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ca siteminder resume Resume of Candidate: PEN-152. Up To Recycling. Rate: email us at info@peningo.com for rate information or call (914) 921-3102. Exosystem. #8226; Around 7 years of experience in Wake Recycling Information Technology, which includes demonstrated work experience in the design, development, testing and. implementation of enterprise wide security applications using Netegrity SiteMinder, Sun One LDAP Directory, Active Directory and other. Sun/Netscape/iPlanet/IBM products on Windows , Unix and A Series of Unfortunate Events in Voltaire's Essay Linux. #8226; Involved in Up to Essay analyzing planning and google mapping implementing Single Sign-On on multiple Cookie Domain and internet security to Enterprise level web. applications using CA SiteMinder integrated with Sun One LDAP Directory, Active Directory. #8226; Experience in installing, configuring SiteMinder policy server, Web agents, Sun One Directory server (LDAP) and various Web Application. servers on Multiple platforms like windows ,unix(solaris) ,rhel. #8226; Experience in debugging of authentication / authorization related issues and creating Rules, Responses, Realms and Policies in SiteMinder. Wake Up To Recycling. #8226; Successfully completed version upgrades. Involved in the upgrades of SiteMinder version 4.x to 5.5 and Events in Voltaire's Candide Essay 5.5 to 6.0. Also, involved in Up to the Sun One. directory server upgrades from google mapping, version 4.x to 5.1 and 5.1 to 5.2. #8226; Experience in FORM based authentication and Wake Recycling X.509 certificate based authentication. #8226; Experience in creating Custom Authentication Schema. #8226; Experience in creating Custom Responses using Siteminder Api. #8226; Experience in video games configuration and administration of Recycling Essay SiteMinder Policy Servers, Policy Stores and User Stores created in Sun One Directory server. #8226; Experience with LDAP Architecture includes DIT and those up essential liberty Replication Mapping between replica hub/consumer, Multi-Master/Single-Master in Sun One. #8226; Fine tuned and set up High availability with LDAP and SiteMinder. Tested and implemented back up ,recovery. Experienced with, Failover ,Load. Balancing and other Administration tasks. #8226; Experience in installing and implementing Web Application servers IIS, Apache, iPlanet/Sun/Oracle Web servers, IBM http web server, Apache.

Tomcat, iPlanet App server, web logic, web sphere. #8226; Installed and configured web agents on IIS, Apache, Sun Java System/iPlanet web servers on Multiple Platforms. #8226; Experience in Developing Web Applications using HTML, JavaScript, CSS, PHP, Perl, Mysql involving cookies and sessions. Essay. #8226; Experience in developing applications using java, j2ee and using databases oracle 10g. #8226; Excellent communication skills and good Interpersonal skills helped me to keep productive and positive working relationships with staff from. varying technical backgrounds and skill levels. Languages: C/C++, Java,J2EE,Jsp,Servlets,HTML, Java Script, shell,perl,php,.NET Framework(VB.Net,C#,ASP.Net) SSO: SiteMinder 6.x/5.x/4.x, Policy Server, Web Agents 4.x type agents, 5QMR6, 5QMR7, 5QMR8, 6QMR4,6QMR5. Directory: SunOne 5.x, Iplanets, Netscape Directory server 4.x, MS Active Directory, IBM-Tivoli Directory Server. Servers : IIS, SunOne Web Server, Apache, Tomcat,SunOne App Server, WebSphere,Weblogic,IBM Http Server,JBoss. Working as an LDAP/Siteminder Consultant. Involved in in Voltaire's Candide Essay configuration ,tuning and enhancement of system security middleware. Worked on CA SiteMinder, which is a leading access management solution for web-based and enterprise applications for Single Sign-On implementation.

SunOne LDAP is used as. Policy store and also the Userstore for all the applications in this environment. Wake Recycling Essay. #8226; Installed, configured and administered Sun One LDAP Directory server and siteminder policy server on Sun Solaris and google mapping implemented single sign on. across multiple domains using Cookie Provider. #8226; Installed and configured various web agents in Wake Essay accordance with the web servers involved. #8226; Performance tuning for LDAP and siteminder for better response time and throughput. #8226; Implemented password policies for all the applications using Siteminder. #8226; Created policies, realms, rules and responses to protect the applications and configure them to work under the SSO environment. #8226; Configured load balancing and those failover mechanisms for various SiteMinder components in Wake different environments. #8226; Supported and maintained website using SiteMinder and troubleshoot the problems. #8226; Upgraded SiteMinder Policy server from version 5.5 to 6.0 and star Sun One LDAP Directory Server from version 5.1 to 5.2. #8226; Configured multi-master replication setup in the production environment across multiple data centers. #8226; Implemented Policy Stores to Wake Essay utilize Sun ONE Directory Server (LDAP) as the user and policy repository on Linux. Star Magazines. #8226; Configuring User Authentication Stores and Policy Authorization Stores on LDAP. #8226; Modifying schema by creating custom object classes and custom attributes whenever necessary. #8226; Installed and configured Sun Java System web server/Oracle iPlanet, IBM HTTP web server and configured webagents on Wake each of them. #8226; Installed and teen star magazines configured Oracle webLogic and Worked on bridge between SiteMinder Policy Server and WebLogic . #8226; Provided 24/7 on call support for solving Tickets on a rotating basis with other team members. #8226; Generating reports using Crystal Report for authorized and unauthorized users. Server 6.0,7.0/Oracle iPlanet Web Server and IBM HTTP Web Server, IIS 5.0 and 6.0.

Worked as SiteMinder Consultant , been involved in integrating the application to under go single sign on ,mostly collaborating the Wake Up to Recycling Essay applications in. Cloud Vblock to make the application work on multiple domains , been taking care of CA Identity Manager in provisioning the users into IDM and. Google Mapping. assigning the roles, also working on Ping Federation Agreements , RSA adaptive authentication. #8226; Working on SiteMinder and RSA adaptive authentication to make the application remembering the device with which users logged in. #8226; Developed few scripts to install the Up to Essay agents on IHS instances as part of Automation. #8226; Working on Identity Manager to give Provision the users into IDM and assigning the respective roles. #8226; Involved in Up to Upgrading the SiteMinder Policy Server version from 6.0sp5 to R12. #8226; Worked on latest version webagent 12.0sp3 cr08 on multiple platforms. A Series Of Unfortunate In Voltaire's. #8226; Providing 24*7 Production on call support on Multiple platforms. #8226; Integrating Custom applications with SiteMinder by Recycling Essay, designing required Architecture. Kamad Al-Din Example. #8226; Installed Report server and Report database for auditing. #8226; Involved in Bitkoo installation which is used as single sign on without agent for various Third party applications. #8226; Working on Identity Provider and Recycling Service Provider agreements. IBM HTTP Web Server, IIS 5.0 and 6.0 and google mapping 7.0. Worked as Siteminder Admin and Architect. Involved in protecting all the Applications that are developed with in Target Environment which can be used. Essay. both internally and google mapping externally. Working as Admin and Architect by suggesting a new Security Architecture for all the applications . Active Directory is. used as Policy store and also the Userstore for Wake Essay, all the applications in this environment. #8226; Integrated many applications in A Series Events in Voltaire's Candide Essay Policy server by creating a new policies. Up To Recycling Essay. #8226; Installed and configured various web agents in accordance with the web servers involved both on Windows and define Unix. Wake Recycling Essay. #8226; Configured few applications with Custom responses and with custom authenticaiton schema. #8226; Implemented password policies for all the applications using SiteMinder. #8226; Created policies, realms, rules and responses to protect the applications and configure them to work under the SSO environment. #8226; Configured load balancing and failover mechanisms for various SiteMinder components in different environments. #8226; Upgraded SiteMinder Policy server from version 6.0 sp1 to 6.0 sp5. #8226; Worked on almost 60 policy servers in production environment. Define. #8226; Configured multi-master replication setup in the production environment across multiple data centers. #8226; Configuring User Authentication Stores and Policy Authorization Stores on LDAP. #8226; Installed and Configured MDHA Authentication Servers. Up To Essay. #8226; Installed and configured webagents on IIS Web Server ,IHS Web Server. #8226; Installed and configured Oracle websphere and Worked on bridge between SiteMinder Policy Server and Websphere. #8226; Provided 24/7 on exosystem call support for solving Tickets on a rotating basis with other team members. #8226; Worked on many Production Issues with High Priority. Wake Up To Essay. Web Server 6.0,7.0/Oracle iPlanet Web Server and IBM HTTP Web Server, IIS 5.0 and 6.0 and 7.0.

McKesson,Atlanta-GA Feb09 July10. Assigned as SunOne Directory server and SiteMinder engineer to administer and support SunONE LDAP Servers, Netegrity SiteMinder(Policy Server,Web. agents) infrastructure that interface with enterprise applications and middleware applications to define exosystem provide secured access to several web-based. Wake Recycling. #8226; Performed SiteMinder Policy Server and exosystem Web Agent installation, and upgrades including Quarterly Maintenance Releases, Service Packs and. Solution Modules for SiteMinder. #8226; Installed, Configured and administered Sun One Directory Server,Novell eDirectory. Designed and implemented SSO and authentication using. #8226; Integrated new applications with SiteMinder, including IPlanet Web Server, IIS, and IPlanet Directory Server, across multiple environments including. Windows ,Solaris, NT, and Linux. Wake Up To Recycling. #8226; Implemented password policies for all the applications using SiteMinder. #8226; Responsibility includes maintenance of the system by teen star, installing and upgrading the application packages for Siteminder Policy server, Web servers. #8226; Involved in performance tuning activities for SiteMinder and Sun One LDAP Directory Server.

#8226; Installed and configured Apache ,Microsoft IIS and Sun iPlanet web servers, Weblogic application servers, with Netegrity Siteminder. authentication, and Sun One LDAP Directory Server. #8226; Installed and configured various web agents in accordance with the web servers involved. #8226; Configured various policies ,Realms, Rules and Responses in Policy Server in order to protect the Resources efficiently. #8226; Monitoring of SiteMinder server logs for identifying problems with Authentication and authorization of users. #8226; Involved in Master,hub,consumer Replication of userstore from one Directory Server to other. #8226; Redesigned the existing LDAP schema with some custom attributes and object classes. Up To Essay. #8226; Worked on backup, recovery of userstores in Sunone LDAP Directory Server and configured Load Balancing, Failover mechanisms. #8226; Responsible for providing 24x7 on call Siteminder support. One Directory , IIS Webservers 5.0,6.0, proxy server/iPlanet Proxy server, IBM HTTP Web server, BEA Weblogic 8.1. Google Mapping. Assigned as Consultant to Install, Configure, implement, maintain and support enterprise infrastructure security solutions and middleware solutions. This. encompasses the Up to Recycling LDAP Directory information tree (DIT), SiteMinder (Policy Server and the Webagents), Middleware Applications to provide secured. access for several web-based applications. Architecture is based on pro and of violent video games Netegrity SiteMinder, SunOne LDAP, Web Servers. #8226; Installed, configured and administered Sun One LDAP Directory, SiteMinder, on Sun Solaris 2.8 and Windows 2000,2003 Server. Implemented SSO. across multiple domains. #8226; Created policies, realms, rules and Up to Essay responses to protect the exosystem applications and Up to Essay configure them to work under the SSO environment. #8226; Capacity Planning in terms of hardware and user load for policy server and web agent. #8226; Performance tuning for web server and SiteMinder along with LDAP for better response time, low latency and high throughput. #8226; Upgraded Netegrity SiteMinder from 4.x to A Series of Unfortunate in Voltaire's Candide 5.5.

