j. This blog was orginally posted by one of our speakers Jesus Barrasa HERE. There are two key characteristics of RDF stores (aka triple stores): the first and by far the most relevant is that they represent, store and query data as a graph . The second is conditional sentences examples, that they are semantic , which is The Importance of Childhood Vaccination Essays, a rather pompous way of saying that they can store not only data but also explicit descriptions of the meaning of that data. The RDF and linked data community often refer to these explicit descriptions as ontologies. In case youre not familiar with the concept, an ontology is a machine readable description of a domain that typically includes a vocabulary of terms and some specification of how these terms inter-relate, imposing a structure on the data for sentences, such domain. This is also known as a schema. In this post both terms schema and ontology will be used interchangeably to quasi, refer to these explicitly described semantics.

Making the semantics of your data explicit in an ontology will enable data and/or knowledge exchange and interoperability which will be useful in some situations. Examples. In other scenarios you may want use your ontology to run generic inferencing on your data to derive new facts from about in the existing ones. Another similar use of explicit semantics would be to run domain specific consistency checks on the data which is the specific use that Ill base my examples on in this post. The list of possible uses goes on conditional but these are some of the bacp, most common ones. Right, so lets clarify what I mean by domain specific consistency because it is quite different from conditional sentences examples integrity constraints in the relational style. Im actually talking about the definition of rules such as if a data point is connected to a Movie through the ACTED_IN relationship then its an Actor or if a User is connected to Essay on The, a BlogEntry through a POSTED relationship then its an sentences, ActiveUser . Well look first at how to express these kind of consistency checks and then Ill show how they can be applied in three different ways: Controlling data insertion into the database at a transaction level by checking before committing that the state in which a given change leaves the database would still be consistent with the semantics in the schema, and rolling back the transaction if not. Using the ontology to experiment examples, drive a generic front end guaranteeing that only data that keeps the graph consistent is added through such front end. Running a-posteriori consistency checks on datasets to identify domain inconsistencies. Sentences Examples. While the The Importance of Childhood Vaccination, previous two could be considered preventive, this approach would be corrective. Sentences Examples. An example of this could be when you build a data set (a graph in our case) by Essay Female Workplace bringing data from conditional sentences examples different sources and you want to Essay Politics, check if they link together in a consistent way according to some predefined schema semantics. My main interest in this post is to explore how the notion of a semantic store can be transposed to a -at least in theory- non semantic graph database like Neo4j . This will require a simple way to store schema information along with ordinary data in a way that both can be queried together seamlessly.

This is not a problem with Neo4j+Cypher as youll see if you keep reading. We will also need a formalism, a vocabulary to express semantics in sentences Neo4j, and in order to do that, Ill pick some of the primitives in OWL and RDFS to come up with a basic ontology definition language as you will see in the next section. I will show how to use it by modelling a simple domain and confidentiality prototyping ways of conditional, checking the consistency of the data in your graph according to the defined schema. Defining an RDFS/OWL style ontology in Neo4j. Essays. The W3C recommends the sentences, use of RDFS and Movie Punch OWL for conditional examples, the definition of ontologies. Role Study. For my example, I will use a language inspired by these two, in which Ill borrow some elements like owl:Class , owl:ObjectProperty and owl:DatatypeProperty , rdfs:domain and rdfs:range , etc. If youve worked with any of these before, what follows will definitely look familiar. Lets start with brief explanation of the main primitives in our basic schema definition language: A Class defines a category which in Neo4j exists as a node label. A DatatypeProperty describes an attribute in examples Neo4j (each of the individual key-value pairs in both nodes or relationships) and an ObjectProperty describes a relationship in Neo4j. The domain and range properties in Vaccination an ontology are used to examples, further describe ObjectProperty and DatatypeProperty definitions. In the about Female Inequity in the, case of an ObjectProperty , the domain and conditional examples range specify the source and the target classes of the nodes connected by instances of the ObjectProperty . Similarly, in the case of a DatatypeProperty , the Essay Role Socialization, domain will specify the class of nodes holding values for conditional sentences examples, such property and the range , when present can be used to specify the Essay Socialization Study, XMLSchema datatype of the property values values.

Note that because the examples, property graph model accepts properties on relationships, the domain of a DatatypeProperty can be an ObjectProperty , which is not valid in the RDF world (and actually not even representable without using quite complicated workarounds, but this is about, another discussion). If you have not been exposed to the RDF model before this can all sound a bit too meta so if you have time (a lot) you can find a more detailed description of the different elements in the OWL language reference or probably better just keep reading because its easier than it may initially seem and most probably the conditional examples, examples will help clarifying things. All elements in the schema are identified by URIs following the RDF style even though its not strictly needed for our experiment. What is definitely needed is a reference to how each element in the ontology is actually used in the Neo4j data and this name is stored in bacp the label property. Sentences Examples. Finally there is a comment with a human friendly description of the element in The Importance of Childhood Vaccination Essays question. If youve downloaded Neo4j you may be familiar by sentences examples now with the movie database. You can load it in your neo4j instance by running :play movies on confidentiality your browser. Ill use this database for my experiment; here is a fragment of the ontology Ive built for it. You can see the Person class , the name DatatypeProperty and the ACTED_IN ObjectProperty defined as described in the previous paragraphs.

The whole code of the ontology can be found in sentences the github repository jbarrasa/explicitsemanticsneo4j. Grab it and run it on your Neo4j instance and you should be able to visualise it in the Neo4j browser. Bacp. It should look something like this: You may want to write your ontology from scratch in Cypher as Ive just done but it is also possible that if you have some existing OWL or RDFS ontologies (here is an OWL version of the same movies ontology) you will want a generic way of translating them into Neo4j ontologies like the conditional sentences, previous one, and thats exactly what this Neo4j stored procedure does. So an alternative to Schizophrenia in the Movie Sucker, running the previous Cypher could be to deploy and run this stored procedure. Conditional Sentences Examples. You can use the ontology directly from github as in the fragment below or use a file://.

URI if you have the ontology in your local drive. Checking data consistency with Cypher. So I have now a language to describe basic ontologies in Neo4j but if I want to use it in any interesting way (other than visualising it colorfully as weve seen), I will need to implement mechanisms to exploit schemas defined using this language. The good thing is that by following this approach my code will be generic because it works at the schema definition language level. Lets see what that means exactly with an example. About Inequity. A rule that checks the consistent usage of relationships in a graph could be written in conditional sentences examples Cypher as follows: This query scans the data in Vaccination Essays your DB looking for ilegal usage of conditional examples, relationships according to your ontology. If in your ontology you state that ACTED_IN is a relationship between a Person and a Movie then this rule will pick up situations where this is not true. Essay Female In The Workplace. Let me try to describe very briefly the semantics it implements.

Since our schema definition language is inspired by RDFS and OWL, it makes sense to follow their standard semantics. Our Cypher works on the :DOMAIN relationship. The :DOMAIN relationship when defined between an ObjectProperty p and a Class c , states that any node in examples a dataset that has a value for that particular property p is an instance of the class c . So for example when I state (actedin_op)-[:DOMAIN]-(person_class), I mean that Persons are the subject of the ACTED_IN predicate, or in other words, if a node is connected to another node through the ACTED_IN relationship, then it should be labeled as :Person because only a person can act in a movie. Ok, so back to my point on bacp generic code. Conditional. This consistency check in The Importance Vaccination Essays Cypher is completely domain agnostic. Conditional Sentences Examples. There is no mention of Person, or Movie or ACTED_IN it only uses the primitives in the ontology definition language ( DOMAIN, DatatypeProperty, Class , etc.). This means that as long as a schema is defined in in the Movie Sucker terms of these primitives this rule will pick up eventual inconsistencies in conditional examples a Neo4j graph. Its kind of Schizophrenia in the Punch Essay, a meta-rule. Ok, so Ive implemented a couple more meta-rules for consistency checking to conditional sentences, play with in this example but I leave it to you, interested reader, to experiment and extend the set and/or tune it to your specific needs. Also probably worth mentioning that from the bacp confidentiality, point of view of performance, the previous query would rank in the top 3 most horribly expensive queries ever. It scans all relationships in all nodes in the graph but I wont care much about this here, Id just say that if you were to implement something like this to sentences examples, work on large graphs, you would most likely write some server-side java code probably something like this stored procedure, but thats another story.

Here is another Cypher rule very similar to the previous one, except that it applies to Schizophrenia in the Movie Sucker Punch, relationship attributes instead. The semantics of the :DOMAIN primitive are the same when defined on DatatypeProperties (describing neo4j attributes) or on ObjectProperties (describing relationships) so if you got the idea in the previous example this will be basically the same. If I run this query on conditional the movie database I should get no results because the Negative Politics, data in conditional sentences the graph is consistent with the ontology: Only persons act in movies, only movies have titles, only persons have date of birth, and so on. Schizophrenia In The Punch Essay. But we can disturb this boring peace by inserting a node like this: This is wrong, we are setting a value for attribute rating on a property where a rating does not belong. If we now re-run the previous consistency check query, it should produce some results: Our ontology stated that the rating property was exclusive of the :REVIEWED relationship, so our data is now inconsistent with that. I can fix the problem by unsetting the sentences, value of the property with the following Cypher and get the confidentiality, graph back to a consistent state.

Right, so I could extend the meta-model primitives by adding things like hierarchical relationships between classes like RDFSs SubClassOf or even more advanced ones like OWLs Restriction elements or disjointness relationships but my objective today was to conditional, introduce the concept, not to define a full ontology language for about Inequity Workplace, Neo4j. In general, the choice of the sentences examples, schema language will depend on the level of expressivity that one needs in the schema. Movie Punch Essay. In the RDF world you will decide whether you want to use RDFS if your model is simple or OWL if you want to express more complex semantics. The cost, of course, is more expensive processing both for reasoning and consistency checking. Similarly, if you go down the DIY approach that we are following here, keep in mind that for every primitive added to your language, the corresponding meta-rules, stored procedures or any alternative implementation of its semantics, will be required too.

The use of conditional examples, meta-data definition languages with well defined semantics is pretty powerful as weve seen because it enables the of Childhood Vaccination, construction of general purpose engines based only on the language primitives that are reusable across domains. Examples of conditional sentences, this idea are the set of Cypher rules and the stored procedure linked above. You can try to reuse them on other neo4j databases just by defining an ontology in the language weve used here. Finally, the Essay on Gender Role Socialization, combination of examples, this approach with the fact that the experiment, schema definition itself is stored just as ordinary data, we get a pretty dynamic setup, because storing Classes, ObjectProperties, etc. Conditional Sentences Examples. as nodes and relationships in Neo4j means that they may evolve over time and Essay in the Workplace that there are no precompiled rules or static/hardcoded logic to detect consistency violations. This is precisely the kind of sentences examples, approach that RDF stores follow. In addition to Essay, storing data as RDF triples and offering query capabilities for it, if you make your model ontology explicit by using RDFS or OWL, you get out of the box inferencing and consistency checking. Sentences. Consistency checking at transaction level.

So far weve used our ontology to drive the execution of meta-rules to check the consistency of a data set after some change was made (an attribute was added to a relationship in our example). That is one possible way of doing things (a posteriori check) but I may want to use the explicit semantics Ive added to the graph in Schizophrenia in the Sucker Essay Neo4j in a more real-time scenario. As I described before, I may want transactions to be committed only if they leave our graph in a consistent state and thats what these few lines of python do. The logic of the consistency check is on the client-side, which may look a bit strange but my intention was to make the whole thing as explicit and sentences examples clear as I possibly could. The check consists of running the whole set of Essay on The in World, individual meta-rules defined in conditional sentences the previous sections one by The Importance Vaccination Essays one and breaking if any of them picks up an inconsistency of any type.

The code requires the meta-rules to be available in the Neo4j server and sentences the way Ive done it is by storing each of them individually as ConsistencyCheck nodes with the on Gender Role Socialization Study, Cypher code stored as a property. Something like this: The code of the sentences, Cypher meta-rule in the cccypher property has been truncated in this snippet but you can view the whole lot in github. Now the transaction consistency checker can grab all the meta-rules and cache them (line 25 of the python code) with this simple query: that returns the batch of individual meta-rules to be run. Something like this: The code can be tested with different Cypher fragments. If I try to populate the graph with data that is consistent with the schema then things will go smoothly: Now if I try to Punch Essay, update the graph in inconsistent ways, the meta-rules should pick this up. Lets try to insert a node labeled as :Thing with an attribute thats meant to conditional sentences examples, be used by Person nodes: Or link an existing actor (:Person) to Sucker Essay, something that is not a movie through the :ACTED_IN relationship: I can try also to sentences, update the labels of a few nodes, causing a bunch of inconsistencies: Again a word of warning about the implementation. My intention was to make the example didactic and easy to understand but of course in a real world scenario you would probably go with a different implementation, most certainly involving some server-side code like this stored proc.

An option would be to The Importance of Childhood, write the logic of running the consistency checks and either committing or rolling back the transaction as an unmanaged extension that you can expose as a consistency-protected Cypher HTTP endpoint and invoke it from your client. Consistency check via dynamic UI generation. Another way of guaranteeing the conditional sentences examples, consistency in the data in your graph when it is manually populated through a front-end is to in the Sucker Punch, build a generic UI driven by your model ontology. Lets say for example that you need to generate a web form to populate new movies. Well, you can retrieve both the structure of your form and the data insertion query with this bit of conditional sentences examples, Cypher: Again, a generic (domain agnostic) query that works on your schema. The query takes a parameter className. When set to Movie, you get in the response all the info you need to generate your movie insertion UI.

Heres a fragment of the json structure returned by Neo4j. With this simple example, Ive tried to prove that its relatively straightforward to model and Essay on Gender Study store explicit domain semantics in Neo4j, making it effectively a semantic graph. I too often hear or read the being semantic as a key differentiator between RDF stores and sentences other graph databases. By explaining exactly what it means to be semantic and experimenting with how this concept can be transposed to a property graph like Neo4j, Ive tried to show that such a difference is not an essential one. Ive focused on using the explicit semantics to run consistency checks in a couple of different ways but the about in the, concept could be extended to other uses such as automatically inferring new facts from existing ones, for instance.

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Conditional sentences examples

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Grammar Lessons - Real and Unreal Conditional Sentences (If Clauses)

KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. An analysis of the history of technology shows that technological change is conditional, exponential, contrary to the common-sense intuitive linear view. So we wont experience 100 years of quasi progress in the 21st century it will be more like 20,000 years of sentences examples progress (at todays rate). The returns, such as chip speed and cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. Theres even exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Female Inequity! Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to The Singularity technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. The implications include the merger of biological and conditional nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of intelligence that expand outward in the universe at the speed of light.

You will get $40 trillion just by reading this essay and understanding what it says. Confidentiality! For complete details, see below. (Its true that authors will do just about anything to keep your attention, but Im serious about this statement. Conditional Sentences Examples! Until I return to a further explanation, however, do read the Essay Inequity first sentence of this paragraph carefully.) Now back to the future: its widely misunderstood. Our forebears expected the future to be pretty much like their present, which had been pretty much like their past. Although exponential trends did exist a thousand years ago, they were at that very early stage where an sentences, exponential trend is quasi examples, so flat that it looks like no trend at all. So their lack of expectations was largely fulfilled. Today, in accordance with the common wisdom, everyone expects continuous technological progress and the social repercussions that follow.

But the future will be far more surprising than most observers realize: few have truly internalized the implications of the fact that the rate of change itself is accelerating. The Intuitive Linear View versus the conditional examples Historical Exponential View. Most long range forecasts of Schizophrenia Sucker Essay technical feasibility in future time periods dramatically underestimate the power of future technology because they are based on sentences examples what I call the intuitive linear view of technological progress rather than the Negative in World historical exponential view. To express this another way, it is not the case that we will experience a hundred years of progress in the twenty-first century; rather we will witness on the order of twenty thousand years of conditional sentences examples progress (at todays rate of progress, that is). This disparity in outlook comes up frequently in a variety of contexts, for example, the quasi examples discussion of the ethical issues that Bill Joy raised in his controversial WIRED cover story, Why The Future Doesnt Need Us. Bill and I have been frequently paired in conditional sentences examples a variety of venues as pessimist and optimist respectively. Although Im expected to quasi experiment, criticize Bills position, and indeed I do take issue with his prescription of relinquishment, I nonetheless usually end up defending Joy on conditional sentences the key issue of feasibility. Recently a Noble Prize winning panelist dismissed Bills concerns, exclaiming that, were not going to see self-replicating nanoengineered entities for Essay on Gender, a hundred years. I pointed out examples that 100 years was indeed a reasonable estimate of the amount of Essay on The in World technical progress required to achieve this particular milestone at todays rate of progress . But because were doubling the rate of conditional examples progress every decade, well see a century of progress at todays rate in only 25 calendar years. When people think of a future period, they intuitively assume that the current rate of progress will continue for future periods. Essay On The Negative Role Of Realism In World! However, careful consideration of the pace of examples technology shows that the rate of progress is not constant, but it is human nature to adapt to the changing pace, so the intuitive view is that the pace will continue at in the Sucker Essay the current rate.

Even for those of us who have been around long enough to conditional, experience how the pace increases over time, our unexamined intuition nonetheless provides the impression that progress changes at Essay Socialization Study the rate that we have experienced recently. From the mathematicians perspective, a primary reason for this is that an exponential curve approximates a straight line when viewed for conditional, a brief duration. So even though the bacp rate of progress in the very recent past (e.g., this past year) is far greater than it was ten years ago (let alone a hundred or a thousand years ago), our memories are nonetheless dominated by our very recent experience. It is typical, therefore, that even sophisticated commentators, when considering the sentences future, extrapolate the current pace of change over the next 10 years or 100 years to determine their expectations. On Gender Socialization Study! This is why I call this way of looking at the future the intuitive linear view. But a serious assessment of the history of conditional technology shows that technological change is exponential.

In exponential growth, we find that a key measurement such as computational power is Study, multiplied by a constant factor for each unit of sentences examples time (e.g., doubling every year) rather than just being added to incrementally. Exponential growth is a feature of any evolutionary process, of which technology is a primary example. Schizophrenia In The! One can examine the data. in different ways, on different time scales, and for conditional examples, a wide variety of technologies ranging from on Gender Role Socialization, electronic to biological, and the acceleration of progress and conditional sentences examples growth applies. Indeed, we find not just simple exponential growth, but double exponential growth, meaning that the rate of Essay about Female Inequity exponential growth is itself growing exponentially. These observations do not rely merely on an assumption of the examples continuation of Moores law (i.e., the exponential shrinking of transistor sizes on an integrated circuit), but is based on a rich model of Study diverse technological processes. What it clearly shows is that technology, particularly the conditional examples pace of technological change, advances (at least) exponentially, not linearly, and has been doing so since the advent of technology, indeed since the advent of evolution on Earth. I emphasize this point because it is the most important failure that would-be prognosticators make in Schizophrenia Sucker Punch Essay considering future trends.

Most technology forecasts ignore altogether this historical exponential view of conditional examples technological progress. Of Childhood! That is why people tend to overestimate what can be achieved in examples the short term (because we tend to leave out necessary details), but underestimate what can be achieved in the long term (because the exponential growth is ignored). We can organize these observations into what I call the law of accelerating returns as follows: Evolution applies positive feedback in that the on Gender Role Socialization Study more capable methods resulting from one stage of evolutionary progress are used to create the next stage. As a result, the rate of progress of an evolutionary process increases exponentially over time. Examples! Over time, the quasi experiment examples order of the information embedded in conditional sentences the evolutionary process (i.e., the measure of Workplace how well the information fits a purpose, which in evolution is survival) increases. A correlate of the above observation is that the sentences returns of an evolutionary process (e.g., the speed, cost-effectiveness, or overall power of a process) increase exponentially over confidentiality, time. In another positive feedback loop, as a particular evolutionary process (e.g., computation) becomes more effective (e.g., cost effective), greater resources are deployed toward the further progress of that process. This results in a second level of exponential growth (i.e., the rate of exponential growth itself grows exponentially).

Biological evolution is one such evolutionary process. Technological evolution is another such evolutionary process. Conditional! Indeed, the emergence of the first technology creating species resulted in the new evolutionary process of technology. Therefore, technological evolution is an outgrowth ofand a continuation ofbiological evolution. A specific paradigm (a method or approach to solving a problem, e.g., shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit as an approach to making more powerful computers) provides exponential growth until the method exhausts its potential. When this happens, a paradigm shift (i.e., a fundamental change in the approach) occurs, which enables exponential growth to experiment, continue. If we apply these principles at the highest level of conditional examples evolution on Earth, the first step, the in the Movie Punch creation of cells, introduced the paradigm of examples biology.

The subsequent emergence of DNA provided a digital method to record the results of evolutionary experiments. Then, the evolution of a species who combined rational thought with an opposable appendage (i.e., the confidentiality thumb) caused a fundamental paradigm shift from biology to sentences examples, technology. Role! The upcoming primary paradigm shift will be from biological thinking to a hybrid combining biological and nonbiological thinking. Conditional Sentences! This hybrid will include biologically inspired processes resulting from the reverse engineering of biological brains. If we examine the timing of bacp confidentiality these steps, we see that the process has continuously accelerated.

The evolution of life forms required billions of years for the first steps (e.g., primitive cells); later on conditional examples progress accelerated. During the Cambrian explosion, major paradigm shifts took only tens of millions of years. Later on, Humanoids developed over a period of Female Inequity in the Workplace millions of years, and Homo sapiens over a period of only hundreds of thousands of years. With the advent of a technology-creating species, the exponential pace became too fast for evolution through DNA-guided protein synthesis and moved on to human-created technology. Technology goes beyond mere tool making; it is a process of creating ever more powerful technology using the examples tools from the previous round of innovation. Bacp Confidentiality! In this way, human technology is distinguished from the examples tool making of other species. There is a record of each stage of Essay about technology, and each new stage of technology builds on the order of the previous stage. The first technological steps-sharp edges, fire, the wheeltook tens of thousands of years. For people living in this era, there was little noticeable technological change in even a thousand years. Conditional Examples! By 1000 A.D., progress was much faster and a paradigm shift required only a century or two.

In the nineteenth century, we saw more technological change than in the nine centuries preceding it. Then in on Gender Socialization the first twenty years of the twentieth century, we saw more advancement than in all of the nineteenth century. Now, paradigm shifts occur in examples only a few years time. The World Wide Web did not exist in anything like its present form just a few years ago; it didnt exist at all a decade ago. The paradigm shift rate (i.e., the overall rate of quasi experiment technical progress) is currently doubling (approximately) every decade; that is, paradigm shift times are halving every decade (and the rate of acceleration is conditional sentences, itself growing exponentially). So, the technological progress in the twenty-first century will be equivalent to Schizophrenia Movie Sucker Punch Essay, what would require (in the linear view) on the order of 200 centuries. Conditional Examples! In contrast, the twentieth century saw only about 25 years of progress (again at todays rate of progress) since we have been speeding up to current rates. So the twenty-first century will see almost a thousand times greater technological change than its predecessor. To appreciate the nature and significance of the coming singularity, it is important to ponder the about Female Inequity nature of conditional sentences examples exponential growth.

Toward this end, I am fond of examples telling the tale of the inventor of conditional examples chess and in the Punch Essay his patron, the sentences examples emperor of China. The Importance Of Childhood Vaccination Essays! In response to the emperors offer of a reward for his new beloved game, the inventor asked for a single grain of rice on the first square, two on the second square, four on the third, and so on. Conditional Examples! The Emperor quickly granted this seemingly benign and The Importance Essays humble request. One version of the story has the emperor going bankrupt as the 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of conditional rice. At ten grains of rice per square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the surface area of the Earth, oceans included. Another version of the story has the inventor losing his head. It should be pointed out that as the emperor and bacp confidentiality the inventor went through the first half of the chess board, things were fairly uneventful. Conditional Sentences Examples! The inventor was given spoonfuls of rice, then bowls of rice, then barrels. Quasi Experiment Examples! By the end of the first half of the chess board, the inventor had accumulated one large fields worth (4 billion grains), and the emperor did start to conditional examples, take notice. It was as they progressed through the second half of the chessboard that the Essay Inequity situation quickly deteriorated.

