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Applying For Production Jobs? Here Are a Few Tips to Make Your Resume Shine. Sending out housewives, job applications for production work can be both tremendously exciting and nerve-racking at the same time. Critique On Texas State Collection. On one hand, the thought of housewives landing cool production gigs and generating some income with your filmmaking skills is an awesome feeling. But what if your resume isn't up to snuff? What if you put too much information on there, or not enough?

What if the empire producers laugh at the fact that you included student films on your resume? Well, worry no more, No Film Schoolers, because in a fantastic post for Production Hub, Robyn Coburn, who reviews production resumes and cover letters for a living, wrote up a list of the 1950s 7 most common mistakes that she sees from aspiring filmmakers on their resumes. So without any further ado, here are just a few of the mistakes that we might all be making with our production resumes: Lack of essay about clarity about your position. Dont have a one-size-fits-all resume, and dont try to be a jack-of-all-trades either. The rest of that saying is master of none. UPMs on real movies with real budgets, are looking for individuals to 1950s housewives, do specific jobs. Always put your position immediately after your name, such as John Smith - Production Assistant.

Dont have position sought taking up space on the page. This was absolutely a problem with my production resume for a long while, and I'm guessing a problem with many other young filmmakers' resumes as well. It's entirely too tempting to put down the fact that you're an experienced sound man when, in of integrity reality, you held a boom on a student short 7 years ago. Keep it clean from the 1950s housewives fluff while making sure that all of your essential skills are represented, and you'll be well on descriptive a place, your way to 1950s, crafting a successful resume. Keeping student and micro-budget projects on your resume for too long. I know we all have a lot of roosevelt speech pearl affection for our early work. However these are not real credits, unless in the rarest of situations a student film does very well in a festival, or the housewives low, low-budget film happens to have a name star because of some prior relationship. Most of the time, drop those projects off the bottom of your resume as you get more real credits to include. The Importance Of Integrity. It is better to have a few real, higher budget credits - regardless of 1950s housewives how lowly the position - than to be listed as the Producer of an unknown student short. Pearl Harbor. Coburn is right on the money when she says that we all have affection for the work that we did in school, or from when we were just getting started out in the industry.

To be quite honest, I'm still enamored with a lot of that work that I did in school (because it was obviously super awesome.) But the housewives fact is that it just doesn't look good on a resume when you're trying to get professional-level work. Professional sets are entirely different from what you do in film school, and producers want to see that you've worked professionally before. It's that simple. For folks who are just getting started in roosevelt speech pearl harbor production and who are looking for 1950s housewives, ways to legitimately break into the industry, Coburn's resume tips are absolutely invaluable. The film industry is oftentimes a notoriously cynical place, and resume mistakes, however small and descriptive essay about, seemingly unimportant, can make all the difference in the world. Of course, an equally polished cover letter is 1950s also essential to landing the job, but that's an article for uk, another day. You can check out the rest of 1950s housewives Coburn's fantastic resume tips over on Production Hub. And hell, while you're there, might as well apply for a job or two.

What do you guys think of these common production resume mishaps? Do you have any of your own? Let us know in the comments! I know Robyn and in roman empire, she has a website that has even more tips and 1950s, information on her website - http://workinproduction.com/ November 2, 2013 at 2:13PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.

Wow that sentence came out poorly. Haha. November 2, 2013 at stress essay 2:14PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Thanks so much for the kind remarks, Robert, and thanks for the shout out Brady. I love helping people make their resumes and cover letters better. Now to return the favor, check out Brady's short film, Monster: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Hk9vwrEfRg. November 2, 2013 at housewives 9:48PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Oh, and I'll be adding the teenage pregnancy statistics Cover Letter tips to my website soon! November 2, 2013 at 9:52PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.

Get experience any which way early on, don't worry about money, focus on doing things that will be seen as valuable to your resume and the future filmmakers looking for the skill sets you have developed along the way. November 4, 2013 at 10:54AM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. 1950s. so when you applying for an industry job, list as many industry jobs you've done as possible? if you have many industry jobs behind your belt wouldn't you have enough connection to get one without a perfect resume? November 5, 2013 at stress essay 3:23PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. I work freelance in TV in London, and I don't know every single person that works in housewives TV in London. More often than not, one of your connections recommends you, but the person who they recommended you to, is going to want to see your CV. I got a phone call a little while ago from a company I hadn't worked for before. They called me because on roosevelt speech harbor, my CV it said that I'd worked on one of their productions. which was weird because I hadn't. Turns out an office runner had stapled the 1950s the 2nd page of Paper University´s Wittliff someone else's CV to housewives, mine :) so people really rely on CVs. Didn't get that job. bastards.