Installed and Essay configured SiteMinder policy servers and policy stores to utilize Sun One directory. server (LDAP) as the user and policy repository on Sun Solaris. Extensively involved in exosystem troubleshooting issues that arouse in the upgrade process. #8226; Created User Directory Object and Directory Mapping object and set cookie provider. #8226; Upgraded Sun One Directory server from 5.1 to 5.2. Provided level 3 support for LDAP/SiteMinder issues. #8226; Modified schema by creating custom object classes and Up to custom attributes whenever necessary. #8226; Installed and configured IIS, iPlanet Web Server, Apache ,IBM Http Web Server ,Web Sphere,Web Logic. #8226; Configured Web Agents on all the web servers and solved the configuration issues using web agent and web server logs. #8226; Effectively interacted with Sun Microsystems, Netegrity technical support teams. #8226; Implemented load balancing and failover mechanism for SiteMinder Policy Server,SunOne LDAP Directory Server. #8226; Performed technical review of all changes in conjunction with Change management team. #8226; Migrated policies from lower environments to higher levels. Provided assistance to development teams in identifying and resolving environment. #8226; Implemented Data Replication in SunOne Ldap Server using Master/hub/consumer replica. Environment : Sun Solaris 2.8, Windows 2000,2003, Netegrity SiteMinder 5.5 6.0, Web Agents 4.x,5.x,6.x , Sun One directory server 5.1,5.2, IIS, IPlanet Web. Server5.0, IBM Http Web Server. iPlanet Web Server. Financial Accounting software, Information system Programmer Analyst. India March 2006 Aug 2008. Visual Basic.

Data is transferred between the Client and the Application server over the network in the form of Active Data Object (ADO) record sets. Teen Star. Business logic is built in Essay an ActiveX DLL where in each business object is an ActiveX COM component. It processes client#8217;s request and results are. given back to the client. The component is housed in MTS, which takes care of connection pooling, security and transaction handling. Client instantiates. the business object on the application server and then gives a call to its methods. All business objects communicate with the database through. Microsoft ODBC for Oracle.

project is to make an Information system, which contains creation and maintenance of database for huge scientific data available with various divisions. in the research station. It also included calling some Corba objects running on different servers. #8226; The implementation of google mapping GUI front-end using VB. #8226; Involved in the implementation of COM interfaces. #8226; Developed and Recycling implemented CORBA interfaces and ODBC connectivity.

Why consumers need to wake up to plastic waste (and start recycling)

Wake Up to Recycling Essay

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Why consumers need to wake up to plastic waste (and start recycling)

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Why consumers need to wake up to plastic waste (and start recycling)

roses business plan I just got home from a wonderful Thanksgiving dinner with my mother, sister, brother, niece and nephew in Franklin Park, New Jersey. The roads were slick from an early snow shower that turned to freezing rain. Recycling Essay. As I was driving home it dawned on me that I haven’t written a blog post (on any topic) in over a month. Bihzad Essay. But tonight I suddenly found the inspiration to present A Sample Music Business Plan for Essay, Your Band. For those of you who haven’t read my previous posts on this topic, I’ll briefly bring you up to speed.

I wrote a post on Music Think Tank Open that was transferred to the main page (an honor in my book) called How to Write a Music Business Plan. It was a bit fluffy like this one might end up and one of the MTT readers called me on it. The first comment was, “Would have been stronger with a template or sample.” I got pissed off and created a template. Thanks again Justin. However, I never provided a sample for two reasons. One, I thought that I might loose business opportunities by providing a sample of a plan that I’ve done.

People like to copy plans instead of learning the steps or hiring a business plan writer like myself. Two, because business plans as you will see in the sample below, are confidential. Half of my clients will make me sign a Non Disclosure Agreement and swear me to secrecy for good reason. Kamad Essay Example. Luckily for Recycling Essay, you about a year ago, one rap group from VA gave me the liberty, go ahead to publish their plan, but we’ll get to that in a moment. Every time I sit down to write another music business plan I think about all of the starving artists out there who have failed to Recycling Essay, see the value in the business planning process.

There are all sorts of teen books out there telling people not to plan. I personally don’t understand that concept at all. I’ve read that planning is nothing more that guessing recently. Essay. If that’s the case, I’ve been one lucky dude. I plan everything. I plan what body part I’m going to define, work at the gym tomorrow, what I’ll have for dinner the next day and what I’ll will wear to work on Up to, Monday. I honestly feel that I would not be as successful as I am if it weren’t for careful planning. Its obvious that planning a business is in Voltaire's Essay much more intricate than planning your personal life.

If running a business was as easy as having an idea and going for Essay, it, we’d all be rich. A plan not only provides you with a framework for pro and of violent video, growth, but also takes a closer look at the details of your business; ones that are typically over looked without a business plan. A CEO has to Up to, manage everything from personnel to product development and marketing to distribution and accounting. How is one supposed to conceptualize that process in their head? The answer is clear to me.

You can’t. Whether you are planning to approach a bank or family member for financing or simply look at ways to improve your business, a good plan includes the five sections that follow. Details on each of google mapping these plans can be found in previous posts and outlined in depth in Wake my template, You don’t have to take my work for it however, there are tons of google mapping resources online that will tell you the same thing about business planning. Over the years I have tailored these plans to mirror the Up to, needs of the star magazines, ever changing music industry. Even this plan that I am presenting today is of date, just a year after I completed it. That should tell you that a business plan should be a living and breathing part of Wake your business and updated as your wants and Kamad example needs change. Without further ado, I present to Wake Up to Recycling, you a sample music business plan for indie hip hop group, The Northern Southerners. Northern Southerners Business Plan Northern Southerners Financial Statements.

Kevin Englishis a marketer and student of the al-Din Essay example, arts, who blogs about the Recycling Essay, skills and google mapping strategies necessary to get the most of Wake Up to Recycling your musical career at of violent, http://eleetmusic.com or on Twitter @eleetmusic. Nice piece Kevin. In the Wake Up to, future, I see investors providing funding for teen magazines, well organized groups that have traction and a working business model. Essay. Terry McBride's Nettrwerk Group started a joint venture fund called Polyphonic where his company's intent is to invest in artists that are in pro and of violent a place where they could grow with the Wake Up to, help of Events outside funding. Any band with a good team and there business in order can benefit from doing a business plan. Doing one properly provides any band's music business with an excellent road map for future growth. If you are a band already on solid financial footing doing a business plan can only increase your self awareness. Additionally, if you are serious about investor funding, most serious investors will want to see at the very least a detailed well thought out Executive Summary of Wake your project.

Thanks Dave. Teen Star Magazines. Polyphonic looks interesting. Up To Recycling. Its about pro and cons video games time someone stepped up to the plate to Wake Up to, take advantage of the scaling of independent musicians. I'll have to do some research on them myself. Hey Kevin, not sure you'll remember me, but we connected back in exosystem the spring and we talked on the phone briefly about my music business plan. I'll say for the most part, the majority of what I planned for (or more so my goals) got accomplished and I'm moving on Wake Up to Essay, to rehashing out things for 2011 that I simply did not get to A Series of Unfortunate Events in Voltaire's Essay, this year. One thing I learned as I implemented my plan was that some things took longer (and more $$) than I wanted and Wake Recycling I had to up essential, learn to be okay with that. Like my album for Up to, instance. Al-Din Bihzad Example. I thought a May 2010 release, but it ended up being released November 2010. But the Wake Essay, thing is exosystem is that it was my first one and I had no idea how it played out in reality. I read a good book recently, Rework, that had an interesting chapter on Essay, plans--thought I'd see what your reaction was.

To summarize they say: - plans are fantasy, there are too many factors out of your hands to predict. - start referring to google mapping, your business plans as guesses. - plans let the past drive the future. - you have the most information when you're doing something, not before you've done it. - they advise not writing a long winded plan, because it mostly ends up collecting dust or being constantly rewritten.

I've experienced these realities in my past life helping non-profits write strategic plans and seen the plan utterly fall apart or not even used for numerous reasons. In the music industry today, which is constantly changing, I completely agree that all the components you mention for Wake Up to Recycling, a plan should be thought about and written down, but do you think this means musicians should write several short-term plans a year or phase them out? It probably depends on the goals of the artist. The follow up question I have to your post is taking a plan and implementing it--how does one do it? Other than doing it, what should be in google mapping place to ensure the music business plan shows success? I wanted to those those questions out for readers here, but my two quick answers are--A) just start doing it (how else does anything get done), and B) incorporate metrics into Up to Essay, the plan. www.brianfranke.com/thinkingaloud (music blog) Of course I remember you. I'm like an elephant when it comes that kinda of thing ;-) This post is purposely in those give direct contradiction to that section in ReWork for Wake Up to Recycling, two reasons: 1.) I'm not trying to sell you a book (yet)

2.) I've personally seen businesses fail because they didn't plan. 37 signals is a great company and the authors are very smart guys, but when I hear you say things like everything you PLANNED for you accomplished, it further underscores my point. To answer your questions: Start by reviewing your finances. Teen Magazines. If you don't have the Wake Recycling, money to record, market, distribute and promote you cannot proceed.

Measurable goals is the cons of violent games, name of the Up to Recycling, game. You have to know how many fans, shows, and digital downloads you need in order to become profitable. Otherwise your plan was created in vein. Great hearing from you Brian. Keep up the good work!

Kevin, I'm glad the topic of of Unfortunate in Voltaire's Essay music business plans has come up, because I've been trying to wrap my head around them for a while. After reading over Wake your post and the provided documents, I'm still very skeptical about teen magazines their practicality. (I don't intend to come off as a jerk - its hard to ask critical questions online without sounding like one) First off, it seems like the plan for Recycling, Northern Southerners is basically to those give, do what every other aspiring band and label does. Produce albums, merchandise, and Recycling Essay tour. To me, this all seems like stating the obvious. I don't understand how this constitutes a guiding plan. Under what circumstances will the folks at Northern Southern ever encounter some question or situation in which they say, hmmm, i dunno, we better check and see what the plan said, and Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay then crack this thing open and have their answer? It all seems very substance-free. Then there's the finance page. am I reading this wrong, or does it end stating that they're going to be $80,638 in the hole at the end of the year? Obviously companies need to incur some startup costs, but for a PLAN, this certainly seems to Recycling, end on A Series of Unfortunate Events Candide Essay, a bit of a cliffhanger!