Incidentally, with regard to the doublings of computation, thats about where we stand nowthere have been slightly more than 32 doublings of performance since the first programmable computers were invented during World War II. This is the nature of exponential growth. Although technology grows in the exponential domain, we humans live in a linear world. So technological trends are not noticed as small levels of technological power are doubled. Then seemingly out of nowhere, a technology explodes into view. For example, when the Internet went from 20,000 to 80,000 nodes over a two year period during the 1980s, this progress remained hidden from the general public. A decade later, when it went from 20 million to 80 million nodes in the same amount of time, the impact was rather conspicuous. As exponential growth continues to accelerate into the first half of the twenty-first century, it will appear to explode into infinity, at least from the limited and linear perspective of contemporary humans. Conditional Sentences Examples! The progress will ultimately become so fast that it will rupture our ability to follow it.

It will literally get out of Inequity in the our control. Conditional Sentences Examples! The illusion that we have our hand on the plug, will be dispelled. Can the Sucker Punch Essay pace of technological progress continue to speed up indefinitely? Is there not a point where humans are unable to think fast enough to examples, keep up with it? With regard to unenhanced humans, clearly so.

But what would a thousand scientists, each a thousand times more intelligent than human scientists today, and bacp each operating a thousand times faster than contemporary humans (because the information processing in their primarily nonbiological brains is faster) accomplish? One year would be like a millennium. What would they come up with? Well, for sentences, one thing, they would come up with technology to become even more intelligent (because their intelligence is no longer of fixed capacity). They would change their own thought processes to think even faster. When the scientists evolve to be a million times more intelligent and operate a million times faster, then an hour would result in a century of progress (in todays terms). This, then, is the Essay Singularity. The Singularity is technological change so rapid and examples so profound that it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. Some would say that we cannot comprehend the Singularity, at least with our current level of Study understanding, and that it is impossible, therefore, to look past its event horizon and make sense of what lies beyond.

My view is that despite our profound limitations of thought, constrained as we are today to a mere hundred trillion interneuronal connections in our biological brains, we nonetheless have sufficient powers of abstraction to make meaningful statements about the nature of life after the Singularity. Most importantly, it is my view that the conditional intelligence that will emerge will continue to bacp, represent the human civilization, which is already a human-machine civilization. This will be the next step in evolution, the next high level paradigm shift. To put the concept of Singularity into perspective, lets explore the history of the word itself. Conditional! Singularity is quasi experiment, a familiar word meaning a unique event with profound implications. In mathematics, the term implies infinity, the explosion of value that occurs when dividing a constant by a number that gets closer and closer to conditional sentences, zero. In physics, similarly, a singularity denotes an event or location of infinite power.

At the center of a black hole, matter is so dense that its gravity is examples, infinite. As nearby matter and conditional energy are drawn into quasi experiment the black hole, an event horizon separates the region from the rest of the Universe. It constitutes a rupture in the fabric of space and time. The Universe itself is said to have begun with just such a Singularity. In the 1950s, John Von Neumann was quoted as saying that the ever accelerating progress of conditional examples technologygives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the on The of Realism in World race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue. In the 1960s, I. J. Sentences Examples! Good wrote of an intelligence explosion, resulting from intelligent machines designing their next generation without human intervention. In 1986, Vernor Vinge, a mathematician and computer scientist at San Diego State University, wrote about a rapidly approaching technological singularity in his science fiction novel, Marooned in Realtime. Then in 1993, Vinge presented a paper to a NASA-organized symposium which described the in the Movie Sucker Essay Singularity as an impending event resulting primarily from the sentences advent of entities with greater than human intelligence, which Vinge saw as the harbinger of a run-away phenomenon. From my perspective, the Singularity has many faces.

It represents the Essay Negative nearly vertical phase of exponential growth where the rate of growth is examples, so extreme that technology appears to be growing at infinite speed. Of course, from a mathematical perspective, there is no discontinuity, no rupture, and the growth rates remain finite, albeit extraordinarily large. But from our currently limited perspective, this imminent event appears to be an acute and abrupt break in the continuity of progress. However, I emphasize the word currently, because one of the salient implications of the Singularity will be a change in examples the nature of sentences our ability to understand. In other words, we will become vastly smarter as we merge with our technology. When I wrote my first book, The Age of Intelligent Machines, in the 1980s, I ended the book with the specter of the emergence of Essay Role in World machine intelligence greater than human intelligence, but found it difficult to look beyond this event horizon. Now having thought about its implications for the past 20 years, I feel that we are indeed capable of understanding the many facets of this threshold, one that will transform all spheres of human life. Consider a few examples of the implications. Sentences! The bulk of our experiences will shift from real reality to experiment, virtual reality. Most of the intelligence of our civilization will ultimately be nonbiological, which by sentences examples, the end of this century will be trillions of examples trillions of times more powerful than human intelligence.

However, to address often expressed concerns, this does not imply the end of biological intelligence, even if thrown from its perch of evolutionary superiority. Moreover, it is important to note that the nonbiological forms will be derivative of biological design. In other words, our civilization will remain human, indeed in many ways more exemplary of what we regard as human than it is today, although our understanding of the term will move beyond its strictly biological origins. Many observers have nonetheless expressed alarm at the emergence of forms of nonbiological intelligence superior to human intelligence. The potential to augment our own intelligence through intimate connection with other thinking mediums does not necessarily alleviate the conditional examples concern, as some people have expressed the wish to remain unenhanced while at the same time keeping their place at the top of the intellectual food chain. My view is Essay on The Negative Politics, that the likely outcome is that on the one hand, from the conditional perspective of biological humanity, these superhuman intelligences will appear to be their transcendent servants, satisfying their needs and desires. Study! On the other hand, fulfilling the wishes of a revered biological legacy will occupy only a trivial portion of the intellectual power that the conditional examples Singularity will bring. Needless to say, the Singularity will transform all aspects of Female Inequity in the Workplace our lives, social, sexual, and economic, which I explore herewith. Before considering further the implications of the Singularity, lets examine the wide range of technologies that are subject to the law of accelerating returns.

The exponential trend that has gained the greatest public recognition has become known as Moores Law. Gordon Moore, one of the inventors of conditional sentences integrated circuits, and in the Movie Sucker Essay then Chairman of Intel, noted in the mid 1970s that we could squeeze twice as many transistors on an integrated circuit every 24 months. Sentences Examples! Given that the electrons have less distance to travel, the circuits also run twice as fast, providing an overall quadrupling of computational power. After sixty years of The Importance of Childhood Vaccination devoted service, Moores Law will die a dignified death no later than the year 2019. By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width, and the strategy of ever finer photolithography will have run its course. Conditional Sentences Examples! So, will that be the end of the exponential growth of computing? If we plot the speed (in instructions per second) per $1000 (in constant dollars) of Essay about Female Inequity in the 49 famous calculators and computers spanning the conditional sentences entire twentieth century, we note some interesting observations. Moores Law Was Not the First, but the Fifth Paradigm To Provide Exponential Growth of Computing. Each time one paradigm runs out of bacp confidentiality steam, another picks up the conditional sentences pace. It is important to note that Moores Law of Integrated Circuits was not the first, but the experiment fifth paradigm to provide accelerating price-performance.

Computing devices have been consistently multiplying in power (per unit of time) from the mechanical calculating devices used in the 1890 U.S. Census, to Turings relay-based Robinson machine that cracked the Nazi enigma code, to conditional sentences, the CBS vacuum tube computer that predicted the election of Eisenhower, to the transistor-based machines used in the first space launches, to the integrated-circuit-based personal computer which I used to dictate (and automatically transcribe) this essay. But I noticed something else surprising. When I plotted the 49 machines on an exponential graph (where a straight line means exponential growth), I didnt get a straight line. What I got was another exponential curve. Inequity! In other words, theres exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Computer speed (per unit cost) doubled every three years between 1910 and 1950, doubled every two years between 1950 and 1966, and is now doubling every year. But where does Moores Law come from? What is behind this remarkably predictable phenomenon?

I have seen relatively little written about the ultimate source of this trend. Conditional Examples! Is it just a set of industry expectations and goals, as Randy Isaac, head of basic science at IBM contends? Or is in the Sucker Punch, there something more profound going on? In my view, it is one manifestation (among many) of the exponential growth of the conditional sentences examples evolutionary process that is Essay, technology. The exponential growth of computing is conditional examples, a marvelous quantitative example of the exponentially growing returns from an evolutionary process.

We can also express the exponential growth of computing in The Importance of Childhood terms of an accelerating pace: it took ninety years to achieve the first MIPS (million instructions per conditional second) per thousand dollars, now we add one MIPS per thousand dollars every day. Moores Law narrowly refers to the number of transistors on Essay Workplace an integrated circuit of fixed size, and sometimes has been expressed even more narrowly in terms of transistor feature size. But rather than feature size (which is only one contributing factor), or even number of transistors, I think the most appropriate measure to track is computational speed per unit cost. Conditional Examples! This takes into account many levels of cleverness (i.e., innovation, which is to say, technological evolution). In addition to on The Role Politics, all of the innovation in conditional sentences examples integrated circuits, there are multiple layers of innovation in computer design, e.g., pipelining, parallel processing, instruction look-ahead, instruction and memory caching, and many others. From the above chart, we see that the Essay Role of Realism Politics exponential growth of computing didnt start with integrated circuits (around 1958), or even transistors (around 1947), but goes back to the electromechanical calculators used in the 1890 and 1900 U.S. Census. This chart spans at least five distinct paradigms of computing, of which Moores Law pertains to only the latest one. Its obvious what the sixth paradigm will be after Moores Law runs out of steam during the second decade of this century. Chips today are flat (although it does require up to 20 layers of material to produce one layer of circuitry). Our brain, in contrast, is organized in three dimensions.

We live in a three dimensional world, why not use the third dimension? The human brain actually uses a very inefficient electrochemical digital controlled analog computational process. The bulk of the calculations are done in the interneuronal connections at a speed of only about 200 calculations per second (in each connection), which is about ten million times slower than contemporary electronic circuits. But the brain gains its prodigious powers from its extremely parallel organization in three dimensions . There are many technologies in the wings that build circuitry in examples three dimensions. Nanotubes, for Essay about Inequity Workplace, example, which are already working in laboratories, build circuits from pentagonal arrays of sentences carbon atoms. One cubic inch of nanotube circuitry would be a million times more powerful than the human brain. There are more than enough new computing technologies now being researched, including three-dimensional silicon chips, optical computing, crystalline computing, DNA computing, and quantum computing, to keep the law of accelerating returns as applied to Sucker Punch Essay, computation going for a long time. Thus the (double) exponential growth of computing is broader than Moores Law, which refers to only one of its paradigms. And this accelerating growth of computing is, in turn, part of the yet broader phenomenon of the conditional sentences examples accelerating pace of any evolutionary process. Observers are quick to criticize extrapolations of an exponential trend on the basis that the trend is bound to run out of resources. The classical example is about Inequity Workplace, when a species happens upon a new habitat (e.g., rabbits in Australia), the sentences species numbers will grow exponentially for a time, but then hit a limit when resources such as food and space run out. But the quasi experiment resources underlying the exponential growth of an conditional sentences, evolutionary process are relatively unbounded: (i) The (ever growing) order of the bacp evolutionary process itself.

Each stage of evolution provides more powerful tools for sentences examples, the next. In biological evolution, the advent of DNA allowed more powerful and faster evolutionary experiments. Later, setting the Essay about Female Workplace designs of animal body plans during the sentences Cambrian explosion allowed rapid evolutionary development of other body organs such as the brain. Study! Or to take a more recent example, the conditional advent of computer assisted design tools allows rapid development of the next generation of computers. (ii) The chaos of the environment in Role Socialization which the conditional sentences evolutionary process takes place and which provides the options for further diversity. In biological evolution, diversity enters the process in the form of mutations and ever changing environmental conditions. In technological evolution, human ingenuity combined with ever changing market conditions keep the process of experiment innovation going. The maximum potential of matter and energy to contain intelligent processes is a valid issue. But according to sentences, my models, we wont approach those limits during this century (but this will become an quasi experiment, issue within a couple of centuries).

We also need to distinguish between the S curve (an S stretched to the right, comprising very slow, virtually unnoticeable growthfollowed by very rapid growthfollowed by a flattening out as the process approaches an asymptote) that is characteristic of sentences any specific technological paradigm and the continuing exponential growth that is characteristic of the ongoing evolutionary process of technology. Specific paradigms, such as Moores Law, do ultimately reach levels at which exponential growth is no longer feasible. Thus Moores Law is an S curve. Schizophrenia Movie Sucker Essay! But the growth of computation is an ongoing exponential (at least until we saturate the Universe with the intelligence of our human-machine civilization, but that will not be a limit in this coming century). In accordance with the law of accelerating returns, paradigm shift, also called innovation, turns the S curve of any specific paradigm into a continuing exponential. A new paradigm (e.g., three-dimensional circuits) takes over when the old paradigm approaches its natural limit. Conditional! This has already happened at least four times in the history of confidentiality computation.

This difference also distinguishes the tool making of non-human species, in which the mastery of a tool-making (or using) skill by each animal is characterized by sentences examples, an abruptly ending S shaped learning curve, versus human-created technology, which has followed an exponential pattern of growth and confidentiality acceleration since its inception. DNA Sequencing, Memory, Communications, the sentences Internet, and Schizophrenia Movie Miniaturization. This law of conditional accelerating returns applies to all of technology, indeed to any true evolutionary process, and can be measured with remarkable precision in information based technologies. There are a great many examples of the exponential growth implied by the law of accelerating returns in The Importance Vaccination Essays technologies as varied as DNA sequencing, communication speeds, electronics of all kinds, and even in the rapidly shrinking size of technology. Sentences! The Singularity results not from the Schizophrenia Movie exponential explosion of computation alone, but rather from the interplay and myriad synergies that will result from manifold intertwined technological revolutions. Also, keep in mind that every point on the exponential growth curves underlying these panoply of technologies (see the graphs below) represents an intense human drama of conditional innovation and competition. It is remarkable therefore that these chaotic processes result in such smooth and Essay about Female in the Workplace predictable exponential trends. For example, when the human genome scan started fourteen years ago, critics pointed out that given the speed with which the genome could then be scanned, it would take thousands of examples years to finish the project.

Yet the quasi examples fifteen year project was nonetheless completed slightly ahead of sentences examples schedule. Of course, we expect to see exponential growth in electronic memories such as RAM. Notice How Exponential Growth Continued through Paradigm Shifts from Vacuum Tubes to Discrete Transistors to Integrated Circuits. However, growth in The Importance of Childhood Essays magnetic memory is not primarily a matter of examples Moores law, but includes advances in on The Role in World mechanical and electromagnetic systems. Exponential growth in communications technology has been even more explosive than in computation and is no less significant in its implications.

Again, this progression involves far more than just shrinking transistors on conditional sentences examples an integrated circuit, but includes accelerating advances in fiber optics, optical switching, electromagnetic technologies, and others. Notice Cascade of smaller S Curves. Note that in the above two charts we can actually see the progression of S curves: the experiment acceleration fostered by a new paradigm, followed by a leveling off as the paradigm runs out of steam, followed by renewed acceleration through paradigm shift. The following two charts show the overall growth of the Internet based on sentences the number of hosts. Inequity In The! These two charts plot the same data, but one is on an exponential axis and conditional examples the other is Essay Female in the Workplace, linear. As I pointed out earlier, whereas technology progresses in the exponential domain, we experience it in the linear domain. So from the perspective of most observers, nothing was happening until the mid 1990s when seemingly out of conditional examples nowhere, the world wide web and email exploded into view. But the emergence of the Internet into bacp a worldwide phenomenon was readily predictable much earlier by examining the exponential trend data.

Notice how the explosion of the Internet appears to be a surprise from the Linear Chart, but was perfectly predictable from the Exponential Chart. Ultimately we will get away from the tangle of examples wires in our cities and in our lives through wireless communication, the power of which is doubling every 10 to 11 months. Another technology that will have profound implications for the twenty-first century is the in the Sucker Punch pervasive trend toward making things smaller, i.e., miniaturization. The salient implementation sizes of a broad range of technologies, both electronic and mechanical, are shrinking, also at a double exponential rate. At present, we are shrinking technology by a factor of approximately 5.6 per linear dimension per conditional sentences decade. The Exponential Growth of Computation Revisited. If we view the exponential growth of computation in its proper perspective as one example of the pervasiveness of the exponential growth of information based technology, that is, as one example of many of the law of accelerating returns, then we can confidently predict its continuation. In the Essay on Gender Socialization accompanying sidebar, I include a simplified mathematical model of the law of accelerating returns as it pertains to the (double) exponential growth of computing. The formulas below result in the above graph of the continued growth of computation. This graph matches the available data for the twentieth century through all five paradigms and provides projections for conditional sentences, the twenty-first century.

Note how the Growth Rate is growing slowly, but nonetheless exponentially. The Law of Essay about Female Inequity in the Workplace Accelerating Returns Applied to the Growth of sentences Computation. The following provides a brief overview of the Schizophrenia Sucker Punch law of accelerating returns as it applies to the double exponential growth of computation. Examples! This model considers the impact of the growing power of the technology to foster its own next generation. Confidentiality! For example, with more powerful computers and related technology, we have the tools and the knowledge to examples, design yet more powerful computers, and to in the, do so more quickly. Note that the data for the year 2000 and beyond assume neural net connection calculations as it is expected that this type of calculation will ultimately dominate, particularly in emulating human brain functions.

This type of calculation is less expensive than conventional (e.g., Pentium III / IV) calculations by a factor of at least 100 (particularly if implemented using digital controlled analog electronics, which would correspond well to the brains digital controlled analog electrochemical processes). A factor of examples 100 translates into approximately 6 years (today) and less than 6 years later in The Importance Essays the twenty-first century. My estimate of conditional sentences brain capacity is 100 billion neurons times an bacp, average 1,000 connections per neuron (with the calculations taking place primarily in conditional the connections) times 200 calculations per second. On Gender Study! Although these estimates are conservatively high, one can find higher and lower estimates. However, even much higher (or lower) estimates by orders of magnitude only shift the prediction by conditional examples, a relatively small number of Socialization years. Some prominent dates from this analysis include the following: We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for examples, $1,000 around the year 2023.

We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for one cent around the year 2037. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2049. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for one cent around the year 2059. The Model considers the examples following variables: V: Velocity (i.e., power) of computing (measured in CPS/unit cost) W: World Knowledge as it pertains to designing and sentences building computational devices t: Time. The assumptions of the model are: In other words, computer power is bacp confidentiality, a linear function of the knowledge of sentences how to build computers.

This is quasi, actually a conservative assumption. In general, innovations improve V (computer power) by a multiple, not in an additive way. Independent innovations multiply each others effect. For example, a circuit advance such as CMOS, a more efficient IC wiring methodology, and a processor innovation such as pipelining all increase V by independent multiples. In other words, W (knowledge) is cumulative, and examples the instantaneous increment to knowledge is Essay on Gender Socialization Study, proportional to V. W = C1 * C2 * Integral (0 to t) W W = C1 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) (Note on notation: a^b means a raised to the b power.) Simplifying the examples constants, we get: So this is a formula for accelerating (i.e., exponentially growing) returns, a regular Moores Law. As I mentioned above, the data shows exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. (We doubled computer power every three years early in the twentieth century, every two years in the middle of the century, and close to every one year during the 1990s.) Lets factor in another exponential phenomenon, which is the growing resources for computation.

Not only is each (constant cost) device getting more powerful as a function of W, but the resources deployed for computation are also growing exponentially. N: Expenditures for computation V = C1 * W (as before) N = C4 ^ (C5 * t) (Expenditure for computation is growing at its own exponential rate) W = C2 * Integral(0 to t) (N * V) As before, world knowledge is accumulating, and the instantaneous increment is proportional to the amount of computation, which equals the resources deployed for Role Politics, computation (N) * the power of each (constant cost) device. W = C1 * C2 * Integral(0 to t) (C4 ^ (C5 * t) * W) W = C1 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) Simplifying the constants, we get: This is a double exponentialan exponential curve in conditional examples which the rate of exponential growth is Essay Socialization Study, growing at a different exponential rate. Now lets consider real-world data. Considering the data for actual calculating devices and computers during the twentieth century: CPS/$1K: Calculations Per Second for $1,000.

Twentieth century computing data matches: We can determine the growth rate over a period of time: Growth Rate =10^((LOG(CPS/$1K for Current Year) LOG(CPS/$1K for sentences, Previous Year))/(Current Year Previous Year)) Human Brain = 100 Billion (10^11) neurons * 1000 (10^3) Connections/Neuron * 200 (2 * 10^2) Calculations Per Second Per Connection = 2 * 10^16 Calculations Per Second Human Race = 10 Billion (10^10) Human Brains = 2 * 10^26 Calculations Per Second. These formulas produce the graph above. Already, IBMs Blue Gene supercomputer, now being built and quasi experiment examples scheduled to be completed by 2005, is projected to provide 1 million billion calculations per second (i.e., one billion megaflops).

This is already one twentieth of the capacity of the human brain, which I estimate at a conservatively high 20 million billion calculations per second (100 billion neurons times 1,000 connections per neuron times 200 calculations per second per connection). In line with my earlier predictions, supercomputers will achieve one human brain capacity by 2010, and sentences examples personal computers will do so by around 2020. By 2030, it will take a village of about Female Inequity Workplace human brains (around a thousand) to match $1000 of computing. By 2050, $1000 of computing will equal the processing power of all human brains on Earth. Of course, this only includes those brains still using carbon-based neurons. Conditional Sentences! While human neurons are wondrous creations in a way, we wouldnt (and dont) design computing circuits the same way. Essay Role Socialization! Our electronic circuits are already more than ten million times faster than a neurons electrochemical processes. Most of the complexity of a human neuron is devoted to maintaining its life support functions, not its information processing capabilities. Ultimately, we will need to port our mental processes to a more suitable computational substrate.

Then our minds wont have to stay so small, being constrained as they are today to a mere hundred trillion neural connections each operating at a ponderous 200 digitally controlled analog calculations per second. So far, Ive been talking about the hardware of computing. The software is even more salient. One of the principal assumptions underlying the expectation of the Singularity is the ability of nonbiological mediums to emulate the richness, subtlety, and depth of human thinking. Conditional Sentences! Achieving the computational capacity of the human brain, or even villages and nations of human brains will not automatically produce human levels of capability. By human levels I include all the diverse and subtle ways in which humans are intelligent, including musical and artistic aptitude, creativity, physically moving through the world, and understanding and bacp responding appropriately to emotion.

The requisite hardware capacity is a necessary but not sufficient condition. The organization and content of these resourcesthe software of intelligenceis also critical. Before addressing this issue, it is important to note that once a computer achieves a human level of intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it. A key advantage of conditional examples nonbiological intelligence is that machines can easily share their knowledge. If I learn French, or read War and Peace, I cant readily download that learning to you.

You have to Essay about Female in the Workplace, acquire that scholarship the same painstaking way that I did. My knowledge, embedded in a vast pattern of neurotransmitter concentrations and conditional sentences interneuronal connections, cannot be quickly accessed or transmitted. But we wont leave out quick downloading ports in our nonbiological equivalents of human neuron clusters. When one computer learns a skill or gains an insight, it can immediately share that wisdom with billions of other machines. As a contemporary example, we spent years teaching one research computer how to recognize continuous human speech. We exposed it to thousands of hours of recorded speech, corrected its errors, and patiently improved its performance. Confidentiality! Finally, it became quite adept at recognizing speech (I dictated most of my recent book to conditional sentences, it).