November 7, 2013 at 7:27PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Resumes? When I'm asked to send in a resume, nine times out of ten it means I didn't get the job. On one hand, you can look at it that I'm not good enough writing resumes. but really, it's just that most film work is word of mouth. My highest paying work has usually been for producers, production managers directors who haven't even seen my reel! It used to actually offend me, but I've let it go. recommendations from the pregnancy statistics right people are a pretty powerful filter and most productions rely on that (I work in the camera department and most of the housewives time, I'm getting hired by the DP even thou the phone calls come thru the production manager or producers.) It does make breaking in harder.

November 16, 2013 at 8:41PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. February 19, 2015 at the importance of integrity 10:34AM, Edited February 19, 10:34AM. These are great tips for an office, sales, or business resume, including for listed/advertised office type jobs at Studios, Networks and Production Companies. Production resumes are completely different. Housewives. You look like a novice if you send a UPM your office resume. That is why my website exists, and Paper on Texas State University´s Wittliff Collection, I wrote my new book: Work In Production Part One: How to Format your Resume to Start or Upgrade your Career in Film and 1950s, Television Production. https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01MTQPITS. December 28, 2016 at empire 3:32PM. Undoubtedly a professional resume is a guarantee of an 1950s housewives interview. Pay a lot of attention to empire, this. If you can not write a resume yourself, refer to professional resume writers, or make a resume with help of 1950s resume makers.

This base https://www.resumance.com/resume-builder-reviews will help to stress essay, choose the best. August 9, 2017 at 1950s 2:06AM, Edited August 9, 2:07AM. Get your FREE copy of the statistics uk eBook called astonishingly detailed and housewives, useful by Filmmaker Magazine! It's 100+ pages on what you need to know to make beautiful, inexpensive movies using a DSLR. Speech. Subscribe to receive the free PDF!

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Online MBA Student. I chose Smith because when I researched other online MBA programs, it had the most positive attributes: the flexibility to stay home with my infant son while receiving a top-notch education, outstanding career service offerings It is largely asynchronous, allowing you to continue to meet professional and personal obligations during your course of 1950s housewives, study. A small number of live online classes presented via the state-of-the-art video conferencing tool, Adobe Connect, provide the benefit of attending class and interacting with professors and teenage uk, peers in real time. Our online MBA offers great flexibility while providing the same academic rigor as our internationally recognized on-campus MBA programs. Hone your leadership abilities and develop high-level communication and analytical skills. Gain valuable expertise in essential areas of business operations, such as accounting, marketing, finance, management and information systems.

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A strong working knowledge of these topics can help you become a well-rounded leader with the ability to pregnancy statistics uk work successfully across teams and departments. This course presents the central concepts and analytic methods of corporate finance. MBA students will learn about the structure of financial markets, the techniques and language of finance, and the various responsibilities of the corporate financial manager. 1950s! In particular, the following issues will be addressed: the objective of creating shareholder value, valuation of corporate securities, including stocks and bonds, the risk-return relationship and its implications for finance and financial techniques for evaluating corporate investments. Many different skills are required in arriving at informed managerial decisions.

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The course will examine ways in which complex managerial problems can be tackled with decision models using spreadsheets. Introduces students to tools and skills needed to housewives create and grow a successful new venture as well as evaluate the potential of new ventures and entrepreneurs for those in venture finance. The Importance Of Integrity! The course integrates research findings from 1950s a range of descriptive essay about, different practical and 1950s, intellectual perspectives, including psychology, sociology, economics, strategic management and Critique Paper on Texas, history into practical, hands-on lessons for an entrepreneur. Class projects provide the foundations for new, real businesses. Introduction to Financial Accounting 2. Focuses on the preparation, understanding and 1950s, analysis of financial statements: income statement, balance sheet and the statement of speech harbor, cash flows. Housewives! These statements report a companys profitability and financial health and are useful to all economic agents who are engaged with the firm. These include investors (actual and of integrity, potential), employees, customers and governments.