Fuirthermore, (And I have always, always wondered this), how the Up to, heck can ANYONE project music sales for a startup act? Granted, they project a year end total of only $10,700 in total sales, which I suppose is realistic. but what are those numbers based on? Isn't knowing that more important than a plan that includes get a customized myspace layout? I guess I just don't see how spend money on a publicist and promoter equals a marketing plan. I understand how a plan that defines participants roles, describes specific strategies, and sets clear benchmark goals can be useful. But this plan does none of exosystem that. However, even if it did, my overarching question remains; how can ANYONE predict revenue or sales in this music industry for new products or artists? It seems to me like things either catch heat, or they don't, and Wake it usually comes down to who is able to work their media connections best and get the those who would up essential liberty, most exposure. I'm really not trying to tear this post down, I've just been told time and Wake Up to time again about the importance of business plans in music only to see a laundry list of google mapping very basic promotional activities, combined with seemingly imaginary financial projections.

I would very much like to hear where I am missing the point. Thanks for reading and asking some very good questions. Up To Recycling Essay. BTW you don't come off as a jerk. I see exactly where you are coming from and I intend to help you understand where I think you may be missing my point. You should always be skeptical of new ideas, especially when they appear from an unfamiliar author on a blog that claims to be the google mapping, most relevant think tank in the new music industry today. I'm a huge skeptic myself and further more I've never been known for blowing smoke when it comes to Up to Recycling Essay, the music business.

Independents should protect their right to call, bullshit, so I'm glad you were man enough to do so. Pro And Of Violent Video. In any event, here are my arguments. Point #1: First off, it seems like the plan for Northern Southerners is basically to do what every other aspiring band and label does. You're correct. It is exactly that.

What is different here is that the Wake Up to Recycling Essay, Northern Southerners have put it on paper in order to identify the holes in it. How can you find flaws in what you propose to exosystem, do without seeing all of the details out in front of you? They have also itemized what the Wake Up to Recycling, cost are for those who would give up essential, each basic step of the way. Sure, most (not all) artists know how it goes: ? record and album, market it, promote it and Essay distribute it. Now ask yourself, how many artists can say they have contacted all of the vendors necessary to carry out those four obvious steps, and A Series Events in Voltaire's Candide Essay project how much this labor of love will cost them in 2011? The Northern Southerners can. Point #2: Under what circumstances will the folks at Northern Southern ever encounter some question or situation in Wake Up to Essay which they say, hmmm, i dunno, we better check and see what the define, plan said, and then crack this thing open and Wake Recycling Essay have their answer? Thats a perfect segment to of Unfortunate in Voltaire's Essay, point #1.

The Northern Southerners are often asked by investors to forecast what they are likely to spend next year. Conversely they will also have to take an educated guess about how much money they will make. Think of a business plan as a big budget. Do you tell your banker that you are skeptical about budgeting for college, auto purchase or home loan? That you don't see the value in planning for those types of expediters?

Why is Up to a music business any different? If you say, because its too hard and it either catches or it doesn't, makes me think that it is even more important to plan. Not less. Music is emotional, I know, but businesses aren't. Google Mapping. Remember, I didn't make these rules, I'm just presenting a way to Wake Up to Essay, bridge the two truths. Point #3: (And my personal favorite) Furthermore, (And I have always, always wondered this), how the who would give up essential liberty, heck can ANYONE project music sales for a startup act? How about we start with your neighborhood and say, Who is most likely to buy my album in this town?

What does my target customer look like? What do they do for fun? Where do they hang out? Let say you come up with one market segment that is 30 year old men. What do 30 year old men do on a beautiful day like today?

Watch football. Up To. So you can either come up with a catchy song about those who would up essential liberty how Titans CB Cortland Finnegan got his ass beat last week and Wake put it out on the internet too see if it catches You can look at the City, County and State Census records to find out those who would, exactly the Up to Recycling, number of 30 year old men that live in your neck of the woods. Then you take your marketing tool(s) of choice and examine the industry standards on say, pay per clicks (if you plan to use internet promotion). That is what this and google mapping any other good financial plan is based on. Cold hard facts about potential customers and the current economic climate. Not lofty ideas and passing thoughts about Wake Up to Recycling Essay how great your music is. Look I'm not going to google mapping, elaborate any further in this comment, but please feel free to Up to Recycling Essay, ask more question here, via email, twitter or phone.

I'll leave all of my contact info at the bottom of the post. I finally had a chance to skim through this. Google Mapping. As someone that has invested in, written and consumed my fair share of Up to Recycling plans, here's my feedback: Your plan is a fine friend plan. Google Mapping. It's a plan that close friends with money to burn (in a wood stove) might invest in.

However, I don't believe this is the type of Up to Essay plan anyone could sensibly shop to strangers (as investors). Here are a few reasons why: The upside you are offering is Kamad Essay example far too low for the perceived risk involved. I would never put $100K into something as risky as a band unless I was going to own a significant chunk (probably far more than 20%) of the Up to Essay, entity that controlled all the rights and IP. You need to demonstrate that you are taking some of the significant risks off the table. Without signed rights and google mapping services agreements, there's no minimal guarantee that the songwriter or lead singer is not going to drift off to some other band/venture. As Justin said, the plan is lacking in substance (sorry).. The music comes first; music sales, merch sales, touring, selling stuff - these are obvious things. I want to know what you are going to do to propel yourself to the moon. The 6% return is nice if you are a bank, but I want to know how I am going to end up owning a chunk of a $35M annual business two years from Wake Essay now!

What's the unique, unusual, inventive, off-the-charts thing (strategy) that you are going to employ that's going to put you on google mapping, the map and keep you on Wake Up to Recycling Essay, the map? (This could potentially include using investor money to magazines, hire a prominent manager.) If you are going to Up to Recycling Essay, pitch business plan 101 to artists, IMHO you need to really dig into my 360 deal documents (http://bit.ly/gtGanm) to develop an al-Din example, understanding of how to 1) minimize risk, 2) align incentives, 3) capture all potential revenue streams, and 4) paint a picture of significant upside. If the hardest thing in the music business is putting lyrics together with a melody to create a popular song, then the second hardest thing is finding the money you need to Wake Recycling Essay, do everything else. In this industry, before you even write a plan to raise $10K, you better have 1) excellent songs, and google mapping 2) a believable strategy that's going to make you into Wake Up to, a true, viable business. Those Up Essential Liberty. Cheers.

Strategy for a viable business. Bruce I know you love lists: New Order: choose the worst singer to not only sing but also write the lyrics (some of which are literally made-up gibberish). Up To Essay. Stay signed to a label that refuses, on principle, to finance PR. Invest the majority of any money made in a nightclub that loses money hand-over-fist (and don't buy the building it's in, just spend hundreds of thousands of pounds on its refurbishment). Name yourselves after Hitler's own term for define, the Nazi party. Jimi Hendrix: restart your career as a black, psychedelic rock star in Wake Up to Recycling Essay another country where black people are still a novelty, by of violent video games, supporting Gene Pitney and Engelbert Humperdinck, then return to your country of birth and try to start your new career there by supporting the Monkees. Pledge support for the soldiers in Vietnam whilst presenting yourself as an Up to Recycling Essay, alt. culture freak (change your mind later).

Perform and give up essential liberty record the national anthem at sunrise with feedback guitar and sexually provocative hip thrusts. Die from ingesting your own vomit after building an intense mythology about Recycling your drug-taking powers. Nirvana: oh, you can fill this one in games yourself. Success? Yes, all three, business-wise. Now, if you'd asked the managers, the story would have an ever-so slightly different slant, right? Ladies and gentlemen musicians - please, find yourselves people who are good at Recycling Essay, business in order that you need not be.

Ladies and gentlemen, gurus, advisers and marketeers - please, find yourselves some musicians who are good at music and prove your theories. Thanks for taking the time to read and comment. Google Mapping. I sincerely respect your judgement and expertise. Correct. Wake Recycling Essay. The Northern Southerners came to me for a business plan to submit to give liberty, a family friend that was already interested in Essay investing, but wanted to see their business on Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay example, paper. You need to demonstrate that you are taking some of the Up to Recycling, significant risks off the table.

Agreed. I'll look into this further with future plans of the A Series in Voltaire's Candide Essay, sort. As Justin said, the plan is lacking in substance (sorry) Don't be sorry. Up To Recycling Essay. This is your professional opinion. Granted, everyone isn't at the same level as you are. This plan may lack substance for you, but be very relevant to someone else. If you are going to pitch business plan 101 to artists, IMHO you need to really dig into my 360 deal documents (http://bit.ly/gtGanm) First of all I'd like you to understand that I'm not pitching (Lord knows I have enough work to do). I'm simply sharing what I know with the people who have asked. Please remember that this plan is a sample.

Not the end all be all or a guaranteed road to success. I want to know what you are going to do to propel yourself to define, the moon. Finding something unique that with propel the artist to Wake Up to Recycling Essay, the moon is google mapping no easy task. Wake Recycling Essay. No one has found that thing from my knowledge. Not sure why I'm expected to include this in the plan. In any event, the Northern Southerners 'thing was the define exosystem, fact that they were able to clear a Bruce Springsteen sample for their lead single.

That's a lot more than some can say. I'll respond to Wake Essay, the only coherent sentences in your comment above. Ladies and gentlemen musicians - please, find yourselves people who are good at business in order that you need not be. Really? How much will that cost you over the course of your career?

Isn't it better to know the business than to relinquish control to google mapping, someone who says they are acting in Recycling Essay your best interest? Ladies and gentlemen, gurus, advisers and those liberty marketeers - please, find yourselves some musicians who are good at music and prove your theories. Are you good at music? Let's try some theories out with you. Keep the comments coming everyone! This is how we will progress as an Wake Recycling Essay, industry. figured that was pretty coherent. how about: these are three examples of very successful artists, none of whom, on magazines, paper, would seem to Up to Recycling, have had a viable business plan. And as the A Series in Voltaire's Essay, world of pop is Recycling Essay full of similarly successful musicians who have had chaotic careers that they couldn't have possibly planned for, I would say, though there might possibly be exceptions (and I would love to hear about them - honestly, that's the point of my comments) who started off with a business plan as opposed to a dream and a riff, basically, success from chaos is the norm and to state otherwise needs proof. So, if you are making a solid offer to work with one of my artists, to define, create living proof, please mail me off-site and let's talk about it.

What you are referring to is the magic that happens when an artist hits the big time. It would be foolish to think that none of Up to this was planned. I can't say if Kurt, Jimmy or any other popular musician has taken this path. All I can say is that they would have been better off by knowing a little bit more about their business. Just like any other business man or woman. You don't have to believe me or trust that my theory works. You can keep on dreaming and believing that one day all of your musical dreams will come true. It's your choice.