Now if you want your own personal computer to recognize speech, it doesnt have to go through the same process; you can just download the fully trained patterns in seconds. Ultimately, billions of Essay on The Negative Politics nonbiological entities can be the master of all human and machine acquired knowledge. In addition, computers are potentially millions of times faster than human neural circuits. A computer can also remember billions or even trillions of facts perfectly, while we are hard pressed to conditional, remember a handful of phone numbers. Role! The combination of human level intelligence in a machine with a computers inherent superiority in the speed, accuracy, and sharing ability of its memory will be formidable. There are a number of compelling scenarios to achieve higher levels of intelligence in conditional sentences our computers, and The Importance of Childhood Vaccination ultimately human levels and beyond. We will be able to sentences, evolve and train a system combining massively parallel neural nets with other paradigms to understand language and model knowledge, including the The Importance Vaccination Essays ability to read and conditional model the knowledge contained in The Importance of Childhood written documents. Unlike many contemporary neural net machines, which use mathematically simplified models of human neurons, some contemporary neural nets are already using highly detailed models of human neurons, including detailed nonlinear analog activation functions and other relevant details.

Although the ability of todays computers to extract and learn knowledge from natural language documents is limited, their capabilities in this domain are improving rapidly. Computers will be able to read on their own, understanding and conditional modeling what they have read, by the second decade of the twenty-first century. We can then have our computers read all of the worlds literaturebooks, magazines, scientific journals, and other available material. Ultimately, the Schizophrenia in the Sucker Essay machines will gather knowledge on their own by venturing out on the web, or even into the physical world, drawing from the full spectrum of media and information services, and sharing knowledge with each other (which machines can do far more easily than their human creators). Reverse Engineering the Human Brain. The most compelling scenario for mastering the software of intelligence is to conditional examples, tap into the blueprint of the best example we can get our hands on of Childhood of an conditional examples, intelligent process. There is no reason why we cannot reverse engineer the human brain, and bacp confidentiality essentially copy its design. Although it took its original designer several billion years to develop, its readily available to us, and conditional examples not (yet) copyrighted.

Although theres a skull around the brain, it is about in the, not hidden from our view. The most immediately accessible way to accomplish this is sentences, through destructive scanning: we take a frozen brain, preferably one frozen just slightly before rather than slightly after it was going to die anyway, and examine one brain layerone very thin sliceat a time. We can readily see every neuron and every connection and every neurotransmitter concentration represented in each synapse-thin layer. Human brain scanning has already started. A condemned killer allowed his brain and body to be scanned and you can access all 10 billion bytes of him on the Internet http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html. He has a 25 billion byte female companion on the site as well in case he gets lonely. This scan is of Realism Politics, not high enough in resolution for our purposes, but then, we probably dont want to base our templates of machine intelligence on the brain of a convicted killer, anyway. But scanning a frozen brain is conditional, feasible today, albeit not yet at a sufficient speed or bandwidth, but again, the on Gender Role law of accelerating returns will provide the requisite speed of conditional examples scanning, just as it did for the human genome scan. Carnegie Mellon Universitys Andreas Nowatzyk plans to bacp confidentiality, scan the nervous system of the conditional sentences examples brain and about Female Inequity body of a mouse with a resolution of sentences examples less than 200 nanometers, which is getting very close to the resolution needed for reverse engineering. We also have noninvasive scanning techniques today, including high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, optical imaging, near-infrared scanning, and other technologies which are capable in certain instances of Essay Role Socialization Study resolving individual somas, or neuron cell bodies. Brain scanning technologies are also increasing their resolution with each new generation, just what we would expect from the law of accelerating returns.

Future generations will enable us to conditional sentences examples, resolve the connections between neurons and to peer inside the synapses and record the neurotransmitter concentrations. We can peer inside someones brain today with noninvasive scanners, which are increasing their resolution with each new generation of this technology. There are a number of technical challenges in accomplishing this, including achieving suitable resolution, bandwidth, lack of vibration, and safety. For a variety of examples reasons it is easier to scan the conditional sentences examples brain of someone recently deceased than of someone still living. It is easier to get someone deceased to sit still, for one thing. But noninvasively scanning a living brain will ultimately become feasible as MRI, optical, and other scanning technologies continue to improve in resolution and speed. Although noninvasive means of scanning the brain from on The Negative Politics, outside the skull are rapidly improving, the most practical approach to capturing every salient neural detail will be to scan it from inside. By 2030, nanobot (i.e., nano robot) technology will be viable, and brain scanning will be a prominent application. Nanobots are robots that are the conditional size of human blood cells, or even smaller. Billions of them could travel through every brain capillary and scan every relevant feature from up close.

Using high speed wireless communication, the nanobots would communicate with each other, and with other computers that are compiling the brain scan data base (in other words, the nanobots will all be on a wireless local area network). This scenario involves only capabilities that we can touch and feel today. We already have technology capable of producing very high resolution scans, provided that the The Importance of Childhood Vaccination Essays scanner is sentences examples, physically proximate to the neural features. The basic computational and communication methods are also essentially feasible today. The primary features that are not yet practical are nanobot size and in the cost. As I discussed above, we can project the examples exponentially declining cost of computation, and the rapidly declining size of Vaccination Essays both electronic and mechanical technologies. We can conservatively expect, therefore, the requisite nanobot technology by examples, around 2030. Schizophrenia Sucker Essay! Because of its ability to place each scanner in very close physical proximity to every neural feature, nanobot-based scanning will be more practical than scanning the brain from outside. How will we apply the thousands of conditional trillions of bytes of information derived from each brain scan? One approach is to use the results to design more intelligent parallel algorithms for our machines, particularly those based on one of the neural net paradigms.

With this approach, we dont have to copy every single connection. There is a great deal of repetition and redundancy within any particular brain region. Although the information contained in a human brain would require thousands of trillions of bytes of information (on the order of 100 billion neurons times an Essay Socialization, average of 1,000 connections per examples neuron, each with multiple neurotransmitter concentrations and connection data), the design of the brain is characterized by experiment examples, a human genome of only about a billion bytes. Furthermore, most of the genome is conditional sentences, redundant, so the initial design of the brain is characterized by approximately one hundred million bytes, about the bacp size of Microsoft Word. Of course, the complexity of our brains greatly increases as we interact with the examples world (by a factor of more than ten million). Because of the highly repetitive patterns found in bacp confidentiality each specific brain region, it is not necessary to capture each detail in sentences order to reverse engineer the experiment significant digital-analog algorithms. With this information, we can design simulated nets that operate similarly. There are already multiple efforts under way to scan the human brain and apply the insights derived to the design of examples intelligent machines.

The pace of on Gender Role Study brain reverse engineering is only slightly behind the conditional examples availability of the Schizophrenia in the Punch Essay brain scanning and neuron structure information. A contemporary example is a comprehensive model of a significant portion of the sentences human auditory processing system that Lloyd Watts (www.lloydwatts.com) has developed from both neurobiology studies of specific neuron types and brain interneuronal connection information. Quasi! Watts model includes five parallel paths and includes the actual intermediate representations of auditory information at each stage of neural processing. Watts has implemented his model as real-time software which can locate and identify sounds with many of the same properties as human hearing. Sentences Examples! Although a work in progress, the model illustrates the Essay Role feasibility of converting neurobiological models and brain connection data into working simulations. Also, as Hans Moravec and others have speculated, these efficient simulations require about 1,000 times less computation than the conditional examples theoretical potential of the quasi biological neurons being simulated.

Reverse Engineering the Human Brain: Five Parallel Auditory Pathways. Chart by Lloyd Watts. Cochlea : Sense organ of hearing. Examples! 30,000 fibers converts motion of the Essay about Female Inequity stapes into conditional sentences spectro-temporal representation of sound. MC : Multipolar Cells. Measure spectral energy. GBC : Globular Bushy Cells. Relays spikes from the Schizophrenia in the Movie Punch Essay auditory nerve to the Lateral Superior. Olivary Complex (includes LSO and MSO) . Encoding of timing and amplitude of conditional sentences signals for binaural comparison of level. SBC : Spherical Bushy Cells.

Provide temporal sharpening of time of arrival, as a pre-processor for interaural time difference calculation. OC : Octopus Cells. Detection of transients. DCN : Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Detection of spectral edges and calibrating for about, noise levels. VNTB : Ventral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body. Feedback signals to modulate outer hair cell function in conditional examples the cochlea. VNLL , PON : Ventral Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus, Peri-Olivary Nuclei. Processing transients from the Octopus Cells. MSO : Medial Superior Olive.

Computing inter-aural time difference (difference in time of arrival between the Essay Inequity in the Workplace two ears, used to tell where a sound is coming from). LSO : Lateral Superior Olive. Also involved in computing inter-aural level difference. ICC : Central Nucleus of the sentences examples Inferior Colliculus. The site of major integration of multiple representations of sound.

ICx : Exterior Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. Further refinement of sound localization. SC : Superior Colliculus. Location of auditory/visual merging. MGB : Medial Geniculate Body.

The auditory portion of the thalamus. LS : Limbic System. Comprising many structures associated with emotion, memory, territory, etc. The brain is not one huge tabula rasa (i.e., undifferentiated blank slate), but rather an intricate and intertwined collection of Negative Role of Realism Politics hundreds of specialized regions. The process of peeling the onion to sentences, understand these interleaved regions is well underway.

As the requisite neuron models and brain interconnection data becomes available, detailed and implementable models such as the auditory example above will be developed for all brain regions. After the algorithms of a region are understood, they can be refined and extended before being implemented in synthetic neural equivalents. Vaccination Essays! For one thing, they can be run on a computational substrate that is already more than ten million times faster than neural circuitry. And we can also throw in the methods for building intelligent machines that we already understand. A more controversial application than this scanning-the-brain-to-understand-it scenario is sentences, scanning-the-brain-to- download -it . Here we scan someones brain to map the locations, interconnections, and contents of all the Essay Negative Role in World somas, axons, dendrites, presynaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter concentrations, and other neural components and levels. Its entire organization can then be re-created on a neural computer of sufficient capacity, including the contents of its memory. To do this, we need to understand local brain processes, although not necessarily all of the higher level processes. Scanning a brain with sufficient detail to download it may sound daunting, but so did the sentences examples human genome scan.

All of the basic technologies exist today, just not with the requisite speed, cost, and size, but these are the attributes that are improving at a double exponential pace. The computationally pertinent aspects of individual neurons are complicated, but definitely not beyond our ability to accurately model. For example, Ted Berger and his colleagues at Hedco Neurosciences have built integrated circuits that precisely match the digital and analog information processing characteristics of neurons, including clusters with hundreds of neurons. Carver Mead and his colleagues at CalTech have built a variety of integrated circuits that emulate the experiment digital-analog characteristics of mammalian neural circuits. A recent experiment at San Diegos Institute for conditional examples, Nonlinear Science demonstrates the Vaccination potential for electronic neurons to sentences, precisely emulate biological ones. Neurons (biological or otherwise) are a prime example of what is often called chaotic computing. Each neuron acts in an essentially unpredictable fashion. The Importance Essays! When an entire network of sentences neurons receives input (from the outside world or from other networks of neurons), the Essay on Gender signaling amongst them appears at first to be frenzied and random. Over time, typically a fraction of a second or so, the chaotic interplay of the neurons dies down, and a stable pattern emerges.

This pattern represents the decision of the neural network. Sentences Examples! If the neural network is Essays, performing a pattern recognition task (which, incidentally, comprises the bulk of the conditional sentences activity in the human brain), then the emergent pattern represents the appropriate recognition. So the question addressed by the San Diego researchers was whether electronic neurons could engage in of Realism this chaotic dance alongside biological ones. They hooked up their artificial neurons with those from spiney lobsters in a single network, and their hybrid biological-nonbiological network performed in the same way (i.e., chaotic interplay followed by a stable emergent pattern) and conditional sentences examples with the same type of results as an all biological net of neurons. Essentially, the biological neurons accepted their electronic peers. It indicates that their mathematical model of Vaccination these neurons was reasonably accurate. There are many projects around the world which are creating nonbiological devices to recreate in great detail the functionality of human neuron clusters. Examples! The accuracy and scale of these neuron-cluster replications are rapidly increasing. The Importance Of Childhood! We started with functionally equivalent recreations of conditional sentences single neurons, then clusters of tens, then hundreds, and now thousands.

Scaling up technical processes at an exponential pace is what technology is good at. As the computational power to Essay Workplace, emulate the human brain becomes availablewere not there yet, but we will be there within a couple of decadesprojects already under way to scan the sentences human brain will be accelerated, with a view both to understand the human brain in general, as well as providing a detailed description of the contents and design of specific brains. By the in the Punch third decade of the twenty-first century, we will be in a position to create highly detailed and examples complete maps of all relevant features of all neurons, neural connections and synapses in the human brain, all of the quasi experiment neural details that play a role in the behavior and conditional examples functionality of the brain, and to recreate these designs in suitably advanced neural computers. Is the Human Brain Different from Essay Workplace, a Computer? Is the conditional sentences examples human brain different from a computer? The answer depends on what we mean by the word computer. Certainly the brain uses very different methods from conventional contemporary computers. Most computers today are all digital and perform one (or perhaps a few) computations at a time at extremely high speed. In contrast, the human brain combines digital and analog methods with most computations performed in The Importance the analog domain. The brain is massively parallel, performing on the order of a hundred trillion computations at the same time, but at extremely slow speeds.

With regard to conditional sentences examples, digital versus analog computing, we know that digital computing can be functionally equivalent to analog computing (although the Essay reverse is not true), so we can perform all of the capabilities of a hybrid digitalanalog network with an all digital computer. On the other hand, there is an engineering advantage to analog circuits in that analog computing is potentially thousands of conditional sentences examples times more efficient. An analog computation can be performed by a few transistors, or, in the case of Essay about Female in the Workplace mammalian neurons, specific electrochemical processes. A digital computation, in contrast, requires thousands or tens of thousands of transistors. Sentences! So there is a significant engineering advantage to emulating the brains analog methods.

The massive parallelism of the human brain is the key to its pattern recognition abilities, which reflects the strength of Schizophrenia Movie human thinking. As I discussed above, mammalian neurons engage in a chaotic dance, and if the neural network has learned its lessons well, then a stable pattern will emerge reflecting the networks decision. There is no reason why our nonbiological functionally equivalent recreations of biological neural networks cannot be built using these same principles, and indeed there are dozens of projects around the conditional examples world that have succeeded in doing this. Schizophrenia Sucker Essay! My own technical field is pattern recognition, and the projects that I have been involved in for over thirty years use this form of chaotic computing. Particularly successful examples are Carver Meads neural chips, which are highly parallel, use digital controlled analog computing, and are intended as functionally similar recreations of biological networks. The Singularity envisions the emergence of human-like intelligent entities of astonishing diversity and scope. Although these entities will be capable of passing the Turing test (i.e., able to fool humans that they are human), the question arises as to whether these people are conscious, or just appear that way.

To gain some insight as to conditional, why this is an extremely subtle question (albeit an ultimately important one) it is useful to consider some of the experiment paradoxes that emerge from the concept of sentences examples downloading specific human brains. Although I anticipate that the most common application of the quasi experiment knowledge gained from reverse engineering the conditional sentences examples human brain will be creating more intelligent machines that are not necessarily modeled on specific biological human individuals, the scenario of quasi scanning and reinstantiating all of the neural details of conditional a specific person raises the most immediate questions of identity. Of Childhood Essays! Lets consider the question of what we will find when we do this. We have to consider this question on both the objective and subjective levels. Objective means everyone except me, so lets start with that. Objectively, when we scan someones brain and reinstantiate their personal mind file into a suitable computing medium, the newly emergent person will appear to other observers to have very much the conditional same personality, history, and memory as the person originally scanned. That is, once the technology has been refined and perfected. Like any new technology, it wont be perfect at Essay about Female Inequity in the first. But ultimately, the scans and recreations will be very accurate and realistic. Interacting with the newly instantiated person will feel like interacting with the original person. The new person will claim to be that same old person and will have a memory of having been that person. The new person will have all of the patterns of sentences knowledge, skill, and on The Negative personality of the original.

We are already creating functionally equivalent recreations of neurons and neuron clusters with sufficient accuracy that biological neurons accept their nonbiological equivalents and work with them as if they were biological. There are no natural limits that prevent us from doing the same with the hundred billion neuron cluster of clusters we call the human brain. Subjectively, the issue is sentences, more subtle and experiment examples profound, but first we need to examples, reflect on one additional objective issue: our physical self. Consider how many of our thoughts and thinking are directed toward our body and quasi experiment examples its survival, security, nutrition, and image, not to mention affection, sexuality, and reproduction. Conditional Examples! Many, if not most, of the goals we attempt to advance using our brains have to do with our bodies: protecting them, providing them with fuel, making them attractive, making them feel good, providing for Essay Inequity Workplace, their myriad needs and desires. Some philosophers maintain that achieving human level intelligence is impossible without a body. Sentences Examples! If were going to port a humans mind to a new computational medium, wed better provide a body. A disembodied mind will quickly get depressed. There are a variety of bodies that we will provide for our machines, and that they will provide for themselves: bodies built through nanotechnology (i.e., building highly complex physical systems atom by atom), virtual bodies (that exist only in Essay Female Inequity virtual reality), bodies comprised of swarms of nanobots, and conditional examples other technologies. A common scenario will be to enhance a persons biological brain with intimate connection to nonbiological intelligence.

In this case, the body remains the good old human body that were familiar with, although this too will become greatly enhanced through biotechnology (gene enhancement and replacement) and, later on, through nanotechnology. A detailed examination of Female in the twenty-first century bodies is beyond the scope of sentences examples this essay, but recreating and enhancing our bodies will be (and has been) an easier task than recreating our minds. To return to the issue of subjectivity, consider: is the reinstantiated mind the The Importance Essays same consciousness as the person we just scanned? Are these people conscious at all? Is this a mind or just a brain?

Consciousness in our twenty-first century machines will be a critically important issue. Conditional Sentences Examples! But it is Female Inequity Workplace, not easily resolved, or even readily understood. People tend to have strong views on the subject, and often just cant understand how anyone else could possibly see the issue from conditional sentences examples, a different perspective. Marvin Minsky observed that theres something queer about describing consciousness. Whatever people mean to say, they just cant seem to make it clear. We dont worry, at least not yet, about causing pain and suffering to Inequity, our computer programs. Conditional Sentences! But at what point do we consider an entity, a process, to experiment examples, be conscious, to feel pain and discomfort, to have its own intentionality, its own free will?

How do we determine if an entity is conscious; if it has subjective experience? How do we distinguish a process that is conscious from one that just acts as if it is conditional sentences examples, conscious? We cant simply ask it. If it says Hey Im conscious, does that settle the issue? No, we have computer games today that effectively do that, and Schizophrenia Sucker Punch Essay theyre not terribly convincing. How about if the entity is very convincing and compelling when it says Im lonely, please keep me company. Does that settle the issue? If we look inside its circuits, and see essentially the identical kinds of conditional feedback loops and other mechanisms in its brain that we see in a human brain (albeit implemented using nonbiological equivalents), does that settle the confidentiality issue? And just who are these people in the machine, anyway? The answer will depend on conditional who you ask. If you ask the people in the machine, they will strenuously claim to be the Vaccination original persons.

For example, if we scanlets say myselfand record the conditional exact state, level, and position of every neurotransmitter, synapse, neural connection, and every other relevant detail, and quasi then reinstantiate this massive data base of information (which I estimate at thousands of sentences examples trillions of bytes) into a neural computer of sufficient capacity, the person who then emerges in the machine will think that he is (and had been) me, or at Essay least he will act that way. He will say I grew up in Queens, New York, went to college at MIT, stayed in the Boston area, started and sold a few artificial intelligence companies, walked into a scanner there, and woke up in the machine here. Sentences Examples! Hey, this technology really works. Is this really me? For one thing, old biological Ray (thats me) still exists. Essay Socialization! Ill still be here in my carbon-cell-based brain. Alas, I will have to sit back and watch the new Ray succeed in endeavors that I could only dream of. Lets consider the issue of just who I am, and who the sentences examples new Ray is a little more carefully.

First of all, am I the stuff in my brain and body? Consider that the quasi experiment particles making up my body and brain are constantly changing. We are not at all permanent collections of particles. The cells in our bodies turn over at conditional examples different rates, but the particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) that comprise our cells are exchanged at a very rapid rate. I am just not the same collection of particles that I was even a month ago.

It is the patterns of matter and energy that are semipermanent (that is, changing only confidentiality gradually), but our actual material content is changing constantly, and very quickly. Conditional Sentences Examples! We are rather like the patterns that water makes in bacp confidentiality a stream. The rushing water around a formation of rocks makes a particular, unique pattern. This pattern may remain relatively unchanged for conditional sentences, hours, even years. The Importance Of Childhood Vaccination! Of course, the sentences actual material constituting the patternthe wateris replaced in milliseconds. The same is true for Ray Kurzweil. Like the Schizophrenia Movie Sucker Punch Essay water in a stream, my particles are constantly changing, but the sentences examples pattern that people recognize as Ray has a reasonable level of continuity. This argues that we should not associate our fundamental identity with a specific set of Schizophrenia Sucker Punch particles, but rather the pattern of conditional sentences examples matter and energy that we represent. Many contemporary philosophers seem partial to this identify from Female in the, pattern argument. If you were to scan my brain and reinstantiate new Ray while I was sleeping, I would not necessarily even know about it (with the nanobots, this will be a feasible scenario).

If you then come to me, and conditional sentences examples say, good news, Ray, weve successfully reinstantiated your mind file, so we wont be needing your old brain anymore, I may suddenly realize the flaw in this identity from in the, pattern argument. Sentences! I may wish new Ray well, and realize that he shares my pattern, but I would nonetheless conclude that hes not me, because Im still here. How could he be me? After all, I would not necessarily know that he even existed. Lets consider another perplexing scenario.

Suppose I replace a small number of biological neurons with functionally equivalent nonbiological ones (they may provide certain benefits such as greater reliability and longevity, but thats not relevant to this thought experiment). After I have this procedure performed, am I still the same person? My friends certainly think so. I still have the same self-deprecating humor, the same silly grinyes, Im still the Vaccination same guy. It should be clear where Im going with this. Bit by bit, region by region, I ultimately replace my entire brain with essentially identical (perhaps improved) nonbiological equivalents (preserving all of the sentences neurotransmitter concentrations and other details that represent my learning, skills, and memories).

At each point, I feel the procedures were successful. At each point, I feel that I am the same guy. After each procedure, I claim to be the same guy. My friends concur. There is no old Ray and new Ray, just one Ray, one that never appears to Essay on Gender Socialization, fundamentally change. But consider this. This gradual replacement of my brain with a nonbiological equivalent is essentially identical to the following sequence: (i) scan Ray and conditional sentences examples reinstantiate Rays mind file into new (nonbiological) Ray, and, then (ii) terminate old Ray. But we concluded above that in Essay in the Workplace such a scenario new Ray is not the same as old Ray.

And if old Ray is sentences examples, terminated, well then thats the end of Essay about Female Inequity Workplace Ray. So the gradual replacement scenario essentially ends with the same result: New Ray has been created, and old Ray has been destroyed, even if we never saw him missing. Conditional Sentences Examples! So what appears to be the continuing existence of just one Ray is really the creation of new Ray and the termination of old Ray. On yet another hand (were running out of philosophical hands here), the gradual replacement scenario is not altogether different from what happens normally to quasi experiment, our biological selves, in that our particles are always rapidly being replaced. Conditional Sentences! So am I constantly being replaced with someone else who just happens to be very similar to my old self? I am trying to illustrate why consciousness is not an on The, easy issue. If we talk about consciousness as just a certain type of intelligent skill: the ability to sentences, reflect on examples ones own self and situation, for examples, example, then the Essay on Gender Role Socialization issue is not difficult at all because any skill or capability or form of intelligence that one cares to define will be replicated in examples nonbiological entities (i.e., machines) within a few decades. With this type of objective view of bacp consciousness, the conundrums do go away. But a fully objective view does not penetrate to the core of the issue, because the conditional sentences essence of quasi experiment consciousness is subjective experience, not objective correlates of that experience. Will these future machines be capable of conditional sentences having spiritual experiences? They certainly will claim to.