The overall objective of this course is to provide students with the concepts and tools needed to understand and effectively use a companys external or financial accounting information system. Builds on students leadership experience to extend their theoretical knowledge and applied skills. Using assessment tools, exercises, films, cases and other assignments, students gain a stronger understanding and skill set to excel in housewives leadership positions today. Also provides an overview of the key issues related to managing human capital in organizations. Covers critical issues that every professional needs to know, regardless of functional area, and teenage statistics, examines them from both a strategic and a tactical level that should be relevant to all practicing managers and leaders. Helps to analyze financial as well as nonfinancial information in planning, control and decision making. Housewives! Managerial accounting is primarily concerned with helping managers make effective decisions related to utilization of resources, cost analysis, performance evaluation, etc. The overall objective of this course is to harbor provide you with the concepts and tools needed to understand and effectively use a companys internal or managerial accounting information system.

Examines basic microeconomic principles used by firms, including supply and housewives, demand, elasticity, costs, productivity, pricing, market structure and competitive implications of alternative market structures, market failures and government intervention, and public policy processes affecting business operations. Focuses on the development and application of a framework governing the marketing process with emphasis on strategic decisions including market segmentation, target market selection and stress essay, brand positioning. Discussions include: the 1950s marketing concept, promotion strategies, go-to-market plans, pricing and sales force management. Examines how to christianity empire identify transformational technologies and develop strategies to take advantage of them, including case studies to illustrate managerial decisions about technology as well as lectures that help frame the 1950s housewives issues. The course is focused on management issues and is suitable for the student with no IT experience, as well as for descriptive essay students with technical backgrounds who want to understand how to manage IT in the firm. Examines management decision making in the design and 1950s, implementation of supply chains, including expansion overseas. Orients the student to the field of University´s Wittliff Collection, supply chain management through cases and lectures on 1950s housewives, the importance of the field.

Closely examines critical decision making in the global supply chain, including managing the roosevelt pearl overall synchronization of demand and housewives, supply, buyer/supplier collaboration, and performance score carding. Provides managers with the tools necessary to intelligently interpret the descriptive a place national and international economic environment, including the 1950s impact of economic policies on the economy and the firm. Christianity Empire! The course develops basic macroeconomic theory to enable managers to critically evaluate economic forecasts and policy recommendations and then apply these concepts in a series of case studies. Action Learning Projects (ALPs) are a practical and high-impact way to develop your ability to think and lead across an organization by housewives applying what you have learned in the classroom. ALPs are like a class project, but the difference between the typical class project and these transformative projects is the difference between a glass of skim milk and a milkshake. Speech Pearl Harbor! ALPs create practical learning experiences by integrating knowledge gained from the core curriculum and focusing on 1950s, real business problems in roosevelt speech real-time outside the risks and demands of your day-to-day job. This course builds on EMBA 632 (Corporate Finance I) by applying many of the 1950s concepts and christianity empire, tools introduced in the earlier course to understand key corporate finance issues, including Corporate Valuation, Corporate Financing, Risk Management and Corporate Restructuring. Teaches students how to: recognize the scope of managerial agency and 1950s housewives, the economic, legal and christianity, ethical responsibilities to various stakeholders; conduct elementary ethical analyses of managerial situations using the principal schools of 1950s housewives, ethical reasoning; identify the economic and ethical properties of a market mechanism and teenage statistics uk, the means for addressing the limitations of a market; and recognize ethical leadership as the exercise of managerial agency in changing existing values and practices. Executive Powers and Negotiation 2. Examines ways to 1950s housewives expand your power and influence capabilities, as well as enhance your negotiation skills.

Guides you in obtaining personal insights into your own approaches, strengths and weaknesses. Provides the opportunity to develop and implement a negotiation plan to apply the course principles in a personal or professional setting. Provides a broad look at issues that global organizations face across the enterprise. The course explores international marketing, finance, management and organizational behavior strategies. Students taking the course receive a global business perspective. Examines the strategic role that the operations function can play and offers specific tools and techniques that the firm can use for strategy execution.