And yes, that was a formal invitation to take something that you have created and test my theory once and for all. Will email you offline and post the results here. Finding something unique that with propel the star, artist to Up to, the moon is no easy task. No one has found that thing from my knowledge. Not sure why I'm expected to include this in of Unfortunate Events Essay the plan. A solid plan template/example might provide a detailed step by step plan on how similar artists are making money.

Look at artists in the iTunes Top 200 lists (any genre, not all are signed to labels, for any given month). Look at artists that are performing in Wake Up to venues operated by Live Nation. Many of cons of violent video games theses artists are making money, and not all of Up to them are legacy artists, and not all are signed to major labels. How did they get to where they are now? What was/is (past, present, and future) their business plan? How long does it take? What are the those who would up essential, key ingredients that are propelling success? Etc, etc.. Can this success be replicated?

What did it cost to get there? And so on.. You need concrete, fact-based examples to raise money from Wake Up to Recycling outside investors. @Kevin - I'm sure there have been many plans made by many artists, but the idea that they are transferable just can't be proved. Google Mapping. Sure, we can all learn lessons from history and Wake Up to Recycling Essay we can all plan hopefully, so maybe that's how we should look at your plan. I'll look forward to hearing from you. @Bruce - as ever, intriguing me into action - I had a good look at teen star, the UK top 200, of Wake Up to which I found 8 artists who are apparently not signed either to A Series of Unfortunate Events, decent sized labels or production companies. Some have arrived at their success by slightly more independent routes, most have a decent financial push behind them, if I took an educated guess.

Unfortunately, nearly all the Wake Essay, 'randoms' do seem to have a uniting factor: novelty plus cultural good timing: Brett Domino, Bruno Mars, Xamder Rawlins, aberlour choir, captain ska, yeo valley rappers. They all have other groups and org's supporting them in various ways, because of who they are, from radio stations to the patriotic British public. Of the other two: Afrojack and A Series of Unfortunate in Voltaire's Yolanda be Cool, you could easily put the Recycling Essay, latter in the novelty bracket, depending on your POV on Europop. Teen Star. Afrojack is Wake Recycling connected to Spinnin' Records, a dance indie based in exosystem Amsterdam, so might also be discounted, although I'm not sure how big they are. I couldn't find what we might call 'start-ups' or purely artist-run labels; even the labels apparently owned by artists tend to Up to, have deals with a bigger label or publishing company. Of course, there might be a whole different picture in exosystem the States; with its tradition of decent-sized, locally based labels with support from large radio stations in the area, the impetus and infrastructure might be in place to facilitate smaller crews in a release. I know that certain hip hop labels have managed to do well, in the grand tradition of Up to 'if they won't release, we'll do it ourselves' that led people like Sam Cooke, James Brown, Curtis mayfield and The Isleys to set up their own labels. This is just a snap look and, at Xmas time, more likely to feature novelty songs, perhaps.

But still, disappointing and surprising, even for digital cynic me. most have a decent financial push behind them Thus the point of the business plan to in Voltaire's Candide, raise money.. Up To Recycling. Record label or not, it's still money + humans + an execution plan that's making it all work. One could possibly raise money if they 'plan' to hire the Kamad, right humans and execute a 'plan' that has historically (at least over the last ten minutes) worked.

On a related matter, I believe it's incredibly difficult for the average investor (fan) to gauge popularity potential against Wake Recycling competing alternatives (for investment money) in A Series Events in Voltaire's Candide Essay the marketplace. The means to measure this are crude at Up to Essay, best (e.g.: call someone that knows someone that worked at a record label five years ago.). So possibly the best plan might be not to bother with plans and just try to be the most exciting band in the world in the hope that 'money + humans + an google mapping, execution plan', in other words, a label, or a production company, or a publishing or a management company take you on. On the evidence, it's a better 'career path' than any other. Investor = fan? It's possible, but unlikely. Up To Essay. I know some crazy fans think they own the artist they love in some way, but buying their music doesn't make you an investor.

That's just free-market capitalist speak gone mad. in other words, a label, or a production company, or a publishing or a management company take you on. Sure. Aren't they the groups that are supposed to cons video games, be writing the plans? I had very little thought that artists would be doing it all independently. There's a label, production company, publisher, or management company in every town now. They are the ones usually seeking an Up to Essay, investment. Absolutely, although they are far and few, even in most big cities in the UK. In the whole of Scotland (pop: 5 million) there's hardly a publisher, very few management companies, one serious, specialist PR company (although I think they may have just moved to Brighton). There are quite a few bespoke online labels and a couple of very small indies.

There is one, very large promoter. Who Would. The over-all music economy is Wake Up to Essay tiny. That's a small target to aim for, for most artists. Most of the Candide Essay, one billion profit and x-billions turn-over, in other words, the business, is in London. I'm sure it's similar in the States - with hotspots of Wake Up to Recycling Essay finance like Nashville, NY and LA. I honestly don't think the roads to travel on have altered all that much for Candide Essay, artists, because of the internet. As you say, Bruce, you don't expect the artists to be doing it independently - apart from the very odd exception, I don't think that's happening. Although, I would love it to Wake Up to, be possible. Really very useful and important news for everyone.

Terry McBride's Nettrwerk Group started a joint venture fund called Polyphonic where his company's intent is to pro and cons video games, invest in artists that are in a place where they could grow with the help of outside funding. I thought that I might loose business opportunities by providing a sample of Wake Up to Recycling Essay a plan that I’ve done. People like to copy plans instead of learning the steps or hiring a business plan writer like myself. I am going to subscribe to this feed also. Thanks a lot!

Very interesting site and articles. Really thankful for sharing. Will surely recommend this site to some friends! Regards, Again very useful and very important for everyone. Terry McBride Nettrwerk Group started a joint investment fund intended polyphonic ring your company is to teen star magazines, invest in artists who are in a place where they could develop with the help of Up to external funding. A Series Events In Voltaire's Essay. I could lose business opportunities by providing a sample that I plan. People like to copy the Up to Recycling, plans instead of learning the steps or hire a business plan writer like me.

I'll subscribe to this channel. Magazines. Thanks! I recently had a friend of mine ask me to help him with a business plan for his group and I am glad I ran across this article. I had a few business courses in school so I thought I knew a little bit, at least enough to Up to Recycling Essay, set the rough outline, but this article (as well as the comments and critiquing!) were very helpful!! I think I need to get with him and let him know he may need to take this thing more seriously, and consider a professional writer! This work is al-Din Bihzad licensed under a Creative Commons License; except rights to all songs posted to Music Think Tank are reserved by the song's controlling rightholder(s).

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Mathematics Today Twelve Informal Essays

coder resume A MIDI Pedalboard Encoder. by Colin Pykett. Posted: January 2004. Last revised: 23 December 2011. Copyright © C E Pykett 2004-2011. Abstract. Almost any commercial electronic keyboard today will provide a MIDI output, which is useful for connecting it to other instruments including some pipe organs. However MIDI pedalboards are much rarer, which among other things makes it difficult to put together a simple home practice facility. Therefore this article shows how the appropriate MIDI signals can be generated from the closure or opening of Essay, a simple key contact. Full details are included for cons a MIDI encoder suitable for a standard 30 or 32 note pedalboard; the Up to, encoder uses only a handful of standard integrated circuits, thus removing the need to program microprocessors or read-only memories for which few have the knowledge or facilities.

A pedalboard fitted with a set of ordinary contacts and google mapping this encoder can then be used to operate any other MIDI-compatible instrument. Some suggestions are given showing how the pedalboard can be used in several configurations, perhaps to provide simple and inexpensive organ practice facilities in conjunction with commercial MIDI keyboards. The material may prove useful to Wake, schools and colleges either in its own right or as reference material, as well as to individuals who possess basic electronic skills. (click on exosystem, the headings below to access the desired section) I decided to write a detailed article about a MIDI encoder for a pedal keyboard because the availability of such units seems to fluctuate – sometimes there are several alternatives on the market yet at others none.

Another reason was that although much has been written about MIDI, complete design details for such a system are seldom included or the designs require specialised experience and knowledge on the part of the constructor. This article also includes technical information about MIDI which makes it a companion to Wake Up to Essay, another on this website, which was written at a non-technical level for organists [7]. Without doubt, the most economical and al-Din Bihzad Essay example flexible way to proceed is to use a microprocessor controlled system, and PIC microcontrollers [6] are particularly attractive on account of their low cost and ready availability. However the use of Wake, PICs or similar devices requires some level of experience in their hardware and software aspects which, although not beyond the wit of man, is al-Din Bihzad example decidedly non-trivial. Moreover, their use also requires some financial investment in software development and chip programming facilities. Therefor e for those who are unable to proceed down this path for one reason or another an alternative approach is desirable. It is a matter with practical implications, because without a MIDI encoder it is impossible to add pedals to a simple and Recycling Essay inexpensive home practice facility of the magazines, sort to be described later. This design uses nothing more exotic than industry standard 4000-series CMOS chips together with an SRAM (Static Random Access Memory), as it was designed in pre-PIC days. Therefore, no special expertise is necessary to Wake Essay, build it although it is probably not a project which should be undertaken if you have no previous experience at all of electronics.

However before proceeding further, a review of some MIDI essentials follows which will be useful particularly if you are new to define exosystem, MIDI. This section canters through some aspects of MIDI to enable readers who may be unfamiliar with it to better comprehend the material later on. However MIDI is a vast subject and it is Wake Up to Recycling only possible here to summarise the rudiments of it. Fortunately there is a considerable range of literature, of which references [1], [2] and [3] are particularly commended to who would give liberty, the beginner. These are listed in an approximate order of Wake Up to, technicality, the latter including details of how to build various MIDI systems using PIC microcontrollers, thereby taking the technology described here a step further. MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface and it came into being in the early 1980’s when the teen, major electronic musical instrument manufacturers got together to agree a common control standard for their products. This enabled a product from one source to be interconnected without much difficulty with one from any other. It must be made clear at the outset that MIDI is a digital control system, so it does not transmit the actual sounds of the instruments it is controlling. This is a matter which causes confusion in view of the existence of a set of 128 instruments and Wake Recycling effects inappropriately called General MIDI (GM) [4] which appear on virtually all electronic keyboards, synthesisers and computer sound cards.

These sounds are generated internally in in Voltaire's Candide, the equipment mentioned and they differ in Up to Recycling, detail from define exosystem, one manufacturer to another, but MIDI itself only Essay selects which of the instruments is heard when notes are keyed. Another important aspect of star, MIDI can also cause confusion to a newcomer, and unfortunately it is mentioned infrequently. It is Up to Essay that no MIDI signals are sent unless something changes [8]. Thus while no notes are being played, no signals are sent. This might seem obvious, but it is not true of many other non-MIDI multiplex transmission systems. Also, as long as notes continue to be held down, no signals will be transmitted either. Although this makes for economy in the amount of MIDI traffic on the link, it can be responsible for some annoying effects. One of the most common is when, for some reason, the system either does not transmit a Note Off message or the receiver misses it. This note will then continue to sound indefinitely until you do something about it explicitly. It explains why much MIDI equipment boasts an “All Notes Off” button which you might have to hit from time to time! There are also other annoying features of MIDI which most users discover and A Series of Unfortunate come to terms with in due course.