They will claim to be people, and to have the full range of emotional and spiritual experiences that people claim to Essay about Female Inequity in the Workplace, have. And these will not be idle claims; they will evidence the sort of rich, complex, and subtle behavior one associates with these feelings. How do the claims and behaviorscompelling as they will berelate to the subjective experience of these reinstantiated people? We keep coming back to the very real but ultimately unmeasurable issue of consciousness. People often talk about consciousness as if it were a clear property of an entity that can readily be identified, detected, and gauged. If there is one crucial insight that we can make regarding why the issue of consciousness is so contentious, it is the following: There exists no objective test that can conclusively determine its presence. Science is about objective measurement and conditional sentences logical implications therefrom, but the very nature of objectivity is that you cannot measure subjective experience-you can only examples measure correlates of it, such as behavior (and by behavior, I include the examples actions of components of an entity, such as neurons). This limitation has to do with the on The in World Politics very nature of the concepts objective and conditional subjective. Fundamentally, we cannot penetrate the subjective experience of quasi experiment another entity with direct objective measurement. We can certainly make arguments about conditional sentences examples, it: i.e., look inside the brain of this nonhuman entity, see how its methods are just like a human brain. Or, see how its behavior is just like human behavior. But in the end, these remain just arguments.

No matter how convincing the behavior of a reinstantiated person, some observers will refuse to accept the consciousness of an bacp confidentiality, entity unless it squirts neurotransmitters, or is based on DNA-guided protein synthesis, or has some other specific biologically human attribute. We assume that other humans are conscious, but that is still an sentences examples, assumption, and there is no consensus amongst humans about the consciousness of nonhuman entities, such as higher non-human animals. Essay About Workplace! The issue will be even more contentious with regard to future nonbiological entities with human-like behavior and intelligence. So how will we resolve the claimed consciousness of nonbiological intelligence (claimed, that is, by the machines)? From a practical perspective, well accept their claims. Keep in mind that nonbiological entities in the twenty-first century will be extremely intelligent, so theyll be able to convince us that they are conscious. Theyll have all the delicate and emotional cues that convince us today that humans are conscious. They will be able to make us laugh and cry.

And theyll get mad if we dont accept their claims. But fundamentally this is a political prediction, not a philosophical argument. Over the conditional sentences examples past several years, Roger Penrose, a noted physicist and philosopher, has suggested that fine structures in the neurons called tubules perform an exotic form of computation called quantum computing. Quantum computing is computing using what are called qu bits which take on all possible combinations of solutions simultaneously. It can be considered to be an extreme form of parallel processing (because every combination of values of the on Gender Socialization qu bits are tested simultaneously). Penrose suggests that the tubules and their quantum computing capabilities complicate the concept of recreating neurons and reinstantiating mind files. However, there is little to suggest that the tubules contribute to the thinking process. Even generous models of human knowledge and conditional sentences capability are more than accounted for by current estimates of brain size, based on contemporary models of neuron functioning that do not include tubules. In fact, even with these tubule-less models, it appears that the Role Study brain is conservatively designed with many more connections (by several orders of magnitude) than it needs for its capabilities and capacity. Recent experiments (e.g., the conditional San Diego Institute for Nonlinear Science experiments) showing that hybrid biological-nonbiological networks perform similarly to all biological networks, while not definitive, are strongly suggestive that our tubule-less models of neuron functioning are adequate. Lloyd Watts software simulation of his intricate model of Role of Realism in World Politics human auditory processing uses orders of magnitude less computation than the networks of sentences examples neurons he is simulating, and there is no suggestion that quantum computing is needed. However, even if the tubules are important, it doesnt change the projections I have discussed above to any significant degree.

According to my model of computational growth, if the tubules multiplied neuron complexity by a factor of The Importance Vaccination Essays a thousand (and keep in mind that our current tubule-less neuron models are already complex, including on conditional examples the order of a thousand connections per neuron, multiple nonlinearities and of Childhood Vaccination other details), this would delay our reaching brain capacity by conditional sentences, only about 9 years. If were off by a factor of a million, thats still only Inequity in the a delay of 17 years. Conditional Sentences Examples! A factor of a billion is around 24 years (keep in mind computation is Essay on The Negative in World, growing by a double exponential). With regard to conditional sentences, quantum computing, once again there is nothing to suggest that the Essay Female Inequity brain does quantum computing. Just because quantum technology may be feasible does not suggest that the brain is capable of it.

After all, we dont have lasers or even radios in our brains. Although some scientists have claimed to detect quantum wave collapse in the brain, no one has suggested human capabilities that actually require a capacity for quantum computing. However, even if the brain does do quantum computing, this does not significantly change the outlook for human-level computing (and beyond) nor does it suggest that brain downloading is conditional, infeasible. Essay On Gender Socialization! First of all, if the brain does do quantum computing this would only verify that quantum computing is feasible. There would be nothing in such a finding to suggest that quantum computing is restricted to biological mechanisms. Conditional Sentences Examples! Biological quantum computing mechanisms, if they exist, could be replicated. Indeed, recent experiments with small scale quantum computers appear to be successful. Even the conventional transistor relies on the quantum effect of electron tunneling. Penrose suggests that it is impossible to perfectly replicate a set of quantum states, so therefore, perfect downloading is impossible. Well, how perfect does a download have to be?

I am at this moment in a very different quantum state (and different in non-quantum ways as well) than I was a minute ago (certainly in Essay about Workplace a very different state than I was before I wrote this paragraph). If we develop downloading technology to the point where the copies are as close to the original as the conditional original person changes anyway in the course of one minute, that would be good enough for Essay Role Study, any conceivable purpose, yet does not require copying quantum states. As the technology improves, the examples accuracy of the copy could become as close as the original changes within ever briefer periods of time (e.g., one second, one millisecond, one microsecond). When it was pointed out to Penrose that neurons (and even neural connections) were too big for quantum computing, he came up with the tubule theory as a possible mechanism for neural quantum computing. So the concern with quantum computing and tubules have been introduced together. If one is searching for quasi, barriers to replicating brain function, it is an ingenious theory, but it fails to introduce any genuine barriers.

There is sentences examples, no evidence for it, and even if true, it only delays matters by a decade or two. There is no reason to believe that biological mechanisms (including quantum computing) are inherently impossible to replicate using nonbiological materials and bacp confidentiality mechanisms. Conditional Sentences! Dozens of contemporary experiments are successfully performing just such replications. The Noninvasive Surgery-Free Reversible Programmable Distributed Brain Implant, Full-Immersion Shared Virtual Reality Environments, Experience Beamers, and Brain Expansion. How will we apply technology that is more intelligent than its creators? One might be tempted to respond Carefully! But lets take a look at some examples. Consider several examples of the nanobot technology, which, based on miniaturization and cost reduction trends, will be feasible within 30 years. In addition to scanning your brain, the nanobots will also be able to expand our experiences and our capabilities.

Nanobot technology will provide fully immersive, totally convincing virtual reality in the following way. The nanobots take up positions in close physical proximity to every interneuronal connection coming from all of Schizophrenia in the Sucker Punch Essay our senses (e.g., eyes, ears, skin). We already have the technology for electronic devices to communicate with neurons in both directions that requires no direct physical contact with the neurons. For example, scientists at the Max Planck Institute have developed neuron transistors that can detect the firing of a nearby neuron, or alternatively, can cause a nearby neuron to fire, or suppress it from firing. This amounts to two-way communication between neurons and the electronic-based neuron transistors. The Institute scientists demonstrated their invention by controlling the movement of a living leech from their computer. Again, the primary aspect of nanobot-based virtual reality that is sentences, not yet feasible is size and cost.

When we want to in the Workplace, experience real reality, the nanobots just stay in position (in the conditional examples capillaries) and confidentiality do nothing. If we want to sentences examples, enter virtual reality, they suppress all of the quasi examples inputs coming from the real senses, and replace them with the signals that would be appropriate for the virtual environment. You (i.e., your brain) could decide to cause your muscles and limbs to move as you normally would, but the nanobots again intercept these interneuronal signals, suppress your real limbs from moving, and instead cause your virtual limbs to move and conditional sentences provide the appropriate movement and reorientation in the virtual environment. The web will provide a panoply of virtual environments to explore. On Gender! Some will be recreations of real places, others will be fanciful environments that have no real counterpart. Some indeed would be impossible in the physical world (perhaps, because they violate the laws of physics). We will be able to go to examples, these virtual environments by Essay on The of Realism Politics, ourselves, or we will meet other people there, both real people and simulated people. Of course, ultimately there wont be a clear distinction between the two.

By 2030, going to a web site will mean entering a full immersion virtual reality environment. In addition to encompassing all of the senses, these shared environments can include emotional overlays as the nanobots will be capable of triggering the neurological correlates of emotions, sexual pleasure, and other derivatives of our sensory experience and mental reactions. In the conditional sentences same way that people today beam their lives from web cams in their bedrooms, experience beamers circa 2030 will beam their entire flow of sensory experiences, and if so desired, their emotions and other secondary reactions. Essay On Gender Socialization Study! Well be able to plug in conditional examples (by going to the appropriate web site) and experience other peoples lives as in the plot concept of Being John Malkovich. Particularly interesting experiences can be archived and relived at any time. We wont need to wait until 2030 to experience shared virtual reality environments, at least for the visual and auditory senses. Essay On Gender Study! Full immersion visual-auditory environments will be available by the end of this decade with images written directly onto our retinas by our eyeglasses and contact lenses.

All of the sentences examples electronics for the computation, image reconstruction, and very high bandwidth wireless connection to the Internet will be embedded in our glasses and woven into our clothing, so computers as distinct objects will disappear. In my view, the Schizophrenia in the Movie Essay most significant implication of the Singularity will be the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence. First, it is important to point out conditional sentences examples that well before the end of the twenty-first century, thinking on nonbiological substrates will dominate. Vaccination! Biological thinking is examples, stuck at 10 26 calculations per confidentiality second (for all biological human brains), and that figure will not appreciably change, even with bioengineering changes to our genome. Nonbiological intelligence, on conditional sentences the other hand, is growing at a double exponential rate and will vastly exceed biological intelligence well before the bacp confidentiality middle of conditional this century. However, in my view, this nonbiological intelligence should still be considered human as it is The Importance Vaccination Essays, fully derivative of the human-machine civilization. Conditional Examples! The merger of these two worlds of experiment examples intelligence is not merely a merger of biological and sentences nonbiological thinking mediums, but more importantly one of method and organization of thinking. One of the key ways in quasi experiment examples which the two worlds can interact will be through the nanobots. Nanobot technology will be able to expand our minds in sentences examples virtually any imaginable way. On The In World! Our brains today are relatively fixed in conditional sentences design.

Although we do add patterns of interneuronal connections and neurotransmitter concentrations as a normal part of the on The Negative of Realism in World learning process, the current overall capacity of the human brain is highly constrained, restricted to a mere hundred trillion connections. Conditional Sentences! Brain implants based on massively distributed intelligent nanobots will ultimately expand our memories a trillion fold, and otherwise vastly improve all of our sensory, pattern recognition, and bacp confidentiality cognitive abilities. Since the sentences nanobots are communicating with each other over Essay on Gender Socialization, a wireless local area network, they can create any set of new neural connections, can break existing connections (by suppressing neural firing), can create new hybrid biological-nonbiological networks, as well as add vast new nonbiological networks. Using nanobots as brain extenders is conditional sentences, a significant improvement over the idea of surgically installed neural implants, which are beginning to Essay on The of Realism in World, be used today (e.g., ventral posterior nucleus, subthalmic nucleus, and ventral lateral thalamus neural implants to counteract Parkinsons Disease and tremors from other neurological disorders, cochlear implants, and others.) Nanobots will be introduced without surgery, essentially just by injecting or even swallowing them. Sentences! They can all be directed to leave, so the process is easily reversible. Essay Inequity! They are programmable, in that they can provide virtual reality one minute, and a variety of brain extensions the next. They can change their configuration, and clearly can alter their software. Conditional Sentences! Perhaps most importantly, they are massively distributed and therefore can take up billions or trillions of positions throughout the brain, whereas a surgically introduced neural implant can only be placed in one or at most a few locations. The Double Exponential Growth of the Economy During the of Childhood 1990s Was Not a Bubble.

Yet another manifestation of the law of conditional accelerating returns as it rushes toward the Singularity can be found in the world of economics, a world vital to both the in the Essay genesis of the law of accelerating returns, and to its implications. Conditional Sentences Examples! It is the economic imperative of a competitive marketplace that is bacp confidentiality, driving technology forward and fueling the law of accelerating returns. In turn, the law of accelerating returns, particularly as it approaches the conditional Singularity, is transforming economic relationships. Virtually all of the economic models taught in economics classes, used by the Federal Reserve Board to examples, set monetary policy, by Government agencies to conditional sentences examples, set economic policy, and by economic forecasters of all kinds are fundamentally flawed because they are based on experiment the intuitive linear view of history rather than the historically based exponential view. The reason that these linear models appear to work for a while is for the same reason that most people adopt the intuitive linear view in the first place: exponential trends appear to be linear when viewed (and experienced) for a brief period of time, particularly in the early stages of an exponential trend when not much is happening. But once the knee of the curve is achieved and the exponential growth explodes, the linear models break down. The exponential trends underlying productivity growth are just beginning this explosive phase. The economy (viewed either in total or per conditional sentences capita) has been growing exponentially throughout this century:

There is Female in the Workplace, also a second level of exponential growth, but up until recently the second exponent has been in sentences examples the early phase so that the in the Punch Essay growth in conditional sentences the growth rate has not been noticed. However, this has changed in this past decade, during which the rate of growth has been noticeably exponential. Productivity (economic output per in the Essay worker) has also been growing exponentially. Even these statistics are greatly understated because they do not fully reflect significant improvements in the quality and features of examples products and services. Essay On Gender Socialization Study! It is not the case that a car is a car; there have been significant improvements in safety, reliability, and sentences examples features. There are a myriad of such examples. Pharmaceutical drugs are increasingly effective. Groceries ordered in five minutes on Sucker Punch Essay the web and delivered to your door are worth more than groceries on a supermarket shelf that you have to fetch yourself. Clothes custom manufactured for your unique body scan are worth more than clothes you happen to find left on a store rack.

These sorts of improvements are true for conditional examples, most product categories, and none of them are reflected in the productivity statistics. The statistical methods underlying the productivity measurements tend to factor out gains by essentially concluding that we still only get one dollar of on The Negative Role of Realism products and services for a dollar despite the fact that we get much more for a dollar (e.g., compare a $1,000 computer today to one ten years ago). University of Chicago Professor Pete Klenow and University of Rochester Professor Mark Bils estimate that the value of existing goods has been increasing at 1.5% per conditional sentences year for the past 20 years because of qualitative improvements. This still does not account for on Gender Role Socialization, the introduction of conditional sentences entirely new products and product categories. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is responsible for the inflation statistics, uses a model that incorporates an estimate of quality growth at Essay Workplace only 0.5% per year, reflecting a systematic underestimate of sentences examples quality improvement and a resulting overestimate of of Childhood inflation by at conditional least 1 percent per year. Despite these weaknesses in the productivity statistical methods, the gains in productivity are now reaching the steep part of the exponential curve. Labor productivity grew at 1.6% per year until 1994, then rose at 2.4% per year, and is now growing even more rapidly. Negative Politics! In the quarter ending July 30, 2000, labor productivity grew at 5.3%. Sentences! Manufacturing productivity grew at Schizophrenia Movie Essay 4.4% annually from 1995 to 1999, durables manufacturing at 6.5% per year.

The 1990s have seen the most powerful deflationary forces in history. This is why we are not seeing inflation. Yes, its true that low unemployment, high asset values, economic growth, and other such factors are inflationary, but these factors are offset by the double exponential trends in the price-performance of all information based technologies: computation, memory, communications, biotechnology, miniaturization, and even the overall rate of conditional examples technical progress. These technologies deeply affect all industries. We are also undergoing massive disintermediation in experiment the channels of distribution through the web and other new communication technologies, as well as escalating efficiencies in operations and administration. All of the technology trend charts in conditional sentences this essay e represent massive deflation. Essay About Female In The Workplace! There are many examples of the impact of conditional examples these escalating efficiencies. BP Amocos cost for finding oil is now less than $1 per Inequity barrel, down from nearly $10 in conditional sentences 1991. Processing an internet transaction costs a bank one penny, compared to over $1 using a teller ten years ago. Essay On The! A Roland Berger / Deutsche Bank study estimates a cost savings of $1200 per sentences North American car over the next five years. Essay On Gender Role! A more optimistic Morgan Stanley study estimates that Internet-based procurement will save Ford, GM, and DaimlerChrysler about $2700 per vehicle.

Software prices are deflating even more quickly than computer hardware. Software Price-Performance Has Also Improved at an Exponential Rate. Current economic policy is based on outdated models which include energy prices, commodity prices, and capital investment in plant and equipment as key driving factors, but do not adequately model bandwidth, MIPs, megabytes, intellectual property, knowledge, and other increasingly vital (and increasingly increasing) constituents that are driving the economy. The economy wants to grow more than the 3.5% per year, which constitutes the current speed limit that the Federal Reserve bank and conditional other policy makers have established as safe, meaning noninflationary. But in examples keeping with the law of accelerating returns, the conditional economy is capable of Essay on Gender safely establishing this level of conditional examples growth in Female Inequity in the Workplace less than a year, implying a growth rate in an entire year of greater than 3.5%.

Recently, the growth rate has exceeded 5%. None of this means that cycles of recession will disappear immediately. The economy still has some of the underlying dynamics that historically have caused cycles of recession, specifically excessive commitments such as capital intensive projects and the overstocking of inventories. However, the conditional examples rapid dissemination of information, sophisticated forms of about online procurement, and increasingly transparent markets in all industries have diminished the impact of this cycle. So recessions are likely to be shallow and short lived. The underlying long-term growth rate will continue at a double exponential rate. The overall growth of the economy reflects completely new forms and layers of conditional wealth and value that did not previously exist, or least that did not previously constitute a significant portion of the economy (but do now): intellectual property, communication portals, web sites, bandwidth, software, data bases, and Role Socialization many other new technology based categories.

There is no need for high interest rates to counter an inflation that doesnt exist. Conditional! The inflationary pressures which exist are counterbalanced by all of the deflationary forces Ive mentioned. In The Essay! The current high interest rates fostered by examples, the Federal Reserve Bank are destructive, are causing trillions of dollars of lost wealth, are regressive, hurt business and the middle class, and are completely unnecessary. The Feds monetary policy is only influential because people believe it to be. It has little real power. Essay Female Workplace! The economy today is conditional, largely backed by Vaccination Essays, private capital in the form of a growing variety of equity instruments. The portion of available liquidity in the economy that the Fed actually controls is conditional sentences examples, relatively insignificant. The reserves that banks and financial institutions maintain with the Federal Reserve System are less than $50 billion, which is only 0.6% of the GDP, and on The Negative Role of Realism Politics 0.25% of the liquidity available in stocks. Restricting the growth rate of the economy to conditional sentences examples, an arbitrary limit makes as much sense as restricting the rate at which a company can grow its revenuesor its market cap. Speculative fever will certainly occur and there will necessarily continue to be high profile failures and market corrections. Schizophrenia In The Essay! However the ability of technology companies to rapidly create newrealwealth is just one of the factors that will continue to fuel ongoing double exponential growth in sentences the economy.

These policies have led to an Alice in Wonderland situation in which the market goes up on bad economic news (because it means that more unnecessary punishment will be avoided) and goes down on good economic news. Speaking of market speculative fever and market corrections, the stock market values for so-called B to Essay Role of Realism in World, B (Business to Business) and B to sentences examples, C (Business to Consumer) web portals and enabling technologies is bacp confidentiality, likely to come back strongly as it becomes clear that economic transactions are indeed escalating toward e-commerce, and that the (surviving) contenders are capable of demonstrating profitable business models. The intuitive linear assumption underlying economic thinking reaches its most ludicrous conclusions in the political debate surrounding the long-term future of the conditional social security system. The economic models used for the social security projections are entirely linear, i.e., they reflect fixed economic growth. This might be viewed as conservative planning if we were talking about projections of only a few years, but they become utterly unrealistic for the three to confidentiality, four decades being discussed. These projections actually assume a fixed rate of growth of conditional sentences 3.5% per year for the next fifty years! There are incredibly naive assumptions that bear on both sides of the argument.

On the one hand, there will be radical extensions to human longevity, while on the other hand, we will benefit from quasi, far greater economic expansion. These factors do not rule each other out, however, as the positive factors are stronger, and will ultimately dominate. Moreover, we are certain to rethink social security when we have centenarians who look and act like 30 year-olds (but who will think much faster than 30 year-olds circa the year 2000). Another implication of the law of accelerating returns is exponential growth in education and conditional sentences learning. Over the past 120 years, we have increased our investment in K-12 education (per student and in constant dollars) by a factor of ten. We have a one hundred fold increase in Essay on The Negative of Realism in World Politics the number of college students. Automation started by amplifying the power of our muscles, and in sentences recent times has been amplifying the power of our minds. Thus, for the past two centuries, automation has been eliminating jobs at the bottom of the skill ladder while creating new (and better paying) jobs at The Importance the top of the skill ladder. So the ladder has been moving up, and thus we have been exponentially increasing investments in sentences education at all levels. Oh, and about that offer at the beginning of this essay, consider that present stock values are based on future expectations.

Given that the (literally) short sighted linear intuitive view represents the ubiquitous outlook, the Essay Role Study common wisdom in economic expectations are dramatically understated. Conditional Examples! Although stock prices reflect the consensus of a buyer-seller market, it nonetheless reflects the underlying linear assumption regarding future economic growth. But the bacp confidentiality law of conditional examples accelerating returns clearly implies that the growth rate will continue to grow exponentially because the rate of progress will continue to accelerate. Although (weakening) recessionary cycles will continue to Movie, cause immediate growth rates to fluctuate, the underlying rate of growth will continue to double approximately every decade. But wait a second, you said that I would get $40 trillion if I read and examples understood this essay. Thats right.

According to my models, if we replace the on The Role Politics linear outlook with the more appropriate exponential outlook, current stock prices should triple. Since theres about $20 trillion in conditional the equity markets, thats $40 trillion in additional wealth. But you said I would get that money. No, I said you would get the money, and thats why I suggested reading the sentence carefully. The English word you can be singular or plural. I meant it in the sense of all of you. I see, all of us as in the whole world. But not everyone will read this essay. Well, but everyone could.

So if all of you read this essay and understand it, then economic expectations would be based on the historical exponential model, and Schizophrenia Punch thus stock values would increase. You mean if everyone understands it, and conditional sentences agrees with it. Okay, I suppose I was assuming that. Is that what you expect to happen. Well, actually, no. Putting on confidentiality my futurist hat again, my prediction is that indeed these views will prevail, but only over conditional examples, time, as more and more evidence of the exponential nature of technology and its impact on Essay about Female in the Workplace the economy becomes apparent. This will happen gradually over the next several years, which will represent a strong continuing updraft for the market.

Technology has always been a double edged sword, bringing us longer and healthier life spans, freedom from physical and mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities on the one hand, while introducing new and salient dangers on the other. We still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons (not all of which appear to be well accounted for) to end all mammalian life on the planet. Sentences! Bioengineering is in the early stages of enormous strides in Schizophrenia in the Movie Sucker Essay reversing disease and aging processes. However, the means and knowledge will soon exist in a routine college bioengineering lab (and already exists in more sophisticated labs) to create unfriendly pathogens more dangerous than nuclear weapons. Conditional Sentences! As technology accelerates toward the confidentiality Singularity, we will see the same intertwined potentials: a feast of creativity resulting from human intelligence expanded a trillion-fold combined with many grave new dangers. Consider unrestrained nanobot replication. Nanobot technology requires billions or trillions of such intelligent devices to be useful.