Covers concepts of in roman, operations management applied to both manufacturing and services, including operations strategy, analysis of process flows and bottlenecks, waiting line models, total quality management, Six Sigma and housewives, lean management. Develops the fundamental knowledge and skills of MBA students who plan to work with organizations as change agents, whether internally or externally as outside consultants. This course draws on literatures from organizational behavior, organizational change and development, organizational structure, human resource management and strategic management to identify and understand critical factors and underlying processes that drive for and against Paper on Texas Collection organizational change. This course also provides students with useful models, tools and skills for leading and 1950s, managing organizational change effectively. Analyze and identify profit opportunities and stress essay, threats in different industry and 1950s housewives, competitive environments; Analyze and identify a firms valuable assets, resources and capabilities and Critique Paper on Texas State Wittliff Collection, how they might be protected, leveraged, and extended in the market; Learn how to organize your company to be the best prepared to adapt its strategy over 1950s housewives, time as the market environment changes; and how to use organic growth as well as mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, alliances, and divestitures to the importance of integrity ensure that the firm maintains the 1950s proper scale and empire, scope to compete effectively over time. Opening Residency: Introduction to Fundamentals of Business 2. Our three-day, on-campus experience is designed to welcome you to the Smith School community. Youll get started on coursework, get to know the faculty and staff at housewives, the University of Maryland, College Park, and join classmates in the program for stress essay some team building all at 1950s housewives, the doorstep of our nations capital, Washington, D.C. Capstone Residency: Integrative Business Simulation 2.

The capstone experience will help students appreciate the value and interconnectedness of the various functional business areas. The capstone will result in the importance of integrity much stronger knowledge of housewives, all business areas and a more marketable online MBA degree. A = Accounting, F = Finance, IS = Information Systems #038; Business Analytics, M = Marketing, S = Supply Chain Management. Fraud Examination, Detection, and Deterrence in the Business Environment (A) 2. This course examines and discusses issues relating to fraud in of integrity the business environment.

It is housewives, applicable to students in the OMBA accounting, finance, business analytics, or general tracks. Fraud can be perpetrated due to failures in internal controls or ethical conduct in Critique on Texas a business, as well as the pressures, motivations and opportunities of those who engage in the fraud. The objective of housewives, this course is to identify the business resources for deterring fraud, evaluating the conditions that permit fraud to occur, and to assist management to design effective fraud detection and prevention plans. The course will also introduce management to the steps necessary after fraud is detected, from the conduct of internal investigations, to the retention of external consultants and interface with the businesses external auditors. The Impact of Taxation on Business Entities (A) 2.

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Focus is on theory, practice, empirical evidence, and legal constraints related to each of these forms of restructuring, and emphasis is placed on valuation analysis and strategic considerations. A = Accounting, F = Finance, IS = Information Systems #038; Business Analytics, M = Marketing, S = Supply Chain Management. Foundation II Selectives (Continued) Credits. In business magazines, on TV, and in board rooms, big data and data analytics are hot topics. Interest is high as vast quantities of data are being generated these days, including new types of data such as web traffic, social network data, and reviews and comments on websites. This data is a valuable resource that, when used correctly, can create a not only a competitive edge for roosevelt harbor companies but can lead to better decision making in all sectors of society. This is a first course in data analytics focusing on descriptive and predictive analytics. This course is intended to provide an introduction to the tools and techniques of 1950s, data analytics that are central to the analysis of data, with a focus on classification and prediction. A particular emphasis will be placed on understanding the data analytics process, and the outputs of different methods; less attention will be placed on the analytical and Paper State Collection, algorithmic interpretation of details of the methodology. 1950s Housewives! The focus will be on business applications and examples from Marketing, Finance, Healthcare, and Operations will be used to illustrate the breadth of applications of Critique Paper on Texas State Collection, Data Analytics in Business.

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The advent of the sharing economy and the growth of social media platforms have provided unprecedented access to roosevelt harbor vast amounts of information and in the process transformed industries, spawned success stories, and redefined traditional business landscapes. 1950s! This course will examine the Critique Paper on Texas University´s Wittliff Collection strategic implications of these technological developments for businesses, consumers, and society at housewives, large. In this course, we will review concepts and principles related to online platforms, social media, and web analytics, and examine the opportunities and challenges associated with business use of social media and about, web technologies. Through a combination of 1950s housewives, readings, simulations, case discussions, presentations, and hands-on projects/assignments we will learn about (i) the characteristics of networks, platforms, social media, and the sharing economy, and their potential to transform businesses and society, (ii) emerging business models and social media strategies, and (iii) approaches that businesses and stress essay, policy makers can use to evaluate, apply, and leverage these technologies. Co-Creating Customer Experience (M) 2.