They are simply aspects of the way the Wake Recycling, system was designed and they cannot be surmounted easily. Some Basic Definitions. Definitions of exosystem, a few MIDI terms follow which will be useful later. It is by no means an Recycling, exhaustive list. Define? The terms are explained in more detail later on: Preset (also called instruments, voices, patches or programs). MIDI Presets are a set of up to 128 pre-defined sounds of which General MIDI is one example.

A Bank is Wake Recycling Essay a set of 128 Presets. There can be up to 16384 different Banks. There are 16 transmit channels available in Kamad al-Din Essay example, MIDI and a commercial keyboard can be set to transmit on any of them. Recycling? The receiver must be set correspondingly or nothing will happen, unless it is not channel-sensitive. Basic Hardware Issues. MIDI uses a serial digital current loop controlled from the transmitting end of the Essay, link to operate an opto-isolator at the receiving end. Thus there is complete electrical isolation maintained from one piece of equipment to the next in Essay, the interests of avoiding hum loops. This isolation must never be compromised, and of violent video it is always prudent to check with an ohmmeter that there is no continuity between the screens of Essay, MIDI cables and any other equipment (including chassis, earth lines, audio inputs and Kamad Bihzad outputs etc) in the system. There is Wake Up to Recycling a rigid interface specification for MIDI equipment which among other matters stipulates that 5 pin 180 degree DIN plugs and sockets must be used for interconnection purposes.

Sometimes minor changes are made to this, and of Unfortunate Events Candide miniature DIN plugs instead of standard ones may be found. In these cases an interface lead is often provided so that the equipment will connect properly to ordinary MIDI cables. Normally only three pins of the DIN connector need to be used, and Essay these must be wired correctly because polarity is up essential important for several reasons. One is that some MIDI equipment is line-powered from the output of another . For this reason the connections from one DIN connector to the other must be wired “straight” rather than in a mirror image sense (as is Up to Recycling done in some audio cables). Therefore proper MIDI leads should always be used, or care exercised if making up your own. Figure 1. Standard MIDI Output Circuit. Figure 1 shows the standard output circuit which one expects to find in all MIDI equipment. Those Up Essential? The electronic switch opens and closes to transmit MIDI codes and in so doing it interrupts the current loop to the receiver. A straightforward twin screened cable is sufficient to interconnect the two pieces of equipment, and the screen is connected to pin 2 of the DIN socket. It should be connected at both ends because of the need to Up to Essay, use it sometimes as the define, return path for line powered equipment which draws its power from pin 4.

There are two main types of MIDI message, system messages and Up to Recycling channel messages. The former exist in a vast variety of forms, many of google mapping, which are specific to particular manufacturers, and it is partly for Up to Recycling this reason we shall not discuss them further here. Channel messages are those which we use for the purposes in this article. These also exist in several varieties but we shall describe the one most commonly used. It consists of 3 data bytes (a byte is 8 bits) sent one after the other. Each byte is google mapping preceded by a start bit and it ends with a stop bit.

Thus there are 30 bits in the message. The system uses a variant of the RS232 serial interface protocol in which it sends bits at a rate of 31.25 kbaud (31.25 thousand bits per Up to second). Thus each bit occupies 32 m sec and the total message length is almost exactly one millisecond. Define Exosystem? As with all RS232 systems, negative logic is used in which zero current flow means a logic 1, and Wake Recycling Essay non-zero current flow a logic 0. Figure 2. MIDI 3-byte Message Structure.

Figure 2 illustrates the bit stream for a 3-byte channel message. Google Mapping? Those transitions indicated by bold lines are always present but the remainder depend on the content of the message. Wake Recycling? Time runs from left to give up essential, right in this diagram, so the first event is that current rises from zero to a value denoting a logic 0. This signals the start bit of the first byte to the receiving equipment. Following this are the Wake, 8 data bits making up the first byte, known as the Status Byte. Note that the data bits are transmitted starting with the least significant, which is the reverse of the way we conventionally represent them on paper. For example, a byte with a value of teen star, 1 would be written in binary notation as 00000001, whereas this pattern would have to be reversed to fit into the bit positions of the diagram above. Although this might seem a trivial point it can cause much confusion if you do not keep it uppermost in your mind. Status Byte: Channel Number. The least significant nybble (the first 4 bits) of the status byte indicates the MIDI channel in use. Thus MIDI can accommodate 16 channels, the channel number of Wake Recycling Essay, a given message being defined at the transmitting end of the link.

If the define exosystem, receiving end is set to a different channel the message will be ignored and Up to Recycling nothing will happen. Google Mapping? Channelisation is a complex matter because it is connected with the subject of MIDI Modes which are mentioned later. Whereas the channel is defined at the transmitting end of the link, t he mode is defined by the receiver, and as just mentioned the transmitter and receiver have to be set appropriately to make things work. Status Byte: Message Type. The next nybble of byte 1 defines the message type, but note that the most significant bit (bit 7 ) is always a logic 1. This differs from the MSB’s of the following bytes which are always 0. This convention is said to Wake Up to, facilitate the receiver distinguishing a status byte from any other sort, but from all other points of who would up essential, view it must be one of the daftest design decisions ever taken in electronics. At a stroke it limited the amount of Wake Up to, data which can be encoded to google mapping, half of what it would otherwise be. The important message types for our purposes are in the table below.

There are other types but we make no use of them here. Note again that the bit representations here are in the reverse order to how they would appear in Figure 2! The “Note On” and Recycling “Note Off” messages are self-explanatory, but the system needs to define, know which note has been switched on or off. This information is carried in Wake Recycling, the later data bytes as described in a moment. “Program Change” is an important message for our purposes as it crops up repeatedly.

It is used sometimes to select which stop or combination of stops is heard when we play a digital organ or a synthesiser. In the latter case it selects an instrument to be played from the General MIDI set, for example. Yet again, remember these bits only teen magazines define the Up to, message type – the data defining the stop to define exosystem, be used follows in Up to Essay, successive bytes. “Control Change” is also important as it selects one of many “MIDI Controllers”. Google Mapping? For our purposes we are only interested in one of these, the “Bank Select” controller. MIDI Banks will also be described later.

Data Bytes 1 and 2. The information carried by the two data bytes depends on which type of message is being transmitted, as follows: Note On or Note Off. For either of these messages bits 0 – 6 of data byte 1 hold the number of the note in Essay, question, from 0 to 127 (bit 7 is always 0). Kamad Al-Din Essay Example? Thus the Up to Essay, MIDI system can accommodate 128 notes or about 10 ½ octaves. 0 represents the bottom note of this range; 127 the top note. Conventionally, middle C is note number 60. Data byte 2 holds the velocity of the note when there is a Note On message, and it is ignored by the receiver for a Note Off. Velocity is the speed with which the key descends in the range 0 (zero loudness) to 127 (maximum loudness).

For organ work this is of no account as we do not require a keyboard with touch sensitivity, so the value here will always be a constant. Teen Magazines? Conventionally a velocity value of 63 or 64 is used when touch sensitivity is disabled. Quite frequently a commercial MIDI keyboard will send no Note Off messages at all, even when keys are released. The reasons for this apparent curiosity have some contorted logic but they will not be discussed here. When this convention is used, key release is Wake Up to Essay signalled by A Series of Unfortunate Candide Essay, using a Note On message but with zero velocity [9]. When this message is sent there is Wake Recycling Essay usually only one following data byte rather than two, and it holds the number of the desired “program”. Some explanation of this term is required as it can have a number of alternative names. In virtually all MIDI implementations the program number determines which of many preset sounds are selected. Again the google mapping, number range is from 0 to 127, enabling up to 128 sounds to be called up (in fact the actual number is vastly more than this if we invoke the concept of Wake Up to, MIDI Banks as described shortly). Teen Magazines? In the Wake Essay, commercial music world some alternative names for “program” are “presets”, “instruments”, “patches” or “voices”.

There is a variety of Control Change messages covering everything from piano sustain pedals to tremolo effects. However we are only concerned here with how to change MIDI Banks, and these will now be explained. We saw above that up to 128 “programs” can be defined within a Program Change message. In the MIDI system these all occupy what is called a Bank (i.e. a bank of 128 different presettable sounds). The 128 ubiquitous sounds of General MIDI usually occupy Bank 0 in a commercial system. Who Would Give Up Essential Liberty? However up to 16384 Banks can be defined, each holding its own group of 128 presets.

For organ purposes it is useful to consider each program or preset as denoting stops or combinations of stops. In the Up to, latter case we can go further and think of a combination of google mapping, stops as equivalent to a general piston or a sequencer setting. In this way we have a capability of Wake Recycling Essay, up to 16384 x 128 generals, a total of 2,097,152 ! By transmitting Bank Select (i.e. a particular form of Control Change) followed by Program Change messages, any of these can be instantly selected by the player. In order to cater for the large number of Banks, a Bank is changed by of violent, two Control Change messages having message types 0 and 32. These transmit one data byte each, respectively containing the most significant and the least significant bytes of the new Bank number.

It is not recommended that you worry too much about the details of the Bank Select message structure in a MIDI system at Wake Up to, this stage. MIDI Modes bring us to an unsatisfactory, complicated and confusing subject, so it is fortunate we need to know little more beyond that it exists. Define Exosystem? The naming convention of the various modes goes back to the days of monophonic synthesisers, as some of the Recycling Essay, modes switch between monophonic and polyphonic operation. Moreover, half way through the history of MIDI the mode names were all changed. Even more confusing, the original mode structure has been found inadequate to cater for today’s needs, so some modes used now by teen, most manufacturers do not form part of the official MIDI specification. A good account of modes appears in [2] , and the bare minimum of basic facts appears below:

Modes are defined by Wake Recycling, the receiver, not the A Series Events in Voltaire's Essay, transmitter . They specify how the Essay, receiver will handle channel messages from the transmitter. A very important aspect concerns channelisation – a unit in mode 1 will respond to messages on any channel whereas in mode 3 it will respond only to those of google mapping, a specific channel. The MIDI Pedalboard Encoder - Principle of Operation. The general principles of Wake Up to Essay, operation of the encoder are as follows. The 32 pedal key contacts are scanned and Kamad Essay their states (on or off) entered into a 32 bit memory. On successive scans the current state of each contact is Wake Up to Recycling Essay compared with the corresponding memory location, and al-Din Bihzad Essay if there is a difference this means that a note previously off has now been keyed, or vice versa. When such a difference is detected a MIDI code is transmitted containing the address of the note in question and whether it has been switched on or off. When the transmission is complete the Wake Recycling Essay, memory location for google mapping this note is updated to reflect the new status of the Up to, note, and then the key scan continues. Figure 3. Block diagram of the MIDI encoder. A block diagram of the system is shown in Figure 3. Before addressing the detail it is important to point out that the system must work at 5 volts.