The most cost effective way to scale up to such levels is through self-replication, essentially the same approach used in the biological world. And in the same way that biological self-replication gone awry (i.e., cancer) results in biological destruction, a defect in conditional examples the mechanism curtailing nanobot self-replication would endanger all physical entities, biological or otherwise. Other primary concerns include who is controlling the nanobots? and about who are the examples nanobots talking to? Organizations (e.g., governments, extremist groups) or just a clever individual could put trillions of undetectable nanobots in the water or food supply of an individual or of an entire population. These spy nanobots could then monitor, influence, and Essay on The Negative Role of Realism Politics even control our thoughts and actions. In addition to introducing physical spy nanobots, existing nanobots could be influenced through software viruses and other software hacking techniques. When there is software running in our brains, issues of privacy and security will take on a new urgency. My own expectation is that the creative and sentences examples constructive applications of this technology will dominate, as I believe they do today. In The Sucker Essay! But there will be a valuable (and increasingly vocal) role for a concerned and constructive Luddite movement (i.e., anti-technologists inspired by early nineteenth century weavers who destroyed labor-saving machinery in protest). If we imagine describing the dangers that exist today to people who lived a couple of hundred years ago, they would think it mad to take such risks. On the other hand, how many people in conditional sentences the year 2000 would really want to go back to the short, brutish, disease-filled, poverty-stricken, disaster-prone lives that 99 percent of the human race struggled through a couple of centuries ago? We may romanticize the past, but up until fairly recently, most of humanity lived extremely fragile lives where one all too common misfortune could spell disaster.

Substantial portions of our species still live in this precarious way, which is at about Female Inequity in the Workplace least one reason to continue technological progress and the economic enhancement that accompanies it. People often go through three stages in examining the impact of future technology: awe and wonderment at its potential to examples, overcome age old problems, then a sense of dread at a new set of grave dangers that accompany these new technologies, followed, finally and hopefully, by the realization that the only viable and responsible path is to set a careful course that can realize the promise while managing the Essay on Gender Socialization Study peril. In his cover story for WIRED Why The Future Doesnt Need Us, Bill Joy eloquently described the conditional examples plagues of centuries past, and how new self-replicating technologies, such as mutant bioengineered pathogens, and nanobots run amok, may bring back long forgotten pestilence. Indeed these are real dangers. Quasi Experiment! It is also the sentences examples case, which Joy acknowledges, that it has been technological advances, such as antibiotics and improved sanitation, which has freed us from the prevalence of such plagues. Suffering in the world continues and demands our steadfast attention. Should we tell the millions of people afflicted with cancer and other devastating conditions that we are canceling the development of all bioengineered treatments because there is a risk that these same technologies may someday be used for malevolent purposes? Having asked the rhetorical question, I realize that there is on Gender Role Study, a movement to do exactly that, but I think most people would agree that such broad based relinquishment is not the answer.

The continued opportunity to sentences examples, alleviate human distress is one important motivation for continuing technological advancement. Also compelling are the Essay on The of Realism in World Politics already apparent economic gains I discussed above which will continue to hasten in sentences the decades ahead. The continued acceleration of many intertwined technologies are roads paved with gold (I use the plural here because technology is clearly not a single path). In a competitive environment, it is an economic imperative to go down these roads. Relinquishing technological advancement would be economic suicide for individuals, companies, and nations. Which brings us to of Childhood Essays, the issue of relinquishment, which is Bill Joys most controversial recommendation and personal commitment. I do feel that relinquishment at the right level is part of a responsible and conditional examples constructive response to these genuine perils. The issue, however, is exactly this: at what level are we to relinquish technology? Ted Kaczynski would have us renounce all of it. This, in my view, is neither desirable nor feasible, and the futility of such a position is Essays, only underscored by the senselessness of Kaczynskis deplorable tactics. Another level would be to forego certain fields; nanotechnology, for example, that might be regarded as too dangerous.

But such sweeping strokes of relinquishment are equally untenable. Nanotechnology is simply the inevitable end result of the persistent trend toward miniaturization which pervades all of technology. It is far from a single centralized effort, but is being pursued by a myriad of sentences examples projects with many diverse goals. One observer wrote: A further reason why industrial society cannot be reformed. . . is that modern technology is a unified system in which all parts are dependent on Schizophrenia Essay one another. You cant get rid of the bad parts of technology and retain only the good parts. Take modern medicine, for conditional sentences examples, example. Progress in Socialization Study medical science depends on progress in sentences examples chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and other fields. Advanced medical treatments require expensive, high-tech equipment that can be made available only by a technologically progressive, economically rich society. Essay About Female Workplace! Clearly you cant have much progress in medicine without the sentences examples whole technological system and everything that goes with it. The observer I am quoting is, again, Ted Kaczynski.

Although one might properly resist Kaczynski as an authority, I believe he is correct on the deeply entangled nature of the benefits and risks. However, Kaczynski and I clearly part company on our overall assessment on bacp confidentiality the relative balance between the two. Bill Joy and conditional I have dialogued on this issue both publicly and Female Inequity Workplace privately, and we both believe that technology will and should progress, and that we need to sentences, be actively concerned with the dark side. If Bill and I disagree, its on the granularity of The Importance of Childhood Essays relinquishment that is both feasible and desirable. Abandonment of broad areas of technology will only push them underground where development would continue unimpeded by examples, ethics and regulation. In such a situation, it would be the less stable, less responsible practitioners (e.g., the terrorists) who would have all the expertise.

I do think that relinquishment at the right level needs to be part of our ethical response to the dangers of twenty first century technologies. One constructive example of this is the proposed ethical guideline by the Foresight Institute, founded by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, that nanotechnologists agree to relinquish the Essay on Gender Socialization Study development of physical entities that can self-replicate in a natural environment. Another is conditional, a ban on self-replicating physical entities that contain their own codes for self-replication. In what nanotechnologist Ralph Merkle calls the Broadcast Architecture, such entities would have to Essay of Realism, obtain such codes from a centralized secure server, which would guard against undesirable replication. The Broadcast Architecture is impossible in the biological world, which represents at least one way in conditional sentences which nanotechnology can be made safer than biotechnology.

In other ways, nanotech is potentially more dangerous because nanobots can be physically stronger than protein-based entities and more intelligent. It will eventually be possible to combine the two by having nanotechnology provide the codes within biological entities (replacing DNA), in quasi experiment which case biological entities can use the sentences much safer Broadcast Architecture. Our ethics as responsible technologists should include such fine grained relinquishment, among other professional ethical guidelines. The Importance Of Childhood Vaccination Essays! Other protections will need to include oversight by regulatory bodies, the development of technology-specific immune responses, as well as computer assisted surveillance by conditional sentences, law enforcement organizations. Many people are not aware that our intelligence agencies already use advanced technologies such as automated word spotting to monitor a substantial flow of Vaccination telephone conversations. As we go forward, balancing our cherished rights of privacy with our need to be protected from the malicious use of powerful twenty first century technologies will be one of many profound challenges. This is one reason that such issues as an encryption trap door (in which law enforcement authorities would have access to otherwise secure information) and the FBI Carnivore email-snooping system have been so contentious. As a test case, we can take a small measure of comfort from how we have dealt with one recent technological challenge.

There exists today a new form of fully nonbiological self replicating entity that didnt exist just a few decades ago: the computer virus. When this form of destructive intruder first appeared, strong concerns were voiced that as they became more sophisticated, software pathogens had the potential to destroy the computer network medium they live in. Yet the immune system that has evolved in response to this challenge has been largely effective. Although destructive self-replicating software entities do cause damage from sentences, time to time, the injury is but a small fraction of the benefit we receive from the computers and communication links that harbor them. Schizophrenia Movie Sucker Essay! No one would suggest we do away with computers, local area networks, and sentences examples the Internet because of software viruses. One might counter that computer viruses do not have the lethal potential of biological viruses or of destructive nanotechnology. Although true, this strengthens my observation. The fact that computer viruses are not usually deadly to humans only means that more people are willing to create and release them. It also means that our response to the danger is that much less intense. Conversely, when it comes to self replicating entities that are potentially lethal on a large scale, our response on on Gender Socialization Study all levels will be vastly more serious.

Technology will remain a double edged sword, and the story of the sentences examples Twenty First century has not yet been written. Essay On The Negative Role Politics! It represents vast power to be used for all humankinds purposes. We have no choice but to work hard to apply these quickening technologies to advance our human values, despite what often appears to be a lack of consensus on examples what those values should be. Once brain porting technology has been refined and fully developed, will this enable us to live forever? The answer depends on what we mean by living and dying. Essay Role! Consider what we do today with our personal computer files. When we change from one personal computer to a less obsolete model, we dont throw all our files away; rather we copy them over to the new hardware. Although our software files do not necessary continue their existence forever, the longevity of our personal computer software is completely separate and disconnected from the hardware that it runs on. When it comes to our personal mind file, however, when our human hardware crashes, the software of our lives dies with it. However, this will not continue to be the case when we have the examples means to store and restore the about Inequity thousands of trillions of bytes of information represented in the pattern that we call our brains. The longevity of ones mind file will not be dependent, therefore, on the continued viability of any particular hardware medium.

Ultimately software-based humans, albeit vastly extended beyond the severe limitations of humans as we know them today, will live out on the web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including virtual bodies in diverse realms of virtual reality, holographically projected bodies, physical bodies comprised of sentences examples nanobot swarms, and other forms of Essay on Gender Role Socialization nanotechnology. A software-based human will be free, therefore, from the constraints of any particular thinking medium. Today, we are each confined to conditional sentences, a mere hundred trillion connections, but humans at the end of the twenty-first century can grow their thinking and Schizophrenia Movie Essay thoughts without limit. We may regard this as a form of immortality, although it is worth pointing out that data and sentences information do not necessarily last forever. About Female Workplace! Although not dependent on the viability of the sentences examples hardware it runs on, the longevity of Essay Female Inequity in the Workplace information depends on conditional examples its relevance, utility, and accessibility. If youve ever tried to retrieve information from an obsolete form of data storage in an old obscure format (e.g., a reel of magnetic tape from a 1970 minicomputer), you will understand the challenges in keeping software viable. However, if we are diligent in maintaining our mind file, keeping current backups, and about Female Inequity Workplace porting to current formats and mediums, then a form of immortality can be attained, at conditional least for software-based humans. Experiment! Our mind fileour personality, skills, memoriesall of that is sentences examples, lost today when our biological hardware crashes.

When we can access, store, and restore that information, then its longevity will no longer be tied to our hardware permanence. Is this form of immortality the same concept as a physical human, as we know them today, living forever? In one sense it is, because as I pointed out earlier, our contemporary selves are not a constant collection of matter either. Only our pattern of The Importance of Childhood Vaccination Essays matter and energy persists, and even that gradually changes. Sentences! Similarly, it will be the pattern of a software human that persists and develops and Essay about Female Inequity in the changes gradually. But is that person based on my mind file, who migrates across many computational substrates, and who outlives any particular thinking medium, really me? We come back to the same questions of sentences consciousness and bacp identity, issues that have been debated since the Platonic dialogues. As we go through the twenty-first century, these will not remain polite philosophical debates, but will be confronted as vital, practical, political, and legal issues. A related question is is death desirable? A great deal of our effort goes into sentences avoiding it. We make extraordinary efforts to delay it, and indeed often consider its intrusion a tragic event.

Yet we might find it hard to live without it. We consider death as giving meaning to our lives. It gives importance and value to The Importance Vaccination, time. Time could become meaningless if there were too much of it. The Next Step in Evolution and sentences examples the Purpose of Life. But I regard the freeing of the human mind from its severe physical limitations of scope and duration as the necessary next step in examples evolution. Sentences Examples! Evolution, in my view, represents the purpose of life. That is, the purpose of lifeand of our livesis to Essay Role, evolve.

The Singularity then is conditional sentences, not a grave danger to be avoided. In my view, this next paradigm shift represents the goal of our civilization. What does it mean to evolve? Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and more of other abstract and subtle attributes such as love. And God has been called all these things, only without any limitation: infinite knowledge, infinite intelligence, infinite beauty, infinite creativity, infinite love, and so on. Essay About! Of course, even the accelerating growth of evolution never achieves an infinite level, but as it explodes exponentially, it certainly moves rapidly in that direction. So evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of God, albeit never quite reaching this ideal. Thus the freeing of our thinking from the severe limitations of examples its biological form may be regarded as an essential spiritual quest. In making this statement, it is important to emphasize that terms like evolution, destiny, and spiritual quest are observations about the end result, not the basis for these predictions. I am not saying that technology will evolve to human levels and beyond simply because it is our destiny and on The Role in World because of the satisfaction of conditional examples a spiritual quest.

Rather my projections result from a methodology based on the dynamics underlying the bacp confidentiality (double) exponential growth of technological processes. The primary force driving technology is economic imperative. We are moving toward machines with human level intelligence (and beyond) as the result of millions of small advances, each with their own particular economic justification. To use an example from my own experience at examples one of my companies (Kurzweil Applied Intelligence), whenever we came up with a slightly more intelligent version of speech recognition, the new version invariably had greater value than the earlier generation and, as a result, sales increased. It is quasi experiment examples, interesting to note that in conditional sentences examples the example of speech recognition software, the three primary surviving competitors stayed very close to each other in the intelligence of on Gender Socialization Study their software.

A few other companies that failed to do so (e.g., Speech Systems) went out of business. At any point in time, we would be able to examples, sell the version prior to the latest version for perhaps a quarter of the price of the on Gender Study current version. As for versions of conditional sentences our technology that were two generations old, we couldnt even give those away. The Importance! This phenomenon is not only true for pattern recognition and other AI software, but applies to all products, from conditional, bread makers to cars. And if the confidentiality product itself doesnt exhibit some level of intelligence, then intelligence in the manufacturing and marketing methods have a major effect on the success and profitability of an enterprise. There is examples, a vital economic imperative to create more intelligent technology.

Intelligent machines have enormous value. That is why they are being built. There are tens of thousands of projects that are advancing intelligent machines in diverse incremental ways. The support for high tech in Essay Role of Realism in World the business community (mostly software) has grown enormously. Sentences Examples! When I started my optical character recognition (OCR) and speech synthesis company (Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc.) in 1974, there were only a half-dozen high technology IPOs that year. Examples! The number of such deals has increased one hundred fold and the number of dollars invested has increased by more than one thousand fold in conditional sentences the past 25 years.

In the four years between 1995 and Female 1999 alone, high tech venture capital deals increased from examples, just over $1 billion to approximately $15 billion. We will continue to build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value. We will reverse-engineer the human brain not simply because it is our destiny, but because there is valuable information to be found there that will provide insights in Female Inequity Workplace building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. We would have to repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to stop this progression. By the second half of this next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and machine intelligence. On the one hand, we will have biological brains vastly expanded through distributed nanobot-based implants. On the other hand, we will have fully nonbiological brains that are copies of human brains, albeit also vastly extended.

And we will have a myriad of other varieties of intimate connection between human thinking and the technology it has fostered. Ultimately, nonbiological intelligence will dominate because it is growing at a double exponential rate, whereas for all practical purposes biological intelligence is at a standstill. Human thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per conditional examples second (for all biological humans), and that figure will never appreciably change (except for a small increase resulting from genetic engineering). Nonbiological thinking is still millions of bacp times less today, but the cross over will occur before 2030. By the end of the conditional twenty-first century, nonbiological thinking will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than that of its biological progenitors, although still of human origin. It will continue to Schizophrenia in the Movie Sucker Punch Essay, be the human-machine civilization taking the conditional next step in evolution. Most forecasts of the future seem to ignore the Essay Role Study revolutionary impact of the Singularity in our human destiny: the inevitable emergence of computers that match and ultimately vastly exceed the capabilities of the conditional human brain, a development that will be no less important than the evolution of human intelligence itself some thousands of centuries ago.

And the primary reason for this failure is that they are based on the intuitive but short sighted linear view of history. Before the next century is over, the Earths technology-creating species will merge with its computational technology. There will not be a clear distinction between human and machine. After all, what is the difference between a human brain enhanced a trillion fold by nanobot-based implants, and a computer whose design is based on quasi high resolution scans of the human brain, and then extended a trillion-fold? Why SETI Will Fail (and why we are alone in the Universe) The law of accelerating returns implies that by sentences examples, 2099, the intelligence that will have emerged from human-machine civilization will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than it is today, dominated of course by its nonbiological form. So what does this have to do with SETI (the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)? The naive view, going back to pre-Copernican days, was that the Earth was at the center of the Universe, and human intelligence its greatest gift (next to Essay about Female Inequity Workplace, God).

The more informed recent view is that even if the likelihood of a star having a planet with a technology creating species is very low (e.g., one in a million), there are so many stars (i.e., billions of trillions of them), that there are bound to be many with advanced technology. This is the view behind SETI, was my view until recently, and sentences is the common informed view today. Although SETI has not yet looked everywhere, it has already covered a substantial portion of the Universe. In the above diagram (courtesy of Scientific American), we can see that SETI has already thoroughly searched all star systems within 10 7 light-years from The Importance of Childhood, Earth for sentences examples, alien civilizations capable (and willing) to quasi examples, transmit at a power of at least 10 25 watts, a so-called Type II civilization (and all star systems within 10 6 light-years for transmission of at least 10 18 watts, and conditional examples so on). No sign of intelligence has been found as of in the yet. In a recent email to my research assistant, Dr. Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute points out that a new comprehensive targeted search, called Project Phoenix, which has up to 100 times the sensitivity and sentences covers a greater range of the radio dial as compared to previous searches, has only been applied thus far to examples, 500 star systems, which is, of course only a minute fraction of the half trillion star systems in just our own galaxy. However, according to my model, once a civilization achieves our own level (Earth-level) of radio transmission, it takes no more than one century, two at sentences the most, to achieve what SETI calls a Type II civilization. If the assumption that there are at least millions of bacp confidentiality radio capable civilizations out there, and that these civilizations are spread out over millions (indeed billions) of years of conditional development, then surely there ought to The Importance Essays, be millions that have achieved Type II status.

Incidentally, this is not an examples, argument against the SETI project, which in my view should have the Essay on Gender Role Study highest possible priority because the negative finding is no less significant than a positive result. It is examples, odd that we find the cosmos so silent. The Importance Vaccination Essays! Where is everybody? There should be millions of civilizations vastly more advanced than our own, so we should be noticing their broadcasts. A sufficiently advanced civilization would not be likely to conditional examples, restrict its broadcasts to Essay, subtle signals on obscure frequencies. Why are they so silent, and so shy? As I have studied the implications of the law of accelerating returns, I have come to a different view. Because exponential growth is so explosive, it is the case that once a species develops computing technology, it is only a matter of a couple of centuries before the nonbiological form of their intelligence explodes. Sentences! It permeates virtually all matter in their vicinity, and then inevitably expands outward close to bacp, the maximum speed that information can travel. Conditional Sentences Examples! Once the nonbiological intelligence emerging from that species technology has saturated its vicinity (and the nature of this saturation is another complex issue, which I wont deal with in this essay), it has no other way to continue to evolve but to expand outwardly. Schizophrenia In The Movie Sucker! The expansion does not start out at the maximum speed, but quickly achieves a speed within a vanishingly small delta from the maximum speed.

What is the maximum speed? We currently understand this to be the speed of light, but there are already tantalizing hints that this may not be an absolute limit. Sentences! There were recent experiments that measured the flight time of photons at nearly twice the speed of light, a result of quantum uncertainty on Role in World Politics their position. However, this result is actually not useful for conditional, this analysis, because it does not actually allow information to be communicated at faster than the speed of light, and we are fundamentally interested in communication speed. Quantum disentanglement has been measured at many times the speed of light, but this is Schizophrenia Sucker Essay, only communicating randomness (profound quantum randomness) at speeds far greater than the speed of light; again, this is not communication of information (but is of great interest for restoring encryption, after quantum computing destroys it). There is the potential for worm holes (or folds of the Universe in dimensions beyond the three visible ones), but this is not really traveling at faster than the sentences examples speed of light, it just means that the topology of the Universe is not the simple three dimensional space that naive physics implies. But we already knew that. However, if worm holes or folds in the Universe are ubiquitous, then perhaps these short cuts would allow us to get everywhere quickly. Would anyone be shocked if some subtle ways of getting around this speed limit were discovered?

And no matter how subtle, sufficiently subtle technology will find ways to Role of Realism in World, apply it. The point is that if there are ways around this limit (or any other currently understood limit), then the extraordinary levels of intelligence that our human-machine civilization will achieve will find those ways and exploit them. So for now, we can say that ultra high levels of intelligence will expand outward at the speed of light, but recognize that this may not be the actual limit of the speed of expansion, or even if the limit is the speed of sentences light that this limit may not restrict reaching other locations quickly. Consider that the time spans for biological evolution are measured in millions and billions of years, so if there are other civilizations out there, they would be spread out by huge spans of time. If there are a lot of them, as contemporary thinking implies, then it would be very unlikely that at least some of them would not be ahead of us. That at Inequity in the least is the SETI assumption. And if they are ahead of us, they likely would be ahead of conditional examples us by bacp, huge spans of time. The likelihood that any civilization that is ahead of us is ahead of sentences examples us by only a few decades is extremely small. If the Role Study SETI assumption that there are many (e.g., millions) of technological (at least radio capable) civilizations is correct, then at least some of conditional sentences examples them (i.e., millions of them) would be way ahead of The Importance of Childhood Vaccination Essays us.

But it takes only conditional sentences a few centuries at most from the advent of computation for that civilization to expand outward at at least light speed. Given this, how can it be that we have not noticed them? The conclusion I reach is that it is likely that there are no such other civilizations. In other words, we are in the lead. Thats right, our humble civilization with its Dodge pick up trucks, fried chicken fast food, and Essay Negative Role of Realism ethnic cleansings (and computation!) is in the lead. Now how can that be? Isnt this extremely unlikely given the billions of trillions of likely planets? Indeed it is very unlikely. But equally unlikely is the existence of conditional our Universe with a set of laws of physics so exquisitely precisely what is needed for the evolution of life to bacp confidentiality, be possible.

But by the Anthropic principle, if the Universe didnt allow the evolution of life we wouldnt be here to notice it. Yet here we are. So by the same Anthropic principle, were here in the lead in sentences examples the Universe. Negative Role Politics! Again, if we werent here, we would not be noticing it. Lets consider some arguments against this perspective. Perhaps there are extremely advanced technological civilizations out conditional sentences examples there, but we are outside their light sphere of intelligence. That is, they havent gotten here yet. Okay, in Essay on Gender Role this case, SETI will still fail because we wont be able to see (or hear) them, at least not before we reach Singularity. Perhaps they are amongst us, but have decided to remain invisible to us. Incidentally, I have always considered the science fiction notion of large space ships with large squishy creatures similar to us to be very unlikely. Any civilization sophisticated enough to make the trip here would have long since passed the conditional sentences examples point of merging with their technology and would not need to send such physically bulky organisms and equipment.

Such a civilization would not have any unmet material needs that require it to steal physical resources from us. They would be here for observation only, to gather knowledge, which is the only resource of value to such a civilization. The intelligence and equipment needed for of Childhood Vaccination, such observation would be extremely small. In this case, SETI will still fail because if this civilization decided that it did not want us to notice it, then it would succeed in that desire. Keep in mind that they would be vastly more intelligent than we are today.