You can always attract a customer with a promise, but retaining customers can be more difficult. 1950s! Co-creating memorable and compelling customer experiences is a key way to pregnancy uk retain customers, and in fact, can be a strategic core competence that materially affects a companys growth and profitability. This course will help students understand the dynamics and DNA of customer experience, and provide them with a framework for designing, implementing, and innovating customer experience. Students will be expected to apply their understanding of customer experience co-creation to improving or innovating the customer experience for a specific company (example, Arista-cloud networking), brand (example, Airbnb), customer segment (example, low budget business travelers), or product-market segment (example, vehicle accident trauma patients treated in outpatient settings). The field of consumer behavior involves the study of the processes involved when individuals (or groups) select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires. This course is intended to enhance your understanding of 1950s, consumer behavior and how it can be utilized by empire marketing managers to develop effective marketing strategies. Questions we will answer include: what factors determine whether consumers will pay attention to the information you provide to 1950s housewives them about your product or service? what factors determine whether they will be able to remember this information? what actions can you take to persuade people to try your product? when people try your product, what factors influence their evaluation of it? Understanding all of these factors is essential if you are trying to get a customer to choose your product or service repeatedly over time, in addition to generating word-of-mouth for your product. Understanding consumer information processing also is roosevelt speech, critical to the successful design and housewives, implementation of marketing research. We find that students enjoy learning about consumer research, and often end up discovering as much about how they themselves are influenced by marketing actions as about how they can influence others.

This course focuses on managing customers of a business whether in B2B or B2C space as a portfolio of equity, focusing on understanding the current and future value of customers to the business that can aid in descriptive essay about a place selective acquisition, development, and retention of customers using latest developments in 1950s information technology. Course participants will examine the conceptual foundations of customer equity, its measurement, its strategic implications, its use for determining return on marketing investments and its implementations in different business contexts through a variety of cases spanning both B2C and harbor, B2B space. The objective of the course is to examine the 1950s housewives strategic and the importance of integrity, analytical aspects of customer equity in equal measure so that participants will have a deeper understanding of the power of customer equity management and 1950s housewives, how to put it to christianity in roman empire work effectively in their business. A = Accounting, F = Finance, IS = Information Systems #038; Business Analytics, M = Marketing, S = Supply Chain Management. Foundation II Selectives (Continued) Credits. In todays international landscape, firms that want to 1950s housewives globalize their operations must be aware of international distribution systems, governmental restrictions on the movement of goods, export and stress essay, import documentation and 1950s, the various players involved in roosevelt worldwide trade.

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The key to resiliency in the global enterprise is Critique on Texas State University´s Collection, supply chain risk management (SCRM) capability. With this course, you can develop your skills in risk identification, assessment and mitigation, master industry standard software like Resilinc and learn to enable a team experience with cloud-based supply chain risk analytics and management software, the basis of SCRM. Our faculty is the heart of 1950s, our MBA program. While enrolled in the program, you will have the opportunity to stress essay learn from and collaborate with the innovators and established thought leaders of the Robert H. Smith School of Business the same esteemed educators who deliver our globally recognized on-campus MBA programs. Consistently ranked among the nations best in housewives intellectual capital by uk Financial Times , our faculty delivers a wealth of industry experience into every online course. Our students benefit from 1950s housewives having the opportunity to interact and network with the empire minds that are currently shaping the world of business and defining the future of global business practice. Associate Research Professor #038; Executive Director. Assistant Professor of Operations Management. Clinical Associate Professor | 2014 Undergraduate Studies Faculty Fellow. Margret Vilborg Bjarnadottir.

Assistant Professor of Management Science and 1950s housewives, Statistics. Clinical Associate Professor #038; Senior Fellow, Office of Executive Education. Research Professor #038; Co-Director, Supply Chain Management Center. Clinical Associate Professor #038; Associate Chair, Accounting #038; Information Assurance Department. Associate Dean for descriptive a place the Office of Executive Programs #038; Clinical Professor. Lecturer, Management #038; Organization Associate Director, QUEST Honors Program. Michelle E. Smith Professor of 1950s housewives, Logistics #038; Co-Director, Supply Chain Management Center. Vice President and Chief Information Officer, University of Maryland. Clinical Professor and Academic Director, Online MBA. Ralph J. Tyser Professor of christianity in roman, Marketing Science | Chair, Department of 1950s, Marketing. Clinical Associate Professor.

Professor of Information Systems. Clinical Professor of Management. Visiting Assistant Professor. Clinical Associate Professor of Management Science #038; Statistics. Smith Chair of Human Resource Management #038; Organizational Change #038; Co-Director of CLIC. Clinical Associate Professor. Associate Professor of Information Systems #038; Co-Director of DIGITS. Clinical Associate Professor. Clinical Associate Professor. Associate Professor of Operations Management #038; Associate Department Chair.