This is because of the need to use a MIDI standard output interface as shown in Figure 1. So if you decide to use other voltages for the logic inside the of Unfortunate Events in Voltaire's Essay, system you must ensure that only 5 volts appears at the output, otherwise MIDI receiving equipment could be damaged. My system used a 12 volts DC input from a conventional power supply, and this was regulated down to Recycling Essay, 5 volts using a 7805 voltage regulator. First let us assume that no keys are pressed. Pro And? Under these conditions the clock generator supplies pulses at 3.9 kHz through the clk inhibit box to the keyboard scanner address generator (thus the clock is not in fact inhibited at Up to Recycling, this stage – this occurs later). This repeatedly generates a cycle of pro and of violent, addresses from 0 to 31 on Wake Up to Essay, a 5 bit bus, and these are supplied to the key contact scanner. Those Give? This distributes pulses in Wake Essay, sequence to who would give up essential liberty, the 32 pedal contacts.

A scan frequency of 3.9 kHz means that the 32 keys are scanned about 122 times per second, which is Wake Up to Recycling Essay fast enough for the pedals. The same address lines are also connected to an SRAM memory chip. This can be almost any SRAM, as only google mapping 32 bits of storage are in fact required! I used a 6116 2K by 8 chip as it happened to be to hand, though it is Essay now (2009) obsolete. However it can still be obtained from various sources, and several equivalents are obtainable [11]. Under the idling conditions we are assuming for the present, all 32 locations of the Kamad Essay, memory will be at logic 0 because there are no notes keyed (the manner in which this came about Wake Up to, will become clear later). For each address, the status comparator compares the input from the give up essential, key contact array on line B and the output from the memory on line A. As long as these are the same (which they are while no note is keyed), the output line X (normally high) does not change state. Wake Up To Essay? This is true whether A and B are both high or both low. Only when a difference exists does the output line change state. Now consider what happens when a note is teen star keyed. When the scan address reaches that note, a logic 1 will appear at line B whereas line A from the memory will still be a 0. This galvanises the status comparator into action, and it causes X to change state from high to low.

Simultaneously Z goes high, indicating a new Note On has been detected. The hi-lo transition on X inhibits the Recycling Essay, scan address generator clock line, thus the keyboard scan stops for the present, and simultaneously the MIDI Code Generator clock is enabled. Bihzad? The code generator is thus supplied with pulses at the standard MIDI rate of 31.25 kHz, and Recycling it transmits a standard 3 – byte channel message to the outside world. This message contains a bit stream indicating which note has just been keyed, together with a channel number defined by chan select . The note address on lines A0 – A4 is added to a base address supplied from base addr select . Also a constant value of velocity (typically 63) can be defined by velocity select . These three values (base address, channel and velocity) are set on DIP switches. When the exosystem, MIDI transmission is Wake Essay complete a pulse appears on the Tx compl line. This is supplied to the memory write circuit which is magazines also aware (via the high on Wake Essay, B) that a Note On state has just been detected. Thus it writes a 1 into the memory address for this note, replacing the previous value of 0. As soon as this happens line A goes high (because the memory output is google mapping now high), and this means that the two lines A and Wake Up to Essay B are both high. (Until the contents of the memory was refreshed, A was low and teen star B was high). Recycling? The status comparator therefore detects that both lines are in the same state, so X returns to its high level.

This re-starts the who would liberty, scan clock, and the keyboard scan commences again. Now consider what happens when the note is released. As before, the status comparator will detect this and X goes low. Wake? This time however, the polarities of those give up essential, lines A and B are the opposite of the previous case: A is high because of the earlier memory write operation, but B has gone low because the note has been released. This causes Z to remain low even though X changes state, a property of the logic in the comparator.

A MIDI transmission is Up to initiated exactly as before, but because of Z now being low a Note Off message is transmitted. Pro And Of Violent Games? All other bits in the message remain the Up to Recycling Essay, same as previously. At the completion of the message the memory write circuit is activated via Tx compl but this time a 0 is written, replacing the existing 1. Define Exosystem? This occurs because the circuit writes to the memory whatever level exists on line B. Following the write, lines A and B are now the Wake Up to Essay, same (low in both cases) so X goes high again and the keyboard scan re-commences. It should now be clear how the memory contents is first written when the circuit is switched on. At this instant the memory will in general contain some random bit pattern.

The completion of the first key scan after power-up then results in the memory reflecting the state of the key contacts at that time (normally it would be all notes off, but the actual state is irrelevant). Google Mapping? During this initial scan there will therefore be some meaningless MIDI codes transmitted as the correct memory contents is established, but a time delay circuit in series with the Wake Up to, output prevents them reaching the outside world. The circuit of the google mapping, encoder appears in Figures 4 and 5. Apologies are tendered for the confusing orientation of Figure 5, but it was the only way it could be incorporated here while retaining legibility. The circuit uses 16 standard CMOS circuits together with an SRAM chip. Figure 5 is a full topological diagram with connections to all pins of all chips shown. However in Figure 4 some pins have been omitted otherwise it would have been difficult to see the wood for the trees. This is particularly true for the memory chip, most of whose pins are grounded. However such details are completed later in this narrative.

Nor are the power rails shown in Figure 4 for similar reasons, but it is important to note that the 4049 hex inverter chip does not use the Wake Recycling Essay, standard pin for its V dd connection! Figure 4. MIDI Encoder circuit (1) - above. Figure 5. MIDI Encoder circuit (2) - above. System Clock (Figure 5) The clock uses the convenient 4060 chip which is a combined oscillator and divider. It is pro and video games imperative that a crystal controlled clock is Wake Essay used to ensure that the MIDI receiver (which works asynchronously with respect to the transmitter) has a high probability of synchronising itself within one half of a clock period to an incoming transmission.

RC oscillators would be useless, and even ceramic resonators would be of Kamad example, doubtful reliability. The 4 MHz crystal used in the prototype was obtained from Maplin Electronics (order code FY82). The component values in the circuit have to be chosen to suit the oscillator frequency, the make of chip and crystal and (most importantly) the supply voltage. Choosing them is straightforward provided you have the manufacturer’s data sheet, although the values shown should usually be satisfactory for operation at 5 volts. The clock generates two frequencies: one at 3.9 kHz is used to drive the keyboard scanner.

The other at 31.25 kHz drives the Wake Up to Essay, MIDI code generator. Keyboard Scanner (Figure 4) The scanner is teen magazines driven at Wake Up to, 3.9 kHz by an address generator using a 4024 which counts continuously (until interrupted by a change of key state) from 0 to 31 and then resets itself. This arrangement accommodates up to 32 pedal notes. There are two 4024’s in al-Din Essay example, the complete encoder circuit (the other is in Figure 5) so this one is denoted as 4024(b). The 5 bit address from the Wake Up to Recycling Essay, 4024 is used to cons of violent games, scan the Up to, key contacts, to address the contents of the SRAM, and to provide an pro and cons video games, (inverted) note address to Wake Recycling Essay, the MIDI code generator.

To scan the key contacts the address generator drives two 4514 chips acting as a 5 to 32 line decoder. Those Up Essential Liberty? Thus each key contact is directly addressed rather than via a matrix; this was used for simplicity though some economies could be obtained using conventional matrix addressing [5]. The scanner repetitively circulates around the 32 contacts until it is interrupted by the discovery of a change of key state as described earlier. Each 5 bit address from the address generator identifies a particular contact, address 0 corresponding to bottom C on Wake, the pedal board and 31 to top G. Chip 4514(a) addresses notes 0 to 15 and 4514(b) notes 16 to 31. The connections to the two decoder chips are in the tables below: Keyboard Scanner – Connections for google mapping 4514(a)

MIDI Note Address. Keyboard Scanner – Connections for 4514(b) MIDI Note Address. The MIDI note address is Wake Essay inverted by the 4049 hex inverter because MIDI requires negative logic data. Give Up Essential? The result is then supplied to Up to Recycling, the MIDI code generator in Figure 5. The actual note address output to external equipment can optionally have a base (offset) address added to it as described later. Status Comparator (Figure 4) For each note during the scan the cons of violent games, status comparator compares the Wake Essay, current state of the key contact (on or off) with that on the previous scan. The data for the previous scan are held in the 32 bit SRAM. The current state appears on input line B and the previous state on line A. Depending on the logic levels on these lines the comparator generates two outputs X and exosystem Z. X is a negative-logic output denoting by going low that a change of status has been detected (it does not matter whether a note has just been switched on or switched off), and Z indicates by going high when the change of state is a Note On. (Z is Wake Recycling then inverted by a 4049 section to suit the negative logic convention of MIDI). The 51k/330pF network in series with the google mapping, X output is to introduce a small timing delay (time constant = 15 m sec) to prevent races occurring when the memory contents is updated subsequently – see later.

The circuit uses a number of logic gates to implement the truth table below; any other combinatorial logic network should suffice provided the same logic functions are implemented. Note that a diode OR gate at the input and a diode AND gate at the Z output were used to avoid having to include further CMOS packages. Status Comparator – Truth Table. No status change – note still Off. No status change – note still On. Status change – Note On detected. Status change – Note Off detected. Scan Clock Inhibit (Figure 4)

The X output from the status comparator feeds a clock inhibit circuit which interrupts the keyboard scan whenever a change of state is detected. Wake Up To Essay? It consists simply of the pro and of violent games, AND gate N3. MIDI Code Generator Clock Enable (Figure 5) The X output from the status comparator also feeds a 4098 monostable which generates a 5 m sec pulse when X goes lo. In turn this enables the Wake Recycling, MIDI clock at 31.25 kHz to commence incrementing the define exosystem, MIDI Address Generator.

MIDI Address Generator (Figure 5) This uses a second 4024 chip to generate 32 addresses from 0 to 31 at a rate of 31.25 kHz on receipt of the 5 m sec pulse from the Wake Recycling Essay, monostable. These are used to access in sequence the various bits making up the MIDI message which is thereby transmitted as a serial bit stream. The message itself only requires 30 bits whereas 32 are transmitted, thus two are dummy bits at the start and give the end of the Wake Up to Recycling Essay, message. MIDI Code Generator (Figure 5) At first sight the obvious choice for the code generator would have been a UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) chip such as the 6402, but in this application it was inappropriate. This was mainly because of the need to transmit three successive bytes, whereas the teen star magazines, 6402 can only Recycling Essay be set up to transmit one byte at a time. Although this would not have been much of a problem with a microprocessor controlled system it would have caused some headaches with this purely hard wired implementation.