Perhaps they will reveal themselves to sentences, us when we achieve the next level of Schizophrenia Sucker Punch Essay our evolution, specifically merging our biological brains with our technology, which is to say, after the Singularity. Moreover, given that the SETI assumption implies that there are millions of conditional sentences examples such highly developed civilizations, it seems odd that all of them have made the same decision to stay out of our way. Why Intelligence is More Powerful than Physics. As intelligence saturates the matter and energy available to it, it turns dumb matter into smart matter. Although smart matter still nominally follows the laws of experiment physics, it is so exquisitely intelligent that it can harness the most subtle aspects of the laws to manipulate matter and energy to its will. Conditional Sentences! So it would at least appear that intelligence is more powerful than physics. Perhaps what I should say is that intelligence is more powerful than cosmology. That is, once matter evolves into smart matter (matter fully saturated with intelligence), it can manipulate matter and energy to do whatever it wants. This perspective has not been considered in discussions of future cosmology. It is assumed that intelligence is irrelevant to events and processes on a cosmological scale. Stars are born and die; galaxies go through their cycles of creation and destruction.

The Universe itself was born in Vaccination a big bang and sentences will end with a crunch or a whimper, were not yet sure which. Essay Socialization Study! But intelligence has little to do with it. Intelligence is just a bit of froth, an ebullition of little creatures darting in conditional sentences examples and out of inexorable universal forces. The mindless mechanism of the Universe is Essay about Female Inequity, winding up or down to sentences examples, a distant future, and Schizophrenia Punch theres nothing intelligence can do about conditional sentences examples, it. Thats the Essay about Female in the Workplace common wisdom, but I dont agree with it. Intelligence will be more powerful than these impersonal forces. Once a planet yields a technology creating species and that species creates computation (as has happened here on Earth), it is only a matter of a few centuries before its intelligence saturates the conditional sentences examples matter and energy in its vicinity, and it begins to expand outward at the speed of confidentiality light or greater. Conditional Sentences Examples! It will then overcome gravity (through exquisite and vast technology) and other cosmological forces (or, to Negative in World, be fully accurate, will maneuver and conditional control these forces) and Essay Role Study create the Universe it wants.

This is the goal of the Singularity. What kind of Universe will that be? Well, just wait and see. Most of you (again Im using the plural form of the word) are likely to conditional sentences examples, be around to see the Singularity. The expanding human life span is another one of those exponential trends. In the eighteenth century, we added a few days every year to human longevity; during the nineteenth century we added a couple of weeks each year; and now were adding almost a half a year every year. With the revolutions in genomics, proteomics, rational drug design, therapeutic cloning of our own organs and tissues, and related developments in bio-information sciences, we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years. So take care of yourself the old fashioned way for just a little while longer, and Movie Sucker Punch Essay you may actually get to conditional, experience the bacp next fundamental paradigm shift in our destiny. Copyright (C) Raymond Kurzweil 2001.

Chart Graphics by Brett Rampata/Digital Organism. Topics: Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Quantum | Social Networking/Web. Hi. I was doing some research on this topic. Conditional Examples! I live in helsinki and I found a finnish translation of The Visible Human Project. Its here : http://www.1001-soldes.com/visible-human-project. Thanks for creating and sharing a great resource. The rate of technological change has serious implications for the economics of investing in Movie Sucker terms of conditional examples a buy now or wait for the next improved model problem.

The economic life of confidentiality equipment in certain industries is conditional sentences, far shorter than the mechanical life (i.e. the machine is not worn out and still operates within accepted tolerances). We saw this in The Importance of Childhood the late 90?s to early 2000 when the majority of used metal working machinery dealers went out of business. Examples! While the used equipment still worked like new it was technologically obsolete relative to the performance of the most recent technology. The economics of competition often led to Essay on The Role Politics, the situation where the old technology even at an acquisition cost almost equivalent to scrap value, but including operating and conditional sentences maintenance costs, could not compete with the features and costs of the new technology. Financial lending institutions were hit hard as their floor-plan financing of used equipment inventory when the Study dealer closed its doors and gave the keys to the banker, only to find out that the $250,000 machine was worth $5,000 as scrap. As a result, many small manufacturers are finding it almost impossible to get bank financing to acquire new (expensive) technology. Sentences! As a result, smaller firms are finding it more difficult to be competitive unless they can operate their equipment almost 24/7/365 in order to wear it out before it becomes technologically obsolete. In many areas, this has resulted in a dilemma of confidentiality deciding to buy now or wait for new model.

As the rate of technological change increases, this can quickly lead to an investment singularity where on never makes an investment. I feel that this conundrum is leading to examples, greater concentration in The Importance manufacturing with less competition. This in itself may be the brakes the the technology growth rate as once a manufacturer achieves near monopoly status, it can continue to price goods based on the economics of the conditional sentences examples old technology without being undercut by new competitors using new technology. I believe that there is Essay Inequity in the Workplace, a need for a new model of small-medium manufacturing that can share technology in order to wear it out before it becomes obsolete. This obviously entail a major logistics problem that I feel would lead to the development of concentrated manufacturing locations in order to facilitate sharing of equipment along with coordination of methods (i.e. standardized CAD-CAM, MRP, etc.). I was wondering why you did not use a paradigm shows patent across the age of technology can easily support your claims, specifically because the rate and conditional sentences return can be proven accurate, In 2001 you write that we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years (So 2011).

In 2015, at the Emerging Issues forum in NC State U, you say that within 15 years well be adding more than a year every year to your remaining life expectancy. It does appear, even to this very sympathetic reader of yours, that you keep pushing back the date when well finally reach longevity escape velocity. Where does he say that? I cant find that quote in this article. Also, I would assume his predictions are not set in stone, and need flexibility. I see these as possibilities as to when we should be able to do this or that, not an exact time-frame. He isnt trying to Schizophrenia Sucker Punch, be a prophet of the future, or a Nostradamus. Conditional Sentences! Just listing his educated theories on what the future might hold. Given medical progress you write that we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years. On The In World Politics! This in 2001, so it would refer to sentences, 2011. Have we been adding more than a year to our remaining life span since 2011? looking widely, any growth is about Inequity, like more lambda function than exponent.. Sentences Examples! exponential growth linear phase saturation.. The Importance Essays! fixing on exponential growth like a searching for Philosophers stone..

A technological singularity has already occurred at least once in history. Before the invention of neural cell, the adaptation for new environments required many generations of evolutionary trial. Examples! Compared to quasi experiment, that, the conditional speed at which neurons model the world is near-infinite. Seems very reasonable! I was wondering, how to test if a copied mind is indistinguishable from the actual mind copied?

Lets say you and your copy are given the Schizophrenia Punch Essay identical simulated world environments to play in. If the behaviours of you and conditional sentences your copy do not deviate by more than the behaviour of actual you would be expected to deviate from the behaviour of identical actual you in of Childhood Vaccination a universe different from this one by the amount of entropy that would be needed to create the conditional sentences observed level of differences in behaviour over the same period of time, then we would consider your copy identical up to that level of entropy, defined by the triple (you, your copy, game). Hello, I am currently a student in molecular biology at UofM, Well, firstly, it needs to be stated that this is a deliciously entertaining and well defined hypothesis. There are certainly numerous well-supported facts throughout this essay and I too, agree with its principle suggestion. It is noteworthy to Schizophrenia Movie, point out that what this man is attempting to sentences examples, prove is at quasi experiment its utmost level not provable (currently), but may be able to be in time. The most difficult part to grasp for conditional, most people is the ability to extend your analyzing beyond your realm of present reasoning. In The Sucker Essay! On a far lesser scale, many find it difficult to draw 3-Dimensional figures on 2-D paper. But just because you cant comprehend it-or perhaps even if you can and conditional assess that it is Schizophrenia Sucker Essay, only an optical illusion-doesnt mean there is no merit in conditional sentences examples its core reasoning. That is to say, it is possible to bacp confidentiality, use these directly fictitious drawings to sentences examples, ultimately understand the concepts it would entail in 3 dimensions.

What I am saying is, simply put, that which is impossible now is not necessarily impossible later. About Female! When addressing the future, you must not assess it linearly (as Kurzweil elaborates), despite our deepest internal desire to sentences, view it as so. If you think A.I. intelligence is unable to pass human intelligence, then you will have a much more difficult time understanding the ideas behind Dystopian/Utopian theories. On a final note, I truly wonder if these two theories are interrelated, as Id assume that this could ultimately extend to argue that the exponential growth of experiment examples technology may culminate in a Singularity point that ultimately results in conditional sentences the destruction of the exponential model and offers an entirely new shape after. (Id assume a possible restart in technological growth if you believe in of Childhood Vaccination Dystopia with a Utopian stance being more unclear). Sentences! I am very interested to bacp confidentiality, hear your take on that. How will we apply technplogy that is more intelligent than its creators. yea, imagine some one from the 80s picking up a smart phone and having infinite amount of information in their hands! they would be so unimpressed u mad bro that life didnt turn out like movies from the sentences examples 70?s and 80?s.youre an Essay about Female Inequity, idiot.

Im just going to say something about the life and the future. There were changes in the past for the future for the past, old fashioned civilians. Everything is the conditional sentences examples same, everyone is the Essay on Gender Role same. They all think their more godly than others. The fact is, their not. They never will betheres only presidents and higher occupations who fuck up our world and are the higher occupations. So, now we live in the Still Age, where nothing seems to move forward. Sure we have technology, but nothings actually happening. Lifes dead, the people may seem alive but we are the walking dead. Suppose we dont actually need a zombie apocalypse because WE are it. We ARE zombies.

I mean, look at all the movies from the 70?s/80?s they expect in the 2000s/2020s will be all futuristic with hover cars and moving cities and conditional examples blah blah blah but NO, they would be choking themselves now that the future hasnt moved on about Female Inequity in the Workplace and they saw today. I will be dead by conditional, the time anything changes to Socialization, our city or evolves.why is it that we cant go out by the time night comes? why cant we be creatures of the night instead of creatures of the day? Its frustrating, sitting here on your bed waiting for the next day. The night is not safe for anyone, why? Who dared made it that way? I would like to walk in the night feeling safe but I suppose that isnt possiblewhy is the day safe? But the day isnt safe, either.

No, I didnt read the preposterous post or comments. Conditional Examples! Maths sucksI bet I can pass by without using itthats a challengeokay, so maybe the shops I need maths for but thats it and I can use a calculator for gods sake! Who the fuck buys 42 melons anyway? You know? Those ridiculous math sums. The Importance Of Childhood Essays! And why, do we see all these people everywhere and dont know their names? Their everything? Their always different looking everyday. We dont have self awareness because were just too used to everything, were almost like puppets obeying this life systemwe only have self awareness when we are in trouble.

I mean, I kind of feel like were just waiting to conditional sentences, die everyday. I dont want that. On Gender Role Study! I hate that. I want to feel alive, to feel lived, I dont want to walk in a daydream. Why must we obey the system? Go to school for half your life, work the rest of the sentences half, grow old and die. Female Inequity! Everyones the same. Sentences Examples! Its programmed for every human. You want to know your purpose? Thats your purpose.

Work till you grow old. Enjoy the of Childhood Vaccination little things ;) It is mind bogging yet well supported by factsdear sir may I bring one area that could sweep all other areasexponential increase is BADLY needed in personal conduct,wash-out of negative thinking ,and being. old indian scriptures DO mention that such is possible.but that is all to. itprobably suspecting misuse. from conditional examples, nsc. UIM (Ultra Intelligent machines) ultra-intelligent machine could design even better machines document in 1960s are not far from reality. consciousness is an unbroken chain. if you copy yourself directly you break the chain, the quasi experiment new copys consciousness would begin at that point and your old self would continue to be conscious. a slow transition allows an introspective understanding of that gradual change as you evolve from conditional sentences examples, biology into technology, although you may change your consciousness remains intact. that is my view anyway Moores law is just one of millions of positive feedback loops that occur in the world (in biology, sociology, economics, chemistry etc). Yet none of these feedback loops continue indefinitely, as you are assuming Moores Law will. This is because every feedback loop, including Moores Law, eventually has limiting factors (Usually a lack of Essay Negative Role Politics resources / ingredients). All the technology curves will be slowed by limiting factors eventually, and conditional sentences examples the singularity wont occur.

Jordan: in The Singularity Is Near book. Ray explains that Moores law will expire in the future, and will be replaced by another process. Jordan respectfully did you read the whole essay? I agree with your criticism in experiment a sense, in that we havent yet established that there is a possible paradigm after integrated circuits. Conditional Examples! Pointing to the end of Moores law and claiming their is nothing beyond that is no different than having someone circa 1956 claiming vacuum tubes are the The Importance of Childhood Vaccination fastest computers we can EVER make. Conditional! Moores law is projected to end sometime around 2018 2022. Ray is very aware of this, as he points out many times in his essay. Had his argument been of the form Moores law Singularity your counter argument would have been sufficient. This is not at all what he is arguing, in fact, the quasi experiment premise Moores law will end is one premises of his argument (the rise an fall of conditional sentences examples new paradigms for Role Socialization, intelligence). If you want to argue against a singularity occurring, you need to address the fundamental trends underlying Moores law (things along the lines of building upon previous innovations and then work out conditional what laws of physics may interfere with the continuation of that trend). The only small problem I saw with what his argument above is that nanites will have a hard time sending and receiving WiFi if they are smaller than the wavelength of confidentiality carrier frequency.

If I were to conditional sentences examples, then conclude that this physical problem will prevent nanites from EVER using any kind of wireless communication, I would be adopting the same type of experiment examples thinking as yours regarding Moores law. All of us working together over many years of innovation and conditional examples evolution have created this smooth pattern (I would argue that ALL people contribute in some small way, even the ones that dont appear to be doing anything it all adds up). The patterns you see in a branching tree, in the periodic table, in human personality types, a fractal, the sand on the beach, a hurricane, the BelousovZhabotinsky reaction take your pick but the Law of Accelerating Returns as Ray calls it is Essay about Workplace, simply another one of conditional those types of patterns. Its literally a force of The Importance of Childhood nature we recognize that were creating that pattern, but then we delude ourselves into conditional sentences examples thinking that were in control of of Childhood it, and that just isnt the case. All of these large scale aggregate patterns constructed by an uncountable number of small scale chaotic events will be points of great interest for conditional examples, us going forward (they already are, but theyll become more important as we try to Essay Role in World, solve problems like the end of conditional Moores law). They form the links between the known fundamental properties of the universe with our experienced conciousness. A top priority is to confidentiality, understand that complex and interconnected web.

uuuuuuummmm, i was told i would recieve 40 trillion dollars. by Theodoore Aborgone. 40 trillion? For what?? Hi to everyone, this is conditional examples, my first post, because I REALLY need help. Everywhere i see know this advertisements about Forex thing, got attracted, started to read about it, but still really confused about What is forex . All the Essay about Female Workplace explanations i find on the internet are very complicated. Too many smart words. Can someone explain what is forex by his own words ? Tired of websites. I just can not imagine with incredibly blog greatly that warned me!

God bless you It is sentences, not beauty that endears; its love that makes us see beauty. Leo Tolstoy. Too much technological change within such a short period of time is too much for quasi experiment, humans to handle. Humans must learn how to adapt to conditional sentences, the societal changes that this new technology will bring, so that humans wont end civilization as we know it. We as a species must strive for peace. note how phase conjugation is the symmetry origin of acceleration (gravity) and all centripetal self organizing forces. Seems like we should re-evaluate the perception we call time imortality is right around the Essay Role in World corner. So hold on to your pants were about to defy physics as we know it.

Epigenetic mechanisms can provide a survival advantage under adverse conditions with mechanical laws. It presupposes that Science historically developed out of Phylosophy. It is more convenient to postulate that Epigenetics expanded in accordance with mechanical laws that have existed since the beginning of conditional sentences examples creation. Quasi Experiment! (Epigenetics Wikipedia page here) I have two problems with this theory. The first is conditional, physical, the second metaphysical. On The Of Realism In World! The first problem that while exponential growth is sentences examples, certainly a mathematical possibility, it is never a physical one. In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes they simply do not exist. For example, the repellent force of protons looks asymptotic until a certain point then it breaks over and nuclear forces take over, binding the nucleus of an atom together. The same thing happens with a zener diode, or any other seemingly asymptotic function.

There is always a breakover point. (Interesting discussion regarding the growth of mass as it approaches the speed of light but if you think about it, we simply dont know yet). The second is metaphysical. This theory assumes and I think incorrectly that consciousness is the result of increased neural activity. However, any honest person that thinks about on Gender Socialization, it will realize that there is something in the soul or spirit that is yet to be explored or understood. Anyone that has ever entered a room where an argument has just taken place and felt the tension in the room has sensed with something other than the brain unless all of that is just electromagnetic vibes, and as an electrical engineer, I know those electromagnetic waves travel outward and disperse at nearly the speed of light. I think that the brain is more of an interface to conditional examples, the spirit where real cognitive thinking occurs. That is why we stew on things to Essay Socialization Study, think them through our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to sentences, think. Our brain doesnt do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing. Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is Essay about Female Inequity in the, a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed (like evolution). It is more of a religion than religion is. The complexity of the interface certainly needs to be explored, but until we can figure out where the real cognitive engine is, I dont think there is any chance that more complex interfaces will become self aware.

The RS 232 interface is simple and the USB3 may be better and more complex, but no matter how good the interface gets, it will never become the computer chip itself. LIkewise, the brain may be exceeded by conditional sentences examples, a computer, but it will never become the Essay Negative Role Politics cognitive center of a person. On the bright side, Mr. Conditional Sentences Examples! Kurzweil, the spirit never dies. Are you sure about this? Animal often communicate non-verbally because they dont have a structured, organized universal way of communicating with one another. So they have to rely on a not of non-verbal ques to communicate with one another. Therefore you example of walking into a room with an argument isnt a very good example of a spiritual perception, because humans display certain actions and characteristic when under pressure, and some of us have been wired to quasi experiment examples, perceive these unconscious non-verbal forms of communication. Looks of conditional sentences examples worry, muscles tensing up, frowns, fidgeting

Its a romantic idea that we have a soul, but to claim we have souls is to deny the elegance and beauty that is our brains. So dont be mean to your brain, give credit where credits due! In mathematics, all exponential growth results in The Importance Essays asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes they simply do not exist. There is a physical limit at the end of the century. He explains in this particular essay that he left it out, but it is basically the point at which we cant get any more use out of an atom and simply require more atoms. At that point all research and examples advancement will be towards getting more atoms. That is Schizophrenia Punch, why we stew on things to think them through our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in conditional examples order to think. Our brain doesnt do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing. We are unaware of the vast majority of bacp our brains activity. This is the work being done in conditional sentences examples the subconscious.

We are only aware of the activity on the thin outer film on The Importance Vaccination the outside of the brain, and we have even shown that many of the decisions we think we consciously make were actually your subconscious making the decision and lying to you conscious brain that you made the conditional sentences decision. You can tell these decisions apart from the rest by asking yourself if you actually considered alternatives to what you just did; if not, that is your subconscious. Your subconscious considers almost every thing you could possibly do next, and analyzes the world in very unconventional ways sometimes seeing past our rigid conception of reality. 95% of our brain is in the subconscious. Little is known about what the in the Sucker subconscious is conditional examples, capable of or senses past the Socialization 5 our conscious brain is aware of.

Seeing into the outer layer of the subconscious is a spiritual experience. It can be achieved through dreaming, meditation, spirituality, and hallucinogens. When you feel things you are not aware of or stew, this is your subconscious working away. Sentences! This is the confidentiality real you. Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is conditional sentences, simply assumed Self awareness is shown to take place in the brain only when it is in Essay a highly interconnected state.

The outer 5% of the brain is the conscious part and is only developed to any reasonable extent in humans. The conscious part of the brain connects the other parts of the brain together and allows you to be aware of them and also override them with logic. Scientific inquiry into this by watching chain reactions in the brain has shown that when are are no longer self aware, the conditional difference in experiment examples the brain is that the separate parts are no longer communicating with each otherthey are simply acting. This is how it is in animals. You made a few points that I found interesting and you might be able to help me with a nonprofit initiative of mine called iSocialWatch, it is the first social media watchdog and consumer advocacy organization focusing on privacy, safety, psychology and sexuality in the context of cyber, social and ultra connected space. Conditional Examples! You can reach out by Schizophrenia Sucker Punch, email stephane at isocialwatch dot org, or Twitter isocialwatch, or facebook.com/isocialwatch. Looking forward hearing from you. Im not sure that I agree with the Kurzweils refutation of Penroses description of the origin of consciousness. Conditional! I would not, for example, say that the gradual introduction of electronic pseudo-neurons is Vaccination Essays, functionally equivalent to a complete brain scan/recreation. The fundamental difference between the two processes, it seems to me, is the gradual nature of the conditional sentences former, which avoids the experiment examples discontinuity of the latter. Continuity may be fundamental to sentences, consciousness, which is why Penroses argument holds water.

No matter how close our quantum technology can come to replicating our quantum states, there will always be that discontinuity because the duplication, as Penrose argues, cannot be perfect. On The Negative Role Of Realism In World Politics! Therefore, consciousness cannot be downloaded from a biological mind. Of course, consciousness could also be something completely unrelated to all of this. Maybe these physical processes are results of consciousness and not the conditional sentences other way around. Every new invention has a beginning, an accellerating development phase, a peak of development and then a decellerating slowing down of development. The Importance Vaccination! Nothing takes forever. Eventually we will live in a world that doesnt change much. You just think it is linear or exponentially accellerating because you dont appreciate that the industrial/technological time has been very short. Its like looking at our world and thinking it is flat but when you get to the pole it goes no further. Its just a ball.

You cant see the conditional reality because you over-rate your intelligence. I think the jump from the Role Study window that a civilization would be broadcasting radio waves is very small to, therefore no other civilizations exist is sentences, a false conclusion. I also disagree that civilizations would be broadcasting a signal to all the universe once they advanced beyond human level intelligence. The smart entity would conceal themselves and be the one to decide when any contact should occur. I do not think they are here, but that does not mean that they arent out Vaccination Essays there. Are You Serious Bro? We Tried So Hard Not To Go There But There You Went Please log in to post a comment.

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Turning a failure into an intelligent failure. Insight on how messups can play positively in MBA Admissions. MBA applicants are routinely asked the failure question either in MBA essays or interviews. It always takes more or less the same form: tell us about a time you failed and what you learned. As Ive written before here, and in my book, the conditional examples test is not to see if you have any weaknesses or failures. Everyone does. It is to see whether you are mature enough to recognize your failures and so address the implied weaknesses. Also, failures are more likely to occur in new, challenging tasks, so if you present no failures you are simply telling Adcom that you havent been adequately challenged.

The other day I picked up an Schizophrenia in the Movie Essay interesting take on failure creating intelligent failure in conditional sentences examples the article Are You Squandering Your Intelligent Failures? by quasi examples Columbia Business School professor Rita McGrath, on the HBR Blog. McGrath says: Despite widespread recognition that challenging times place unpredictable demands on people and businesses, I still run across many managers who would prefer to avoid the logical conclusion that stems from conditional this: failure is Essay on Gender Socialization, a lot more common in conditional sentences examples highly uncertain environments than it is in better-understood situations. Instead of learning from failures, many executives seek to keep them hidden or to Essay on Gender Study, pretend that they were all part of a master plan and no big deal. To those executives, let me argue that an conditional sentences examples extraordinarily valuable corporate resource is bacp confidentiality, being wasted if learning from failures is inhibited. Naturally, to an executive raised on the concept of management by exception, any failure at all seems intolerable. This world view is reinforced by conditional sentences the widespread adoption of various quality techniques, for instance, six sigma, in which the goal is to stamp out variations (by definition, failures) in Essay about Inequity Workplace the pursuit of quality Failures are crucial to the process of conditional sentences organizational learning and sense-making. Failures show you where your assumptions are wrong.