What Makes the Smith MBA One of the Best Online MBA Programs? A Commitment to Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Entrepreneurial spirit is alive and well at the importance of integrity, the University of 1950s, Maryland, College Park. The Robert H. Smith School of Business is home to the Dingman Center, one of the nations first academic entrepreneurship centers and recognized as one of the nations largest angel groups. Dingman Center Angels is one of just a few angel investing networks nationwide that are housed in an entrepreneurship center or business school.

The Dingman Center has received high honors and awards, including the NASDAQ Award for Center of Excellence in Entrepreneurship. The Smith School is also home to Critique on Texas State University´s Wittliff Cupids Cup, one of the nations most prestigious entrepreneurial competitions, offering more than $115,000 in cash prize money to some of the business worlds brightest minds. In 2014, the housewives event was hosted for the ninth time by the University of Maryland along with Maryland alumnus and Under Armour founder and the importance, CEO Kevin Plank. Our AACSB accredited online MBA program encourages students to pursue new ideas and act as innovators to promote positive change in the world of business. The entrepreneurship component of the Smith MBA is designed to give you the skills to grow a successful business venture from the ground up and to accurately assess the potential of such a venture. The Benefits of Experiential Learning. What will you learn during your MBA experience that will help you stand out as a smart, savvy business professional? Many programs can provide you with improved business skills, but the online MBA from the Robert H. Smith School of Business offers something more. By adding Action Learning Projects to housewives our MBA residencies, we challenge students to get involved with real-world business issues both domestically and abroad. Roosevelt Speech Harbor! Its a hands-on approach to learning that develops tangible leadership, teamwork, analysis and communication skills. We use a dynamic combination of asynchronous learning, live online classes and 1950s, on-campus residencies to prepare students to face real-world challenges confidently.

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Its no accident that the christianity Robert H. Smith School of Business was ranked #2 overall in Career Services by Bloomberg Businessweek. Providing support for students and alumni in their pursuit of career success is a focal point at the Smith School. We offer a wide range of services to help you grow as a professional the same invaluable services that are provided to our on-campus students, including: Career coaching HireSmith online recruiting system and job database Internship assistance Resume and cover letter coaching Target job search management technology Networking Peer-to-peer mentoring Interview training, including mock interviews Evaluating and negotiating job offers Soft skill development. About the University of 1950s, Maryland, College Park. The University of Maryland, College Park, is a public research university and the flagship campus of the of integrity University System of Maryland. Established in 1856, UMD is the original land-grant institution in the state.

It is one of only 62 members of the 1950s housewives Association of American Universities, an organization composed of the leading research universities in the United States and Canada. The University of Maryland is committed to achieving excellence as the states primary center for research and graduate education and the institution of choice for undergraduate students of exceptional ability and promise. The University creates and in roman empire, applies knowledge for the benefit of the economy and culture of the housewives state, the region, the nation and stress essay, beyond. As the flagship of the housewives University System of Maryland, the University shares its research, educational, cultural and technological strengths with businesses, government and pregnancy, other educational institutions. The University advances knowledge, provides outstanding and innovative instruction and 1950s, nourishes a climate of intellectual growth in a broad range of academic disciplines and interdisciplinary fields. The Robert H. About A Place! Smith School of Business is an internationally recognized leader in management education and research. One of 12 colleges and schools at the University of 1950s, Maryland, College Park, the Smith School offers undergraduate degrees along with full-time, part-time MBA and online MBA, Executive MBA, Executive M.S., Ph.D. and Executive Education programs, as well as outreach services to the corporate community. The Smith School is at the forefront of creating, understanding and christianity in roman, leveraging the modern worlds evolving business models. Our world-class faculty and research centers work to bring game-changing research into the classroom and housewives, the boardroom for maximum impact. We immerse our students in complex and evolving marketplaces where critical thinking, creativity, and entrepreneurship are at the core of the enterprise. The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) provides internationally recognized, specialized accreditation for the importance of integrity business and accounting programs at the bachelors, masters and 1950s, doctoral levels.

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The Admissions Committee looks for well-written essays that clearly and 1950s housewives, thoughtfully answer each question. A non-refundable application fee of $75 is stress essay, required. Please pay by credit card as you submit your application online. The application Fee is waived for UMD Terp alumni and Military students. A recommendation should be solicited from an individual who can objectively comment on an applicants performance in a professional environment. Only one recommendation letter is required with your application. A GMAT/GRE score report is required in the application for the Smith Online MBA Program. A waiver may be considered if an 1950s housewives, applicant has demonstrated excellent quantitative and analytical skills through academic records and/or a successful career trajectory. Please contact an enrollment advisor for additional information.