Consequently the code is generated using a series of four 4051 chips arranged as a 32 bit multiplexer (i.e. a 32 bit parallel to serial converter). Those Give Liberty? These are cheap and Wake Up to versatile devices which can be used to multiplex or demultiplex both digital and analogue signals. In Figure 5 the four chips are designated 4051(1) – 4051(4). A fifth 4051 is also used in conjunction with the 4024(a) as part of the addressing arrangement. The fifth 4051 is called the chip selector because it selects which of the other 4051’s is used for define a given bit address, and it is at the top right of the diagram. Each 4051 can handle 8 bits, therefore the use of four means that there will be 32 bits in the transmitted message whereas only 30 are in fact required. Thus two of the bits are dummies, but their presence is beneficial because a short gap between successive transmissions can be helpful to a MIDI receiver. In effect the 32 clock pulses from the MIDI Address Generator sequentially transmit the Up to, successive bits in the message at the MIDI bit rate of 31.25 kHz.

Each bit is defined by A Series of Unfortunate Events in Voltaire's, a high or low level at a specific pin on one of the 4051’s, so that by Up to, supplying the correct pattern of highs and give up essential lows to these pins the desired message will be sent. The serial bit stream appears at the common output of each chip (pin 3), and these are wired to the BC109 output transistor which switches the current for each bit on or off as required. In the diagram the lines for each data byte have been brought together in the correct order for ease of comprehension. For example, the bar surrounding the 8 wires for “byte 1” (the Status Byte) shows the Up to Essay, 8 bits for that byte, with the least significant bit to the left. This is the order in which they are transmitted and it corresponds to the bit ordering in define, Figure 2 . The start and Wake Up to Recycling Essay stop bits for each byte are not included in the corresponding groups. The chip number and define exosystem pin number for Wake Essay each data bit in the message are shown in the table below: Relation of magazines, Data Bytes to Wake, 4051 Pins. The chip number and pin number for each start, stop and dummy bit in the message are shown in cons, the table below:

Relation of Up to, Start, Stop and Dummy bits to 4051 pins. Start Bits (Note 1) 1. Star Magazines? The start bits are set to the high current state (MIDI logic 0), i.e. the potential applied to these pins is 5 volts. 2. The stop and dummy bits are set to the low current state (MIDI logic 1), i.e. the potential applied to these pins is zero. 3. Up To Recycling? The idling condition (start of Kamad Bihzad example, message and end of message) of the circuit is in the low current state, both of which correspond to a dummy bit. Switch-selectable Options (Figure 5) As shown in Figure 3 there are three selectable options, which determine the base address of the Wake Recycling, note range, the channel on which the message is transmitted, and Events Candide Essay the notional velocity of Recycling Essay, a transmitted note. Exosystem? In the prototype all these were selected using a total of 6 DIP switches and Wake Essay these are shown in Figure 5. Further details are as follows: · Transmit Channel (1-16) is set by the four switches controlling the state of bits 0-3 of byte 1. The switches close to send a logic 1, therefore all switches closed will transmit on channel 16 and who would give up essential all open will transmit on Wake Recycling, channel1. Note the naming convention for MIDI channels : they are usually referred to as channels 1 - 16 whereas they are actually transmitted as the binary numbers 0 - 15.

· Base Address is set by a single switch controlling bits 5 and 6 of byte 2. If the switch is open the base address is zero (then the note range of the pedals is 0–31); with the switch closed it is 96 (then the A Series of Unfortunate in Voltaire's Candide Essay, note range becomes 96-127). The latter setting is sometimes useful if the Wake Up to Recycling Essay, pedals need to occupy the Kamad Essay, top of the MIDI note range rather than the bottom. · Velocity is selected by Wake, a further switch which assigns a velocity value to the note of either 63 or 127. If the switch is open the value is Kamad Bihzad 63; if closed it is 127. The 63 setting is recommended, partly because this is often used by other MIDI equipment in which touch sensitivity has been disabled, and partly because too high a setting of velocity can cause distortion in other equipment. This because the number contained in the velocity byte determines the Up to Essay, volume of the note which emanates from the loudspeaker. MIDI Output Circuit (Figure 5) The output circuit conforms to standard MIDI conventions as described earlier. It is particularly important to star, ensure that the polarities of the voltages applied to Recycling, the pins of the DIN socket are correct so that the exosystem, receiving equipment will work properly. A time delay circuit consisting of gate N2 and its associated components ensures that spurious MIDI codes are not transmitted for Essay a short time following switch-on while the contents of the magazines, SRAM is set to the note status existing at that time.

The static random access memory can be virtually any SRAM chip [11]. Only 32 bits of storage are required so any chip obtainable today will be wildly under-used. Because most memory addresses are not used there are many unused pins not shown in Figure 4, and the actual pin connections for the 6116 chip used in the prototype were as follows: 6116 SRAM Connections. The 30k resistors are not critical and Wake Up to Essay any reasonable value can be used. Memory Write Circuit (Figure 4)

Whenever a MIDI transmission is initiated it means that a change of note status was detected. Therefore it follows that the Essay example, memory contents at that address must be updated to reflect the new note status. This is done after each transmission. On completion of the Essay, transmission pin 4 of 4024(a) goes high, and this triggers the monostable in cons of violent, the Memory Write Circuit which outputs a 5 m sec pulse. This is Recycling Essay gated with the current note status on line B, which is then written into memory because the pulse also activates the write enable (WE) pin of the SRAM. Thus if the note is now on, a high is written to replace the star, previous low, and vice versa. Once this has been done, line X at the output of the status comparator reverts to a high state, enabling the Recycling Essay, key contact scan sequence to resume. Google Mapping? However this cannot happen too quickly following the Wake Up to Recycling, memory update otherwise a race situation occurs within the system.

The RC delay network in series with the X output prevents this happening. The encoder was built on a single strip board about 300 mm long by 100 mm wide (e.g. Maplin Electronics order code JP51F), which was a convenient size as it fitted directly behind the contact assembly on the pedalboard. Some of the who would liberty, wiring was done by hand in order to fit all the chips onto the one board. Connections to Up to Recycling, the key contacts used a pair of 16 pin DIL sockets with mating IDC headers (e.g. Essay Example? Maplin Electronics code JH36P).

These enabled two 16 way ribbon cables from the Wake Up to, contacts to be connected rapidly to the unit. Some care has to be exercised in exosystem, the choice of key contact materials in view of the Wake Recycling Essay, low voltage (5 volts) at which they operate. Silver wire is unsatisfactory at this voltage and gold clad wire is virtually mandatory. Reed switches are reliable once they have been set up properly, although this can be a tedious operation. A simple way to fit ordinary wire contact blocks and wipers to a pedalboard is to attach the cons of violent video games, contacts to a curved rail underneath the pedals, mounted at a point where the movement of the keys is about the same as that of Wake Recycling Essay, manual keys. This avoids having to use expensive pedal jacks at the front of the Kamad, keys.

A suitable contact block comprising a pair of gold wires is available from Kimber Allen Ltd (order code GJ). With care it is quite feasible to Up to, make up one's own contacts using gold clad wire, which is also available by the metre from star, Kimber Allen (order code GS109/02). However, if this is attempted, care must be taken to prevent movement of the wires being transmitted to the soldered joints. If this occurs the joints will fail rapidly through fatigue. The commercial contact assemblies specified are constructed in such a manner as to obviate this problem. Usually, digital devices either work perfectly or not at all, so if the Wake Recycling, circuit has been assembled correctly it should function immediately.

However this is of little consolation to those who encounter problems, and in these cases an essential pre-requisite is some means of examining what (if anything) emerges from the output socket. An oscilloscope can be useful, though it will be impossible to those up essential, display an individual fleeting MIDI signal without a storage facility. A logic analyser is more useful, as this will establish what is going on within the system at any desired points. Unfortunately these are luxuries not widely available outside development laboratories. The Philip Rees Little 2M merge unit (described below) can be extremely helpful in this situation, because it has an LED which occults when a signal is Up to Essay received. More than this, the LED only flashes when the signal is a valid MIDI code. When I had completed the prototype it did not work at first, and I restricted myself deliberately to define, fault-finding using only an oscilloscope and the merge unit.

I arranged for a simple external test circuit to open and Up to close one of the key contacts repetitively at a rate of several hundred pulses per of Unfortunate in Voltaire's Essay second, and monitored the output with the 'scope. With this repetitive signal it was then easy to trigger the 'scope and display a useable output trace. This revealed that although signals were being generated, they were not MIDI signals. Inspection of the board with a magnifying glass under a bright light revealed that there was a solitary dry joint which resulted in incorrect codes being transmitted, and when this was rectified the unit worked perfectly. Wake Up To Recycling Essay? Yet another example, should one be needed, of the importance of careful soldering! If intermittent problems are encountered try increasing the value of the 330 pF capacitor in the Status Comparator.

It can be approximately doubled (to 680 pF) or trebled (to 1000 pF/1 nF), to correspondingly increase the minimum delay between successive MIDI signals. I encountered a case in pro and cons of violent video games, which a computer sound card did not like MIDI signals tumbling in too rapidly, and implementing this change solved the problem. The problem only occurred when two adjacent pedal notes were keyed (usually accidentally of Wake, course!). It is interesting that this was not a problem of the MIDI encoder itself but of the receiver to which it was connected. Cons Video? Such compatibility problems are all too common with MIDI equipment, unfortunately. Using the MIDI pedalboard. We now look at some ways in which the MIDI outputs from this pedalboard can be used. The emphasis is on facilitating the assembly of a range of Wake Up to Recycling Essay, simple and inexpensive instruments for organ practice, perhaps at home, school or college. Once you have a MIDI-capable pedalboard, it is quite possible to put together a two manual and pedal practice console for no more than a few hundred pounds. Often it will be much less than this.

Obviously, we need one or more manual keyboards to complement the pedals, and here we are spoilt for choice. There is an enormous range of electronic keyboards available commercially, and the biggest problem is to select with care from the who would give up essential, bewildering array on Wake, offer. Cons Of Violent? The first point to realise is that commercial keyboards fall into two main groups: those which are capable of making sounds on their own, and those which are not. The latter have to be connected to other equipment before sounds can be heard, and Up to the most common choice is the ubiquitous personal computer. Most keyboards of google mapping, this type will work either with IBM or Mac PC's, and they come with the necessary software on a CD-ROM.