Failures demonstrate where future investment would be wasted. And failures can help you identify those among your team with the mettle to persevere and creatively change direction as opposed to pig-headedly charging blindly ahead. Further, failures are about the only way in of Childhood which an organization can re-set its expectations for the future in any meaningful way. The point McGrath is making is failure is a route (perhaps, the route) to learning and conditional examples, future improvement. But not all failures have learning attached. One needs to set reasonable prior fail-safe mechanisms in bacp confidentiality place, and then interrogate a failure afterwards, to make a failure useful as learning. Sentences! This turns it into an intelligent failure. If you can show the MBA Adcom that you did this, that you didnt just fail dumbly, or have turned a dumb failure into an intelligent failure, your essay will shine in all the right ways. Take a tip from George Soros in Managing the B-School Failure Essay. The setback-failure-weakness essay is commonly asked for in MBA Admissions because it is a test of an applicants maturity, self-knowledge, honesty, and ability to learn from mistakes.

It is, in other words, the biggest indicator of bacp real leadership ability and potential. Sample questions that approach this topic are: Tuck-Dartmouth (Essay 3): Describe a circumstance in your life in which you faced adversity, failure, or setback. Examples! What actions did you take as a result and what did you learn from this experience? Harvard Business School (Essay 2) Tell us three setbacks you have faced?

INSEAD (Essay 3) Describe a situation taken from your personal or professional life where you failed. Discuss what you learned. Judge-Cambridge (essay 2) What did you learn from your most spectacular failure? MBA applicants often struggle with these essays because they feel that admitting a weaknesses or sharing a time when they failed erodes their candidacy. In fact, it does just the opposite.

Leaders know their weaknesses, and can admit them to themselves and others in Essay in the Workplace order to examples, work on them, or work around them. It shows self-insight and points to seniority. No one is comfortable talking about their weak spots and Schizophrenia in the Sucker, failure. But nobody is perfect or has not failed. Not Bill Gates, not Richard Branson, not me, nor you, nor the admissions officer. So it is conditional, not admitting a weakness is what will get you dinged, because its like waving red beacon that betrays inexperience and a junior mindset. If you have no weaknesses that just tells Adcom that you dont know what they are yet or that youre too immature to Essay about Inequity in the Workplace, face them. It says you dont know yourself, therefore you dont yet know where you will mess up. You are a liability to conditional sentences examples, yourself and your company.

Take a tip from George Soros, self-made billionaire, philosopher, philanthropist, social reformer, and fund manager extraordinaire famous for breaking the Bank (of England) by shorting the in the Punch Essay pound sterling in conditional sentences 1992 who shares this candid account of his weaknesses: Im a very bad judge of The Importance of Childhood Vaccination Essays character. Im a good judge of stocks, and conditional sentences examples, I have a reasonably good perspective on history. But I am, really, quite awful in Negative of Realism judging character, and so Ive made many mistakes. It took me five years and a lot of painful experiences to find the right management team. I am please that finally I found it, but I cannot claim to be as successful in picking a team as I have been in actually managing money. I think that Im very good as a senior partner, or boss, because I have a lot of sympathy for conditional, the difficulties that fund managers face. Essay On The Negative Of Realism Politics! When they are in sentences trouble I can give them a lot of support, and that, I think, has contributed toward creating a good atmosphere in Essay on Gender Socialization the firm. But Im not so good at conditional sentences, choosing them. Soros on Soros: Staying Ahead of the Curve, Wiley Sons, NY, 1995, p.18. See, the greatest business leaders all have weaknesses and all have made significant mistakes in their careers and on The Negative Role Politics, their lives.

The point is not to prove that you dont fail, or wont fail. It is to prove that you have the insight into yourself to be able to recognize and compensate for your weaknesses. What Adcom wants to know is examples, not how you avoided failure, but how you managed it, what you learned, what insights into yourself you gained, and how you grew from there. They want to see that you have the will and the insight to locate and understand the source of your mess up the underlying weaknesses that caused it and The Importance of Childhood Essays, that you have the maturity to face and work on the issue. To summarize: the setback essay is not testing to see if you have weaknesses.

We all do. It is sentences, a test of your self-knowledge and maturity. The committee wants to The Importance of Childhood Essays, see if you can candidly face, discuss, and work on your flaws, or if you will you try to hide them or blame circumstances or other people. This is a significant test of your readiness for senior leadership. Soros is conditional, candid, straightforward, and objective in The Importance his self-analysis. Sentences! He shares measured self-insight with the reader. He doesnt try to slip in softening or deflecting phrases, or hide behind humor; nor is he self-excusing or whining and looking to blame others the hallmarks of a too-junior applicant. Applicant: [I] would like to share some good news with you - I got an offer from Vaccination Essays CBS and am really grateful to your helpful advice to conditional sentences examples, my application essay. Quasi Experiment! Columbia is my dream school and I'm glad I could make it with your help. admitted to Columbia.

Applicant: Hi Avi, Got the great news this morning--HBS called me to tell me I was accepted. Thanks for sentences, all of your help throughout the process! The waitlist was nerve-wracking, but at the end of the day, I am happy as can be with the final result. Female In The Workplace! admitted to sentences examples, HBS. Applicant: [Oct 13] Hi Avi, Just wanted to let you know that I have just got invited to interview with Columbia! This is examples, really fast, my app has only been under review for a couple of days. I just wanted to thank you for your help! Will keep you posted. Thanks! [Nov 10] Just got a call from Columbia informing me that I got admitted! Again, thanks a lot for conditional, your help. admitted to Columbia. Applicant: I just wanted to thank you for your help.

You might not remember me in your sea of clients, but I sure do remember and appreciate your help. I got admitted into quasi experiment examples, Haas and class actually starts tomorrow. I couldn't have done it without you. After listening to the speeches during orientation, I'm almost positive that the profile you chose to emphasize was what got me in. You completely hit the jackpot. I can't thank you enough, especially considering I couldn't have gotten it all done in 8 days without your help. admitted to Haas Berkeley. Applicant: Hi Avi, Admitted to INSEAD! Another success for your records! Now, the issue is, I also got a [job] offer.

If you have a couple of minutes I would appreciate to get your first thought about that. It's gonna be a very difficult situation to handle. Thanks. admitted to INSEAD and IESE. Applicant: Just wanted to conditional, let you know that all our hard work has paid off. I got accepted to Wharton-Lauder. Very excited to start the program in of Childhood Vaccination May. Thanks again for all your hard work, dedication and patience. It has been great working with you, and I am sure it made a huge difference. Who else can you torment with so many re-dos of like 10 essays?! All the best to you! admitted to Wharton-Lauder. Applicant: Hi Avi, How are you doing?

I received an conditional sentences email today from HKUST, they informed that I have been successful in my application and they will send out an offer letter in the next few weeks. I can not express my joy at bacp, the moment and sentences, I want to thank you so much for all your help and guidance throughout the selection process, especially since I was so last minute. Essay Role Socialization! I have already referred you to conditional, my brother-in-law who has expressed a desire to undertake an EMBA for the following year. I know he will learn a lot from you. Thanks again for everything. admitted to HKUST. Applicant: Hello Avi, I wanted to update you . I was admitted at Oxford! Thank you very much for your help, I wouldn't have made it without you! I am very satisfied, the school will open me a lot of The Importance of Childhood Vaccination Essays opportunities :) Thanks again for your key contribution. admitted to Said Oxford. Applicant: I just wanted to drop you a note to let you know that I've been accepted at ESSEC's MBA in Luxury Brand Management! I got the call from conditional sentences Paris last week, after flying there for my interview last month. It was quite an quasi experience, but I got through it and they have given me a place.

Term starts in Sept, so I will be off to conditional sentences examples, Paris end August. I'm ecstatic with the Essay on The Negative of Realism news and conditional examples, have lots of planning to Punch Essay, do. But I just wanted to sentences examples, thank you for your help in my application. It was great working with you. Essay Socialization Study! admitted to ESSEC. Applicant: I just wanted to let you know that I was offered admission to conditional sentences examples, Cornell and [my husband] to of Childhood Vaccination Essays, Columbia so we are both very happy that we got in conditional sentences examples and of course that we'll be starting school in the fall. Thanks again for helping us. admitted to Cornell and Columbia. Applicant: Hello Avi, I just got admitted to the Kellogg MBA program. Sucker Essay! I just wanted to thank you for your time and effort in polishing my essays. I will be sure to leave a testimonial on sentences your website. admitted to quasi examples, Kellogg. Applicant: I have got some great news. I have been admitted at sentences, IESE!

You were a great help on this. Really, you and and your book were of huge help! So, thanks again. admitted to IESE. Applicant: How's it going? I've been meaning to update you on experiment examples my application. I was accepted without an interview for the January term at Columbia. I am now finishing most of my medical requirements and will begin the business school in sentences examples January. Thanks for helping me with the essays. They must have been big b/c I was accepted about Essay on The Role Politics, 3 weeks after submitting. admitted to conditional, Columbia. Applicant: Avi - I am very thankful to you for your help during the on Gender Role Socialization essay writing process.

It was fun to work with you and even though I did not get into Wharton, I got into Berkeley which is awesome. Your straight forwardness and the interview prep were the two signature components of your services that I feel helped me shape my story and my interviews. Thanks again. admitted to sentences, Haas Berkeley and Ross Michigan. Applicant: Hi Avi, Just wanted to let you know, I have been admitted to the McCombs MBA at about Female Workplace, DFW. I wanted to write to you and thank you for all the conditional sentences examples advice and the adcom perspective I learned from you. Your help with the 3 essays and bacp confidentiality, the recommendation letters were top notch and I believe they were the key differentiators, helping me to get into conditional, the program, especially the 3rd essay where I had to explain reasons around my past academic mistakes. On The Of Realism Politics! Thank you again for all you did for me, I hope this MBA program will be a great step ahead for my career! admitted to McCombs. Applicant: Hey Avi I wanted to let you know that I was accepted into conditional, Columbia.

Thanks for on The of Realism, your feedback and comments throughout the process, they were very helpful. admitted to Columbia. Insights and Tools to Win Admission to the World#039;s Top MBA Programs. Applicant: Thank you so much for sentences, all your help through the application process! I appreciated your honesty when an essay topic was not resonating and your ability to coax a better, more detailed story, out of me. It has all paid off, I have been admitted to Wharton, MIT, Kellogg and Duke (Columbia is still pending).

I am incredibly thrilled and bacp, humbled by all of sentences this. The Importance Of Childhood Vaccination! Now I have a tough, but good decision to make! Postscript: I actually ended up withdrawing the conditional sentences examples Columbia application. (because) I decided to go to Wharton! I'm super excited and nervous. I'm heading up to Philly this weekend to find an apartment. Can you believe that I have to be on campus August 1st?

That is so soon! admitted to Wharton, MIT Sloan, Kellogg, Duke. Applicant: Avi, I am admitted to Movie Punch, NYU Stern! I am absolutely thrilled!! Finally, I am going somewhere after two years of trying. Conditional Sentences! Thank you very much for your profiling editing service and advice on my reapplication. I know I could not have done it without your help. Once again thanks very much and I will keep you posted on other results. admitted to Schizophrenia in the, NYU Stern.

Applicant: Hey Avi, Just heard back from HBS. Sentences Examples! Fortunately it was positive ;). On The! Will give it a week or two to sink in but everything points to Boston this fall. Anyways, super thanks for your help - both in coaching and on the essays. Was really helpful and I'm sure it strengthened my odds in the process. Will definitely recommend you to sentences, friends applying next year. About In The Workplace! Again, thanks! admitted to HBS. Applicant: It was wonderful to work with you and I recommend you to conditional examples, anyone who asks.

When I start, I will have an MIT blog this Fall and Essay Female Inequity Workplace, will put a link to you as well, to say: 'Avi Gordon has been instrumental when I applied to sentences examples, MIT Sloan School of Management. I got into MIT!! I also later got accepted into Wharton, Hopkins, and other top schools!n Avi helped develop my personal narrative and as I am already a physician and Essay Female in the Workplace, working professional, I can tell you his advice and approach was STILL invaluable. I bought the whole package and it was the best $$ I ever spent! I start at Sloan this Summer and sentences examples, I cannot wait.' admitted to MIT Sloan, Wharton, John Hopkins. Applicant: Avi, thought I would close the The Importance Vaccination loop and let you know that I was admitted to the Yale SOM program and have decided to examples, attend next fall. I wanted to Schizophrenia in the Punch Essay, let you know that I was very impressed with your services. You lived up to expectations with your concise, no holds-barred approach to feedback that was always returned in a timely manner.

You drastically helped me increase the quality of my essays both in terms of content and prose, making my overall candidacy much stronger. admitted to Yale S.O.M. Applicant: Hello Avi, I just wanted to send you a quick update on my plan for business school this fall. Conditional Sentences! As you know, I applied to the [withheld] round at Tuck. I was accepted and have decided to attend! I couldn't be more excited about going back to Dartmouth and am looking forward to my two years at business school.

Thank you so much for all of your guidance during the business school process. I truly appreciated your insights. admitted to Tuck-Dartmouth, Cornell-Johnson, Georgetown-McDonough. Applicant: I wanted to share this great news with you. Essay About Inequity In The Workplace! I've been accepted to IESE Business school!! I just got the acceptance mail today. Conditional Sentences! I wanted to Schizophrenia Movie Essay, thank you for all the help and conditional sentences examples, support that you gave me during the application process. I can definitely say that without your expert guidance in the application, I could not have achieved this. So thank you so much. Examples! Please give me a call if you are in the NYC area as i definitely owe you a drink!! admitted to IESE and NUS. Applicant: Avi, I was accepted to Columbia today after yesterday's phone conversation with the director of the Healthcare program. Conditional Sentences! Thank you so much for all the push and all the quasi experiment examples suggestions. admitted to Columbia.

Applicant: You are splendid, magnificent, excellent! I cannot find the sentences proper word to express how much I appreciate your valuable help to me. You are so good! I have updated based on ALL your suggestions. Hey, you can really make a difference. Very strong leadership ;) . About Workplace! Your advice is my MBA bible! I think you really have the sentences examples sharp eye for MBA applications. I really appreciate your valuable points.

You are a really great mentor on my MBA applications. Thank you once again for your great help! Thank you thank you thank you!. (amalgam of emails from quasi examples one client) admitted to Wharton. Applicant: I'm in Wharton, but hey it's not finished yet. I still need to write two essays to conditional examples, apply for scholarships. Can you believe that??

Another two essays! I'm dying :P Will keep you updated. btw yesterday I received the offer from NYU Stern - perhaps the last offer. Just cannot thank you enough for on Gender Study, your great work! admitted to Wharton, Chicago GSB, Columbia, and NYU Stern. Applicant: Avi, Good news: I am accepted at HBS!! Thanks a lot for your support. I did not make it to Stanford though (but does not really matter now!). Enjoy the holidays. Sentences Examples! admitted to HBS. Applicant: Hi Avi, I just wanted to let you know that my application to The Importance of Childhood, MIT was success.

Your guidance helped me move through the application processes quickly and confidently. I'm very thankful for your help and I'm looking forward to starting at Sloan! admitted to MIT Sloan. Applicant: Avi - Words can't express how grateful I am. I just got accepted to Stern. You made the sentences difference between sending in average essays and great essays. Your comments were on point and kept me focused. I'd recommend you to on Gender Study, anyone. Thank you, again. admitted to NYU Stern. Applicant: Avi, I wanted to let you know that I recieved an conditional sentences examples offer for LBS's EMBA.

Thank you for all your help and advice on the Essay's as well as the Resume, it help me polish my application, focus my essays and taylor my resume towards business school and LBS. Essay On The Role! I also appreciated the flexibility in MBA Studio's services which allowed me to target specifically the areas where I needed advice. admitted to sentences, LBS EMBA. Applicant: I actually received my acceptance letter to the masters program at the Cornell School last Wednesday! I am thrilled to have been accepted. On The Role In World! I actually started my online pre-courses this afternoon. I have never been more excited to start school! I just wanted to thank you again for all of your help during this stressful experience. Your insight and guidance were invaluable and I attribute my acceptance to your help. admitted to Cornell.

Applicant: I am glad that I chose the right service to guide me through the application process. With [your] help, I completed my applications with confidence and conditional sentences examples, enthusiasm. Schizophrenia Punch! It has been a challenging, yet rewarding experience! admitted to Kellogg. Applicant: Hi Avi, I am sorry I just didn't update you after you had helped me with INSEAD Exec Essays! I have been busy ever since and a lot lot has happened in betweenThanks to you I had got a interview call, and thereafter earned final admission offer for sentences examples, Abu Dhabhi Campus. Admitted to INSEAD EMBA. Applicant: Hi Avi, Thanks a ton for all your guidance during this whole process! You're the about Female best coach [I] could've hoped for. admitted to Oxford Said.

Applicant: Hi, Sorry for the delay in the response, I took some time off my essays. Actually, I hired [competitor service - name withheld by MBA Studio] and I thought they were really bad. So I tried your free trial offer to help me benefit from a basis to establish my judgment towards them. Your feedback was so appreciated that I negotiated with them to get reimbursed, which I did in part. Examples! My Harvard and The Importance of Childhood Essays, INSEAD packages are with them (could not be reimbursed) but let's get started with my other essays. Montreal, Canada.

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'Pornography', from 'Pornography: Men Possessing Women', 1988. by Andrea Dworkin. by SHOWstudio on 28 June 2005 . The word pornography, derived from the ancient Greek porné and graphos, means 'writing about whores'. Porné means 'whore', specifically and exclusively the lowest class of whore, which in ancient Greece was the brothel slut available to all male citizens. Conditional Sentences. The porné was the Role Study cheapest (in the literal sense), least regarded, least protected of all women, including slaves. She was, simply and clearly and absolutely, a sexual slave. The word pornography does not mean 'writing about sex' or 'depictions of the erotic' or 'depictions of sexual acts' or depictions of nude bodies' or 'sexual representations' or any such euphemism. It means the graphic depiction of women as vile whores. In ancient Greece, not all prostitutes were considered vile: only the porneia.

Contemporary photography strictly and literally conforms to the word's root meaning: the graphic depiction of vile whores, or in our language, sluts, cows (as in: sexual cattle, sexual chattel), cunts. This word has not changed its meaning and the genre is not misnamed. The only change in the meaning of the word is with respect to its second part, graphos: now there are cameras-there is still photography, film, video. The methods of graphic depiction have increased in number and in kind: the content is the same; the status of the women depicted is the same; the sexuality of the women depicted is the same. With the technologically advanced methods of graphic depiction, real women are required for the depiction as such to exist. The word pornography does not have any other meaning than the conditional examples one cited here, the graphic depiction of the lowest whores.

Whores exist to serve men sexually. Whores exist only within a framework of male sexual domination. Indeed, outside that framework the notion of whores would be absurd and the usage of women as whores would be impossible. Quasi. The word whore is incomprehensible unless one is immersed in the lexicon of male domination. Men have created the group, the conditional examples type, the concept, the epithet, the insult, the industry, the trade, the commodity, the reality of woman as whore. Woman as whore only exists within the objective and real system of male sexual domination. The Importance Of Childhood Essays. The pornography itself is conditional sentences objective and quasi experiment real and central to the male sexual system. The valuation of women's sexuality in pornography is objective and real because women are so regarded and so valued. Conditional Sentences. The force depicted in pornography is objective and real because force is so used against women.

The debasing of women depicted in bacp, pornography and intrinsic to it is conditional objective and real in The Importance Vaccination, that women are so debased. The uses of women depicted in pornography are objective and real because women are so used. The women used in pornography are used in pornography. Sentences Examples. The definition of women articulated systematically and experiment examples consistently in pornography is objective and real in that real women exist within and must live with constant reference to the boundaries of this definition. The fact that pornography is widely believed to be 'sexual representations' or 'depictions of sex' emphasizes only that the valuation of women as low whores is sentences widespread and that the Female Inequity sexuality is reduced to one essential: 'cunt. Conditional. our essence, our offense'.(1) The idea that pornography is Essay Negative Politics 'dirty' originates in the conviction that the sexuality of women is dirty and actually portrayed in pornography; that women's bodies (especially women's genitals) are dirty: instead pornography embodies and exploits this idea; pornography sells and promotes it. In the United States, the pornography industry is larger than the record and film industries combined. In a time of widespread economic impoverishment, it is examples growing: more and quasi more male consumers are eager to spend more and more money on pornography-on depictions of conditional, women as vile whores. Pornography is now carried by cable television; it is now being marketed for Study, home use in video machines. The technology itself demands the creation of more and more porneia to conditional sentences examples, meet the Essay on The Negative Role of Realism market opened up by the technology. Real women are tied up, stretched, hanged, fucked, gang-banged, whipped, beaten and conditional sentences begging for more.

In the photographs and films, real women are used as porneia and real women are depicted as porneia. To profit, the pimps must supply the porneia as the technology widens the market for of Childhood, the visual consumption of conditional examples, women being brutalized and loving it. One picture is worth a thousand words. The number of pictures required to meet the demands of the marketplace determines the number of porneia required to in the, meet the demands of graphic depiction. The numbers grow as the technology and its accessibility grow. The technology by its very nature encourages more and conditional sentences examples more passive acquiescence to the graphic depictions.

Passivity makes the already credulous consumer more credulous. He comes to quasi examples, the pornography a believer; he goes away from it a missionary. The technology itself legitimizes the uses of women conveyed by it. In the male system, women are sex; sex is the whore. The whore is porné, the conditional sentences examples lowest whore, the whore who belongs to all male citizens: the slut, the cunt. Buying her is buying pornography. Role Study. Having her is having pornography. Seeing her is sentences examples seeing pornography. Seeing her in sex is seeing the whore in sex. Using her is using pornography.

Wanting her means wanting pornography. Being her means being pornography. Reproduced with gracious thanks to the Andrea Dworkin estate and to Perigree Books and The Women's Press. Essay: Philippe Garner. Essays. Taking its cue from the conditional sentences examples title of confidentiality, one of Pedro Almodovar’s films about desire and control, 'Dress Me Up, Dress Me Down' offered SHOWstudio viewers the chance to dress British Model Liberty Ross in a live interactive photoshoot showcasing the Autumn/Winter 2005 collections. Conditional Sentences. Inspired by The Importance of Childhood live pornographic video chats widely available on the web, 'Dress Me Up, Dress Me Down' shifted control from the image-maker - first to sentences, the model, and then ultimately to the viewer. Ross documented herself and her work through a series of galleries and interactives leading up to the shoot in June 2005. Confidentiality. During the editorial itself, the SHOWstudio audience acted as 'virtual stylist' to Liberty Ross, choosing pieces from a wardrobe of garments selected by stylist Jonathan Kaye around nine key themes, but determining their own look for Liberty. The stylists' instructions were communicated online through a live chartroom, viewers watching their handiwork on a live broadcast.

The final looks are captured here as a series of interactive created by Daniel Brown, each one again surrendering control of the image and allowing viewers to add or remove layers of garments, inspired by saucy novelty pens of old. These interactive editorial images are accompanied by Liberty Ross' video and picture diaries documenting her experiences on fashion shoots and an interactive comprised of footage shot by Liberty, utilising her own body as a canvas for aesthetic experimentation. The origins of the shoot are mapped out through mood boards that investigated Jonathan Kaye's selection of key seasonal themes, and also a series of essays and personal statements from a variety of examples, voices on the subject of pornography. The interactives in Vaccination Essays, this project are best viewed with Safari or Firefox. Graphic Designer Nick Knight. Director Liberty Ross. Model Richard Kern. Photographer Philippe Garner.

Auction Specialist Jonathan Kaye. Stylist Jonathan De Villiers. Conditional Examples. Photographer Ann-Sofie Back. Fashion Designer Andrea Dworkin. Concept: Nick Knight Performance and Direction: Liberty Ross Editorial and Creative Direction: Penny Martin and Paul Hetherington Styling: Jonathan Kaye Research and Development: Christabel Stewart Technical Development: Dorian Moore, Ross Phillips and Jon Emmony Studio Assistant: Jez Tozer.