For more information on the GMAT and to request an official score report, please visit www.mba.com. For more information on the GRE and to request an official score report, please visit www.ets.org/gre. When requesting that a score report to be sent to the University of stress essay, Maryland, please use the following institutional codes: GMAT Online MBA code is SQT-N8-32 ; GRE Code is 5814 for all programs. The online application allows you to upload a copy of your transcript(s) for 1950s each college or university attended. If the transcript where you received your degree does not state the degree was conferred, please also upload a diploma or copy of your degree received. If you are formally admitted to the University of Maryland, you will be required to submit an official transcript. If your transcript is not in English, please also upload a notarized copy of your transcript translated into teenage pregnancy English. The University of Maryland Graduate School requires all admitted students to have an undergraduate grade point average of at least 3.00/4.00. The University of Maryland, College Park, requires any applicant who has not completed a university degree in a country in 1950s which English is the principal language (such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland, and New Zealand) to take the TOEFL.

You are strongly encouraged to include a photocopy of your TOEFL report with the application materials. The Admissions Committee will not review your file without the TOEFL. To view a list of countries exempt from taking the about a place TOEFL exam please click here. All applicants must comply with this policy regardless of citizenship status, number of years residing in the United States, and instruction language of his or her university. 1950s! Contact www.toefl.org to request an official copy of teenage pregnancy statistics uk, your test scores to be sent to the University of Maryland, College Park institutional code 5814 . Note: All students, including international students, are required to 1950s attend two three day residencies scheduled at the beginning and the end of the program on the University of Maryland campus in College Park, Maryland. The University of Maryland, College Park, cannot issue a Form I-20 or Form IAP-66 to students enrolled in the online MBA program for the attendance of the residencies. 2017 2018 Academic Year Tuition Fees.

1 There is no differentiation between in-state and out-of-state tuition. The tuition covers curriculum, technology platform licensing and support, and room and board accommodations for the two required 3-day residency periods. Transportation to and from the descriptive essay about Smith School for the residencies, as well as course books and 1950s, materials, is not covered in the importance of integrity the tuition or fees. Tuition and 1950s housewives, fees are subject to change. 2 The University-mandated technology fee, is charged twice a year during the spring and fall semesters. 3 Admitted applicants are required to submit a $1,000 non-refundable enrollment deposit to reserve a space in the class. Enrollment deposits will be applied as a credit towards the first term tuition. There is a multitude of scholarships and financial aid options available to help eligible students in paying some or all of the cost of their online MBA. Be sure to carefully review all financial aid resources to gain an understanding of what options may be available to you. The Smith School of Business awards scholarships to a select number of applicants based on scholastic merit, professional accomplishment and evidence of leadership.

All applicants whose applications are complete by the application deadline receive automatic consideration. Beginning with the fall 2016 entry, a Double Terp Scholarship is available to alumni of the University of Maryland, College Park who are newly-admitted into the Smith Online MBA program. In Roman Empire! Be sure to indicate that you are a graduate of the University of Maryland, College Park on your application for admission. The Smith School of Business has partnered with specific organizations to offer a scholarship and no application fee or enrollment deposit for their full-time employees and 1950s housewives, their immediate family members who enroll in the online MBA program. If you are employed by a partner organization and would like to learn more about christianity in roman this benefit, or would like to confirm if your organization has a partnership with Smith, please contact an enrollment advisor. Students who are U.S. 1950s Housewives! citizens or permanent residents may apply for Federal Student Loans through the in roman empire Office of Student Financial Aid by completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). 1950s! The application is available online at www.fafsa.ed.gov; UMD-College Parks FAFSA code is 002103 . After the stress essay FAFSA is received by the Office of Student Financial Aid, additional information specific to 1950s housewives the individual student may be requested. Stress Essay! When all application materials are received Federal loans are certified, and the student is notified.

This notification process typically begins mid to 1950s late June. Paper On Texas University´s! An application for aid has no bearing on the application for housewives admittance to the program. The University of Maryland has a Veterans Program Office to assist military service members and the importance of integrity, veterans in their educational pursuits. Scholarship and VA benefit information can be found online. All students receiving financial aid must maintain certain academic standards during the program or else risk losing eligibility for 1950s funding. Click here to learn more about satisfactory academic progress requirements. 2018 Academic Year Submission Deadlines. The Smith online MBA program offers three entry points a year in January, May and September. If youd like more information about the online MBA program, please contact an enrollment advisor or download a program brochure. Our military-friendly MBA program offers a number of benefits for veterans and descriptive about, active members of the military in recognition of their service. We are dedicated to providing military personnel with special opportunities to housewives ease the transition to essay about a place academics and make a first-rate education readily attainable.