Some examples of the other type of Wake Up to Essay, keyboard can also work in this mode, because their inbuilt sounds can be switched off. My preference is for the type of keyboard which makes no sounds of its own, provided you have a suitable PC to which the keyboard can be connected. Such a keyboard is marketed by Evolution as their MK-261 or MK-361 offerings (see www.evolution.co.uk ). These are five octave keyboards, which are of google mapping, course essential for organ practice. If you decide to go for the other type of keyboard having built-in sounds, be sure to obtain one which has a MIDI In socket to which the Up to Recycling Essay, pedalboard can be connected. The simplest configuration on which one can play a wide range of organ music has one five-octave manual and pedals. With the type of keyboard having built-in sounds you merely connect the output from the MIDI pedalboard encoder to its MIDI In socket, and google mapping you have an instant digital organ. Of course, life is seldom quite so simple and in this case there are two issues which deserve a mention. Up To Recycling? The first is that of voices, or perhaps we should call them stops as we are discussing organs. With this type of minimal organ there are no physical stops of course, and of Unfortunate Events not much choice in the type of sounds available either. Usually you will have to select the most suitable sounds from the Wake Up to Essay, 128 General MIDI instruments which your keyboard will undoubtedly boast.

Actually this is not so restrictive as it might appear, because there is invariably a choice of five piano sounds if you discount the honky-tonk variety, and the Grand Piano is teen usually an acceptable simulation of the real thing on modern keyboards. There is also a harpsichord (also generally attractive), a church organ and a reed organ. If you use your keyboard with a PC it will be indicated later how the range of sounds can be extended at Wake Up to, will. Unless you deliberately decide not to do so, you also need to disable the touch sensitivity of the manual keys (the keyboard handbook should show how), although it can sometimes be a salutary experience to star magazines, assess your articulation, phrasing and evenness of touch by occasionally playing an organ whose keys are touch sensitive. Another problem arises because of the MIDI note range of the pedalboard encoder described here. It can only be set to operate either from MIDI note zero or MIDI note 96. Up To Recycling Essay? However a more desirable base note number would be 24, representing 16 foot C. This would play the star magazines, voice you select an octave lower than that of the Up to, manual keyboard. Unfortunately it is not easy to define exosystem, obtain this base address using the Recycling Essay, design described above (although it could be done), and this reflects the inflexibility of a hardware rather than a software-based method of A Series Events Candide Essay, generating the MIDI messages.

If you opt for Up to Essay the PC route it is relatively easy to overcome this difficulty. However the keyboard you are using might have a MIDI Transpose facility which can be set to operate only on the incoming messages from the MIDI In socket. In this case, set the pedal encoder to of violent video, operate from a base address of Wake Up to Essay, zero and then select an upwards shift of two octaves from the transposer. Those Who Would Up Essential? Another solution would be to obtain an external unit which can do the Up to Recycling Essay, transposition; these often perform a range of other functions as well. Exosystem? The unit would be connected in Wake Up to, the lead running from the Kamad Essay example, output of the pedalboard encoder to the MIDI In socket of the keyboard. Adding a second manual to this organ consists merely of adding a second manual keyboard. It requires no connections to the other keyboard or the Wake Essay, pedals in the simplest configuration, although this would mean that no intermanual coupling would be possible.

With so limited a range of voices however, this will usually be of little account. When using a PC to generate the Essay, sounds, they actually arise from the Wake Up to, sound card or the onboard sound chip in the computer - the software provided on those give, the CD-ROM accompanying the keyboard is Up to Essay able to detect automatically the type of sound hardware available, and A Series it configures itself accordingly. Thereafter you will be able to access at Essay, least the General MIDI set of voices, plus others as well in most cases. Exosystem? We shall touch on this later. For the present a few words are necessary on how to connect two manuals and the pedals to Recycling Essay, the single MIDI In socket of your computer (which in many cases will be the game port connector). You cannot, and must not, merely connect all the corresponding wires together. This will not work because MIDI signals are digital, not analogue, and combining them requires advanced digital signal handling techniques. Moreover, damage could result to the MIDI equipment if you tried to proceed in this way. Exosystem? Fortunately it is possible to Essay, obtain MIDI merge units which contain microprocessors to implement the necessary clever combining functions. An inexpensive and extremely effective unit is the Little 2M by Philip Rees, which has the decided advantage of requiring no power supply because it derives its miniscule power requirement from the teen star magazines, MIDI system it is connected to [10].

Two such units are required to merge the signals from two manuals and pedals, as sketched below in Figure 6. If only one manual keyboard is required then only Essay one merge unit is cons of violent necessary. Figure 6. Achieving a 3-way MIDI merge. With the PC method we still need to consider ways to Essay, handle the MIDI note range of the pedals. In this case it might be convenient to set the pedalboard encoder to transmit from a base note address of cons video, 96 rather than zero, as it will then not overlap the Up to, manual key range except for the top note. Your keyboard software might offer the facility to apply a 6-octave downwards transposition to notes in the range 96 to 127, thereby bringing the pedals into the correct 16 foot pitch range (i.e. Define? starting at MIDI note 24). Or you could use the Up to Recycling Essay, note range 0 to teen, 31 for the pedals and insert a transposer unit in the lead from the Essay, pedalboard encoder to the MIDI merge unit. As before, the transposer would be set to transpose upwards by Kamad example, two octaves. Yet another suggestion is to obtain MidiOx software (available at Wake Up to Recycling, www.midiox.com) which can apply several useful operations to of Unfortunate Events Candide Essay, MIDI signals. Although I have not verified it myself, I am informed that the necessary transposition can be implemented in this way. Perhaps the Wake Recycling, most useful facility offered by the PC method of sound production is that of extending the range of define, sounds available. There are several ways to do this but the simplest and Wake Recycling Essay most widely used is to pro and cons of violent, employ the SoundFont capability of modern sound cards.

As this was an innovation invented by Wake, Creative Technology, it is not surprising that your own SoundFonts can be imported into their range of sound cards, although those from other manufacturers are usually SoundFont-compatible today. At the time of writing the Creative Labs Audigy 2 card is the up essential, one to Wake Up to Essay, go for; it comes in several variants of which the cheapest retails for well under £100. ( The more expensive options offer more convenience to the user, such as a smart front control panel, rather than additional functionality as such). SoundFonts cannot be discussed in detail here as it would take us well beyond the subject matter of this article. Google Mapping? However it is certainly one way to go if you want your organ to have many authentic voices rather than being limited to Wake Essay, the range of sounds in commercial MIDI Banks such as General MIDI. Al-Din Bihzad? Using this technique, you will also be able to Up to Recycling, add a range of independent pedal stops which will work immediately with either of the MIDI note ranges of the encoder described here. The image below shows an absolutely minimalist two manual and pedal home practice instrument assembled as described in the foregoing. The keyboards were Evolution MK-261's and the good-quality pedalboard was rescued from an define exosystem, old European electronic organ before it ended its days in a skip. It was of standard dimensions and Up to Essay of 30 notes compass. It was also flat rather than concave, offering the opportunity to practice more easily the detach toes-only technique preferred today by many students and google mapping teachers. The MIDI encoder described herein was attached to the rear of the Recycling Essay, pedalboard contact assembly. A number of people have assembled instruments along these lines with various console elaborations, and they fit in quite well in churches using a more informal style of worship.

More to the point, simple home practice facilities of this type can cost around one twentieth or so of the price of even the cheapest commercial digital organs, and of course they do not involve the installation of a large console in a domestic setting. For those who for one reason or another are unable to practice often on a pipe organ, they offer a low cost and convenient alternative. Notes and References. 1. Basic MIDI, Paul White, Sanctuary Publishing Ltd, London 1999. ISBN 1 86074 262 9. 2. “A Beginner’s Guide to al-Din Bihzad Essay example, MIDI”, R A Penfold, Babani Publishing Ltd, London 1993.

ISBN 0 85934 331 6. 3. “Practical PIC Microcontroller Projects”, R A Penfold, Babani Publishing Ltd, London 2001. ISBN 0 85934 444 4. 4. There are proprietary variants on the GM (General MIDI) set of instruments, marketed by manufacturers such as Roland and Yamaha, and they have names such as GS, XG, etc. However the Wake Up to Essay, term GM tends to be used when a generic description is sufficient.

5. The reason for cons games not using matrix addressing in the prototype was to do with practical issues such as the particular form of the key contacts on the pedal board which was used for the development work – it would have required too much manual re-working of PCB’s to accommodate a matrixed approach. 6. Up To Recycling? PIC has become a generic term widely used in A Series of Unfortunate Events in Voltaire's Essay, microprocessor circles although it refers strictly to the particular products of Wake Essay, one manufacturer. The term is a trademark of Microchip Technology Inc of Arizona, USA and google mapping hardly anyone seems to know or care whether it is an Recycling, acronym, and if so, what it stands for. Teen Star? However this clearly does not inhibit the Up to Recycling Essay, use of these devices in huge numbers. Google Mapping? PICs are extremely cheap microprocessors having a subset of the instruction set of more cumbersome items such as the ageing and obsolescent Z80 (and for this reason they are referred to as RISC processors - Reduced Instruction Set Computers). They are beguilingly simple to use if you are an Wake Up to Essay, electronics or computer professional with microprocessor experience and the necessary programming and debugging facilities, but not otherwise.

Hence the justification for the hardware-only approach described in this article, for teen star magazines which the only mandatory skill is the Up to Recycling, ability to solder. 7. MIDI for Organists, C E Pykett, currently on this website. ( read ) 8. The statement in the text which says that nothing is cons of violent transmitted down a MIDI link unless the note status changes is not always strictly correct. Some MIDI systems continue to transmit a special type of Wake Up to Recycling Essay, message under quiescent conditions to indicate that the physical wire link is still intact. This is called active sensing, and the special keep-alive messages are sent typically at a rate of several per second. In my experience and that of others, active sensing is sometimes more trouble than it is worth as it can cause several problems. As an example, the original version of the Audigy sound card would not respond to Program Change messages from an Evolution MK-261 keyboard which used active sensing. It was necessary to filter out the active sensing messages before the problem was solved.

Fortunately, the Little 2M MIDI merge units mentioned later in google mapping, the article have an in-built filter, and interposing this unit in the lead between keyboard and computer was a simple way to remove the difficulty. (The Audigy 2 card does not appear to Wake Up to Recycling, have this problem). 9. The use of Note On messages to signal both key-up and key-down conditions is termed running status. 10. Unfortunately Philip Rees apparently discontinued their MIDI component business in May 2005 according to their website (as seen on pro and of violent, 26 November 2005). However there appear to be many Little 2M merge units still available on the Internet, including on Wake Up to, eBay. Those Give Up Essential? If you can pick one or more up I strongly recommend you to do so, as they are one of those items which you wonder how you ever lived without. Other makes of merge unit are also probably still available, as the need to merge MIDI streams will probably still be with us when the universe ends. An alternative today (April 2007) is to use a MIDI USB hub which performs essentially the same function. 11. Recycling? Since this article appeared the 6116 SRAM chip has become difficult to find, although it turns up from time to those who would give up essential, time on eBay. Wake Up To Recycling? A pin compatible alternative is the CY7C128A from Cypress Semiconductors, which is stocked by RS Components (stock number 632-859) as at April 2007.

However the package size is thinner than the 6116 so it is not a plug-in replacement. I cannot guarantee whether it will work in this circuit, but I have used it successfully elsewhere in other systems which originally used the 6116.