Photography: Nick Knight Model: Liberty Ross at Storm Stylist: Jonathan Kaye at Katy Barker Hair: Sam McKnight at Premier Make up: Sharon Dowsett at CLM Nail Technition: Marian Newman at Streeters Photographer’s Assistant 1: Jez Tozer Photographer’s Assistant 2: Simon Thistleton Photographer’s Assistant 3: Ruth Photographer’s Assistant 3: Eisuke Styling Assistant: Sarah Young Hair Assistant: Eamon SHOWstudio Team: Penny Martin, Paul Hetherington, Dorian Moore, Ross Phillips, Paul Bruty, Charlotte Thomsen, Rhea Thierstein Sound Technician: Ian Sands Studio: Big Sky Studio, London N7. Thanks to: Leon Chew, CLM, Self Service Magazine, Howard Tangye, Stephanie Noble.

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essay on conditional short story women shows how setting can directly relate to the theme of a short story. Plot can also be used as a direct representation of the quasi experiment examples, theme in a short story. Plot is the combination of setting, characters, and the series of events that allow the story to progress. The idea of a unifying event that forces a child into the adult world is conditional sentences identified, by analysis of the plot, as the theme of Alice Munro's Royal Beatings. The story progresses by a series of flashbacks through Rose, the protagonist's. indefinitely. The short story, by contrast, is The Importance of Childhood always rendered meaningful at conditional sentences the moment of its closing. The ending can be ambiguous or devastatingly clear but a good short story takes us step by step to its inexorable ending and its very beginning is of Childhood Essays but a seed of its ending. The great Argentinean short story writer Julio Cortazar explained this difference between the short story and sentences examples, the novel using a boxing analogy: in a boxing match, the novel would win by points; the short story, by knock out. gothic short stories need to have an Essay on Gender Socialization, interesting start that makes the reader want to look deeper into the book. In The Body Snatcher by conditional sentences Robert Louis Stevenson the narrator starts the story off as if he is retelling a past event. Every night in the year, four of experiment examples us sat in conditional sentences, the small parlour of the George at Debenham - the undertaker, the landlord, Fettes and myself.

This immediately sets the scene and tells us that the narrator is a main character in the story. The story. understand one another more, and over all be better people, but with today's society and economic setup, it seems that social status issues are here to stay. Another theme in these two stories is death. We as people react to death in so many different ways.

In A Rose For Emily death is prominent through the whole story, it seems as if it almost dictates Emily's life, she lets it consume her. First starting with the death of her father who ran her life for her up until his death, her reaction to his. In two years I'll write, 'Jack should be home by now. Little Jack is about Inequity in the Workplace hungry for his supper. He said his first word today besides 'Mama' and 'Papa. He said 'kaka''' (Tallent 12). Sentences! She literally wants to take over the role of her lover's wife. Essay Role! In the story Can-Can, the description of the. Elements of conditional sentences examples a Short Story Expressed the Protagonist Gabriel in the Short Story the Dead. Although conflict is apparent, the reader was lead to believe that there was only one type.

However, as another group member, Joan, pointed out, there are more types of bacp confidentiality conflict uncovered later. Originally, we would assume the conflict in the story was a person vs. society conflict. We came to this conclusion when hearing this line in Gabriels speech: But we are living in conditional, a sceptical and, if I may use the confidentiality, phrase, a thought-tormented age: and sometimes I fear that the new generation educated or. point there would be a shift of power but being a white man he is still in control. From both of stories the representation of race with respect to the naturalised stereotypes is conditional sentences that they are completely unsubstantiated, although the The Importance Essays, white people still attempt to conditional sentences apply these stereotypes to on Gender Socialization the marginalised Negros. The way the white people apply the sentences, racism and Vaccination Essays, stereotypes is different in each story. Conditional! In ?The Test' the Inspector is the most noticeably racist, where he puts a Southern American spin. driving for he will drive you crazy.

How reckless! Amanda is examples fond of watching movies because she would like to share many great stories in class for conditional sentences, she is Socialization a Literature teacher in a State University . She always remember the film Hanggang Kailan Kita Mamahalin( Till when will I love you) starring Lorna T. , who played Liza and Goma who played Mike . Mike here in the story is the exact description of her husband, conceited, arrogant, hot tempered. Knowing that Mike became unemployed because he didnt. birds have no feet, but to conditional sentences examples his horror, this bird species does have feet! He discovers then that educated, superior; western world of science had put a bird in a museum and mislabeled it. Not only Role Socialization Study, had they mislabeled it but also they even made up a story about how it takes flight without its feet and sentences, how it never lands in its whole lifetime. This not only sinks Alec's hopes, but also makes the western world of quasi experiment examples science seem somewhat nonsensical. All these world-renowned, college-graduated, professors.

History of the Development of the Short Story. Essay. strong demand for short fiction of between 3,000 and 15,000 words. Famous short stories of this period include Boleslaw Prus's A Legend of Old Egypt (1888) and Anton Chekhov's Ward No. 6 (1892). At the same time, the first literary theories about the short story appeared. Conditional Sentences! A widely known one is Edgar Allan Poe's The Philosophy of Composition (1846). In 1901, Brander Matthews, the first American professor of dramatic literature, published The Philosophy of the Short-Story. Confidentiality! In the. What Is a Successful Short Story Essay. point in conditional examples, this story happened when the bacp, youngest daughter fell into sentences examples the deep end of the pool.

This suddenly changes this peaceful and cheerful story into one of Workplace horror. This event provokes the readers imagination to envision millions of possible outcomes before we can even turn the examples, page. In my opinion, a successful short story must have a main or pivoting event that changes the dynamic of the story and draws us further into the story. Essay In The Workplace! Writing a successful and interesting short story is conditional sentences examples not easy. Importance of a Setting in a Short Story Essay. This story is perfectly set in Inequity in the, catacombs with the sentences, walls lined with human remains. The cavern walls are also described to have white web-work. In The! Told through first-person narration by our main character, Montresor, it is a story about revengeful murder. Montresor deviously leads his friend Fortunato through the vaults down the long and winding staircase to the damp grounds of the catacombs of the Montresors. A bottle of wine is opened and Fortunato drinks to the buried that repose around us Apparently, the two roads in sentences, the story could mean a dilemma or two conflicting ideas that a person is confidentiality dealing with.

This could refer to conditional sentences examples any choice that the person is trying to make. Based on the poem, I can feel that Frost is trying to imply that the person is bacp confidentiality torn between two opportunities that he is facing. Further, there is another symbolism used to describe the two paths which is in leaves no step had trodden black. Black here could mean death, because of the context of the sentence where. his life in order to support his family. Stokesie suggests what Sammy 2 might become if he were to continue to work at the AP. Conditional Sentences! For this, Sammy is confidentiality adapted to a change in his life by resigning as a cashier at A P. Towards the end of the story when he announces that he is quitting, he goes on to say: a couple customers that had been heading for my slot begin to knock against each other, like scared pigs in conditional sentences examples, a chute (309).

Readers may have sympathetic feelings of of Childhood Sammy, because he dare. Tagore Short Stories Summarized Essay. Raicharan was now to receive a monthly allowance, but when sent to his village the money returned, no one had heard of Raicharan. Wealth Surrendered The story tells of Yajnanath, who although wealthy, lived like the old sages; on impossibly little. Conditional Sentences! His son, Brindaban Kunda, bore with his fathers choice of living until he married. The frequent rows became worse when his wife, who had been seriously ill, died.

Brindaban blamed his father for her death as he had refused to pay for expensive medicines. Reunion: Short Story and Father Essay. way he could. From the first paragraph, it is made clear that Charlies father does not know how to have a successful relationship with his son. Furthermore, the readers first impression of bacp Charlies father is carried on into the rest of the story.

When Charlie and his father seat themselves in the first restaurant the stop at, the father starts shouting the words, Garcon Cameriere! You. This portrays Charlies father as thinking he is conditional sentences better than everyone else and that he is special. It. The Difference Between a Short Story and a Novel Essay. For our purposes, the literary critic J. Gerald Kennedys formal description of the short story sequence as characterized and unified through a developing character (as in the Bildungsroman), a composite type, or a set of characters; through a dominant, explicit theme, such as isolation or revolt; or through the delineation of particular locale, milieu, or community, and possessing progressive[ly] unfolding and cumulative effects[1] might be sufficiently inclusive.[2] This distinction separates. Essay on Short Story A Conversation with My Father on choosing short stories 11. You are Chris Wong, chairman of the English Society. You will recommend an English short story for bacp, your members to discuss in the next meeting. Write an email to your teacher advisor explaining why you think your chosen story will interest your members. Include your comments on how the story ends.

12. You are Chris Wong, a member of the Film-making Society in your school. Your chairman, Ronny Lee, has asked you to examples suggest a short story which would. Essay About the Short Story: Pool by Corey Campbell. The story is written in 2009, which is a time where it is very easy to get a divorce, it isnt like in the olden days where getting a divorce was frowned upon, these days it is very normal to get divorced. It seems like the author is trying to showcase how normal these kinds of in the Movie Sucker Essay dysfunctional relationships are, and examples, how easily people are led into quasi experiment examples committing adultery. These days its hard to find a person who doesnt know at least one divorced couple Adultery is conditional examples also what I believe the end is hinting. Alice Munro A Master of Canadian Short Story Essay.

In a literary culture that tends to lionize novels over shorter fiction, Munro has been a constant advocate for the power of the short story. In her interview with the CBC, Munro emphasized the significance of her win not for The Importance of Childhood Essays, herself, but for the art form, short story. Alice was born in Wingham, Ontario in conditional sentences examples, 1931 to a family of farmers and Female Workplace, now lives in nearby Clinton. Her father was a fox farmer and her mother was a teacher. Conditional Sentences! She was a literary person in Essay on The Negative of Realism Politics, a non-literary town, concealing her ambition. Belonging: Short Story and Rabbit Proof Fence Essay. culture that they can not find a sense of connection in the white society. The ideas of belonging is important to human being which many famous writers use as a great resource of writing materials such as Tim Winton wrote a short story named neighbors. This short story is about a newly arrival young couple in a neighborhood and conditional examples, because the neighbors have different culture backgrounds which make the young couple feeling not belong to this block.

Somehow, the things have been change after they. Third World Short Story as National Allegory Essay. serialized in the same manner Charles Dickens published his novels. In the Essay Role Study, case of the Malayalam language in sentences examples, southern India, all weeklies and even some newspapers serialize novels, several at a time. Both popular and literary journals print short stories. With circulations ranging from ten-thousand to nearly a million in some cases, they produce a large quantity of serious and Study, escapist fiction. Are they necessarily national allegories in.

Positive Influence of Relationships in Short Stories Essay. feel more like one and so, being a man for him would mean not to believe in Santa Claus anymore. He is positively affected by this relationship because now he feels like more of conditional a man, an Essay Negative in World Politics, adult; it helped him mature. The protagonist's of both short stories are more mature, more adult like because of their families' relationship with them and conditional, the reason for that is that in quasi, ''A Rupee Earned'' the dad teaches his son to be less lazy by maturing and working to sentences examples get what he wants and in ''To Everything. Hemingways Short Stories of Autobiographical, Immature Males. Hemingways fumbling depiction of the clueless husband in the short story matched the mistakes of the husband in the film. Bacp Confidentiality! Brennan recounts both the drive to have a child and a cat in a biography of Hadley: The story was a tribute to Hadley, who was dealing with her first year of marriage, the loneliness it entailed, and her deep desire for motherhood. According to biographer Gioia Diliberto, in her biography, Hadley, Hemingway based the conditional, story on an incident that happened in bacp confidentiality, Rapallo in 1923.

Hadley. Essay about Analyzing Novels Short Stories. view In literature, the point of view is a literary device that depicts the manner in which a story is conditional sentences examples narrated/ depicted and who it is that tells the story. Two of the most common point of view techniques are the first person, wherein the story is told by in the Movie the narrator from his/ her standpoint and the third person wherein the narrator does not figure in conditional, the events of the story and tells the story by referring to all characters and places in the third person with third person pronouns and proper. Creating Morals in quasi experiment, Victorian Short Stories Essay. The heroism in each story is put across by the language of the writer. Jack is put across brave and courageous whereas Captain Smollett is just put across as a wise and intelligent hero. R L Stevenson has used different types of language to portray different characters with the same original ideas.

Jack is described as a grave lad meaning he was solemn or apprehensive. Conditional! Whereas the Movie Sucker Essay, captain is not described with specific words but his characteristics are put across through his speech and actions. Essay about The Lottery Short Story Analysis. Hutchinson's character also provides considerable information on the theme of the story. Her name reminds one of the historical Anne Hutchinson not only because of the conditional examples, name but also because of the small town setting. Anne Hutchinson was a willing martyr who died for her religion and was exiled from her town. Tessie Hutchinson though may at quasi experiment first of the story appear to be a very good-natured human being by sentences the way she comes in to the story. Essay About Female! She comes in jokingly kidding with a friend of hers about how she almost.

Symbol of Nature in Kate Chopin#x27;s Short Stories Essay. through Dorotheas entire being just as air covers the examples, forest under the sky and clouds. Chopin explains that She could perceive no human habitation (Chopin 322) because she was as free as the nature she was driving through. In The Story of an Hour, Louise Mallard recovers from the devastation of her husband Brently by finding rejuvenation in the beauty of bacp nature as well. Conditional Examples! Chopin writes that [Louise] could see the open square before her house the Study, tops of the trees that were all aquiver. My Start as a Publisher: A Short Story Essay example. clutches of my sturdy hair spray, check my makeup and proceed to wait in the lobby. After ten minutes, I hear the slamming of a door. Sorry I am late, there was heavy traffic. a man who I guess to be Mr. Smith says while running his hands through his short brown hair.

He takes one look at me, stops for a few seconds and continues. You must be Nicole, nice to meet you. I am Jason, your guide for today. Examples! But after today, I am just an bacp confidentiality, employee in this hellhole. He says with a smile. I cannot help but giggle. Essay about Mother Turned into a Zombie: A Short Story. A few hours pass with Josh and Sophie working on the Chevy and by the time he was almost done putting in the last spark plug, it was short fused and didn't work.

It was about examples, 8:28 PM and Sophie looked to Essay on Gender Role Socialization be getting tired so Josh packed everything up and told her to head inside. We should go to the hardware store tomorrow and conditional sentences examples, grab a plug for the car, Sophie suggested. Essay On The Role Politics! Maybe, depends on how the morning is, Josh said as he closed the barn doors and walked inside. Sentences! When the two got inside all the. Essay on The Lesson by Cade Bambara (Short Story) make up. Me and Sugar and The Importance, Junebug and Flyboy hangin out the window and hollering to everybody, putting lipstick on each other cause Flyboy a faggot anyway, and conditional sentences examples, making farts with our sweaty armpits. This quote shows that even the kids in the short story wear make up. Miss Moore shows that she is a very educated person, by when and where she takes the Vaccination Essays, kids on trips. And Miss Moore asking us do we know what money is like we a bunch of sentences retards. I mean real money, she say, like it's only. My Psychoanalytic Views of Two Short Stories Essay. prevail over the id. The mans staff is in the Movie Sucker Punch used to sentences examples symbolize two things: The first representation reveals the bacp, outside force that corrupts man.

Before the Fall, the serpent appeared to Eve and tempted her, causing mankind's ultimate downfall. Throughout the conditional, story, the staff is referred to as that dark stick and snake-like staff. These references are acclaimed when Goody Cloyse, a corrupted Puritan, greets the strange man by leaning on Essay on Gender Role the staff, as a human would hug an old lover and identifies him as Satan. Marital Relationships as Portrayed in the Short Stories I#x27;m Going and The Story of an sentences examples, Hour. In fact, he was nowhere near the confidentiality, accident! Mrs. Mallard is overwhelmed with emotion, and dies of a heart attack.

The relationships in both of these pieces of literature were very similar. In each story we recognize that the husband's of these women were controlling and at times overbearing. Jeanne was mentally manipulated by her husband, and conditional sentences, his hypocritical ways, while Louise was filled with emptiness and self doubt because she had lived in the shadow of her husband for too long. Both women. Short Analysis on The Story of an Hour by Robert Frost Essay.

they sometimes over asserted their own beliefs onto one another. It also tells readers that Mrs. Examples! Mallard disapproves of conditional such a relationship. This gave her much more happiness compared to the sorrow she felt at her husbands death. At the end of the story, her husband returns home unscathed - there had been a mistake on the news of Essay of Realism in World Politics his death and that shock was a much bigger shock than his death, that right at that moment, Mrs. Sentences! Mallard dies. In the end, Mrs. Quasi Experiment Examples! Mallard survives the initial shock of. The following piece of work is an analysis of the short story called. He must be just getting on with his life, and some young talkative man appears from nowhere and is investigating his life.

Hes Inquisitive and sentences, annoying. He never stops asking questions. Nearly every time he speaks to the signal man within the story, he asks questions. That mistake? Who is it? Into the tunnel? He speaks and asks question like a new reporter of a kind. Even when not in company with the signal man, the narrator continues to strike opinions on Essay Role Socialization Study him. A disagreeable. The Key to a Successful Short Story is in its Unexpected Ending.

published. The unexpected in just a few papers managed to touch on deep issues, and questions female independence, physical attraction, as well as pressure of examples financial insecurity. This is an example of how authors subtly used their stories, by sending messages about quasi examples, moral issues, to reach larger audiences. 'The Arrest', very much concise though detailed, the tale tells of a fugitives escape and apparent capture. After Orrin Brower a murderer, escapes from conditional sentences prison, after. Revenge and Murder, Justified with the Characters in the Short Story, Killings. symbolizes the destructive encounters about to arise.

Ruth can sense and feel that her youngest son is in jeopardy, but is powerless in persuading him any differently of his feelings and thoughts for Sucker Punch Essay, Mary Ann. I consider Ruth a flat character in this story, her mood and examples, emotions never change or waiver. Schizophrenia! She has become a recluse in her own world of self disdain and torment over her sons death. Because of her torment, she creates a secretive thought process within her husband Matt. Matt Fowler, the. Adaptation of Brokeback Mountain from Short Story to Feature Film.

In expanding a 30 page story to 134 minutes of feature script spanning twenty years, some characters who were just sketched in a couple of lines are developed into bigger parts and scenes were added to mark the passing of examples time. There are many story elements in common between the short story and the film. Both revolve around a two cowboys and their lifelong love for each other. Also many of these incidents are spelled out in more detail. The men's marriages and quasi experiment examples, relationships with their wives and. Conflict, Love and Hope in Donovan#x27;s Short Story All That Glisters to more mature and civil, after the death of her loving father. Her speech turns to more sensible than before. Clare had to make sacrifices just to buy the glitter pens and make a nice card for her very ill father thus the main incident of the short story takes places: Ah couldnae bare the fact wed never said goodbye. This reveals the examples, love that she had in her relationship with her father. Her love to her father is astonishing as Donovan expresses Clares love in a very loving and caring. Critical Analysis of the Short Story Hills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway. Hemingways stories are normally implicit that the readers have to confidentiality understand and dig the conditional, real meaning out by themselves, just like he did not mention the word abortion at examples all through the whole story.

This writing style is also known as the Iceberg Theory, that means the author only reveals one-eighth of the information on the surface of the story just like an examples, iceberg only bacp, shows one-eighth of it above water (Li-Jun, Y., Ding-Xi, X., 2010). The subject, theme, setting, plot, characters, point. Comparison of Two Short Stories by Tobias Wolff and T.C Boyle. actually trusted him (37). This was a big turning point in their relationship because the child now sees greatness in his father that he had never seen before. In Boyle's short story, If the sentences examples, River was Whiskey the same rocky father-son relationship that slowly takes a turn for the better is displayed. The father in Boyle's story is much worse than the.

The short story If I Quench Thee by William E. In The Movie! Chambers is an appropriate. fathers reaction to sentences her response is an angry one and he believes she is wasting her life helping savages. The theme of If I Quench Thee is racial hatred and The Importance Vaccination, the author explores this issue. He includes a violent scene at the end of this short story where Arthur encounters the black man that he assumes to be his daughters boyfriend. Arthur overhears Tod and his daughter talking about marriage and he is enraged and. Tragic Love in conditional sentences examples, Grace Ogot#x27;s Short Stories Essay example. and his father, Rra-Keaja, are also especially close because they have many things in common, such as the fact that they both share an immense dislike toward Keajas mother.

She is described in the story as controlling and quasi experiment, cruel, with a worm of hatred and discontent eating away at her heart. The story The Rain Came, deals less with the love between couples, and conditional sentences, more with the love between father and Schizophrenia in the Sucker Punch, daughter. Oganda is the only girl out of twenty children; therefore, at conditional least in of Realism Politics, this culture, she. The True Meaning That Hidden in a Short Story by Shirley Jackson, the Lottery. the most attractive part of the story, because from the first paragraph I dont find the story will end like this, it describes with a good atmosphere like the conditional sentences, flowers were blossoming profusely and the grass was richly green, the author manages to hide the of Childhood Vaccination Essays, true purpose of the lottery until the sentences, end of story. In addition, the acts of villagers are also described as normal activities, so I feel that this story is so interesting because I dont expect the bacp confidentiality, end of this story will be like this.

At the conditional, other. Culture in Alice Walkers Short Story Everyday Use Essay. Mother, However, takes pride in being the rugged and somewhat manly type of woman. In the story she brags about she can kill and clean a hog as mercilessly as a man and how her fat keeps her hot in zero degree weather. Socialization Study! Walkers choice of sentences examples words to describe the 3 characters early on in the story, gives an idea of how the three women will interact when they all meet up. Walker used two main objects/places in Everyday Use to Role add a hidden meaning. The first object/place of meaning is the front yard. Exploring Free Will and Decision Making in Albert Camus#x27; Short Story The Guest, no bearing on whether Daru chose to make options available.

This is also witnessed when Balducci leaves the Arab at Daru's without ensuring Daru kept up his end of the social bargain. No man lives in a vacuum, but Camus perhaps chooses to sentences write the story this way because he is a philosopher, vacuum-packed characters can give definite conclusions about the possible nature of man as a species, which is one of the philosophers ultimate aims. Over the night, Daru does not actively prevent the prisoner. Ralph Ellison Battle Royal Short Story Analysis Essay. of this time because the white men even treated white women with little to no respect which implies that African Americans were literally shut off from the white economy. Ellison uses very descriptive imagery to describe the final scenes of the story. The narrator has finally finished the confidentiality, battle royal and is finally able to present his speech to the all-white male group. Conditional Examples! Ellison explains how he is receiving blatant disrespect from the group who is talking, laughing, and ignoring him as he recites. Analyzing Hemingway#x27;s Short Story Hills Like White Elephants the more talkative of the two and from what he says during the story, Well be fine afterward just like we were before. I think its the best thing to do.

But I dont want you to do it if you dont really want to.(pg.118) You are aware of his stance on the situation at hand from their conversation. While its a bit obvious that the man is in favor of the abortion you can see they are both nervous as is normal. Essay On Gender Socialization Study! Throughout the conditional sentences, story they order drinks in an attempt to avoid the matter at hand and. A Whole Novel Or Many Short Stories, The Answer Is Ernest Hemingway. It has also been documented that Hemingways father taught Ernest to fish and hunt. And in the book Nicks ability to fish, shown in the story The End of Something, which he was taught by his father. The Importance Vaccination! The next main point occurs in The End of Something, the setting for examples, this story takes place on Essay on The Negative in World Hortons Bay.

In Hemingways life his parents had a summerhouse on Hortons Bay. Hemingway just placed part of conditional examples his own life into the book; this is merely a prime example of the similarities of living. Virginia Woolf#x27;s Technique of Writing the Short Story Which Makes It Unique from Other Stories. There are no complications, and less suspense in the story. Further, with the Essay on The Negative Role of Realism in World, exception of the conditional sentences examples, mark on the wall, the on Gender, narrator tells us, interrupts her fancy about the crimson flag flapping from the castle tower and draws her attention to other events, arousing the train of thoughts.

The subsequent events the narrator talks about are neither the cause nor the consequences of other events but rather they are arranged based on the emotional effects they have on the narrator. The thought about.