To help you navigate the enrollment process and the procedures for housewives securing government funding, we offer a dedicated military advocate to act as a personal agent for military students. This advocate will also help you communicate with companies and teenage statistics, organizations throughout the corporate landscape after you graduate to help you find the housewives right career opportunity. Other potential benefits for veterans and empire, active military personnel include: Yellow Ribbon Program Participating Institution Benefits Waived application fees Merit-based scholarships for military/veteran students Veteran MBA alumni on staff to advise and advocate for military/veteran students VA education benefits Veteran-centered programming In-state tuition extended to veteran residents of Maryland and soldiers stationed in housewives MD. To learn more about the many opportunities available to veterans and military personnel through the UMD online MBA, please contact an stress essay, enrollment advisor. Take the first step toward your Smith MBA. Complete this form to receive your free program brochure. A top-ranked business school and MBA program place the University of Maryland among the best in the nation.

The online MBA program at the Robert H. Smith School of Business is accredited by AACSB International. Lauren McConnell , Online MBA Student. I chose Smith because when I researched other online MBA programs, it had the most positive attributes: the flexibility to stay home with my infant son while receiving a top-notch education, outstanding career service offerings read more. Eric Fisher , Online MBA Student. I applaud the effort that the faculty and staff have put into really making it a personal feel and getting that personal connection. read more. James Cannon , Online MBA Student.

[The faculty] really care about what were learning and how were learning. Its not about how much information they can pile into a course. Its about 1950s housewives making sure that we actually understand everything that were being taught read more. Financial Aid Information Session. November 12, 2014 @ Noon ET.

Engage with a financial aid specialist at UMD-Smith School and get your questions answered regarding submitting your financial aid, merit-based scholarships, payment plans and more. Call 1-877-807-8741 for details. Info Session: Student Panel Discussion. Our recent Student Panel Discussion gathered current Smith online MBA students to share insights on their thoughts, opinions and ideas regarding the stress essay experiences in the program. Listen now. [News] Smith MBA Program Ranked 17th by Businessweek. The University of Marylands Robert H. Smith School of Business has climbed from 24th to 17th in Bloomberg Businessweeks 2014 ranking of 1950s, full-time MBA programs. read more. [News] Online MBA Climbs Fast in Rankings.

Less than one year after its January 2014 launch, the Smith Online MBA has earned a top-five ranking from a national publication. read more. [Video] Online MBAs: The Next Frontier of Higher Education. Less than one year after its January 2014 launch, the Smith Online MBA has earned a top-five ranking from a national publication. view video. [Infographic] 6 Inspiring Modern-Day Entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs drive innovation and make a tremendous impact in the world of Critique Paper on Texas State Wittliff, business.

Here are 6 inspiring modern-day entrepreneurs with the lessons you can learn from 1950s housewives their success.read more. Visit this page to view recent webinars, videos, infographics, Smith news articles and updates, and more. read more. Copyright Robert H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.

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Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and 1950s housewives, makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. Pearl Harbor? This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhouls resume is housewives still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesnt sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusion of depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Essay About? Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and housewives, his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of stress essay, cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by 1950s housewives Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look.

Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and teenage, plenty of negative space. 1950s Housewives? There seems to be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and roosevelt, show that theres a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his Hello, nice to meet you. Heres a little about me header at the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the 1950s housewives person whos reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Wittliff Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyles name and a catchy tagline. 1950s? Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this brand is pearl harbor something you can use over and over again on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on housewives a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here.

Just make sure that your font is essay weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of housewives, color and whittles down the information to only the teenage pregnancy statistics uk basics (skills and past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the 1950s simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look.

This example by S.N. Carter, printed on roosevelt speech pearl harbor a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isnt appropriate, its always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If youre after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. Housewives? But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the teenage uk images should, at a glance, tell something about you and complement or enhance the 1950s housewives text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. If youre seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume.

It doesnt have to be the about a place center of housewives, attention, though you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotypes resume template. Speech Pearl Harbor? Mailing out 1950s housewives some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Christianity Empire? Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into housewives, your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujicas round resume does here.

If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable. Youve only got one name. Stress Essay? Make it memorable. If its unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Give the hiring manager something to zero in housewives on.

Your font choices can change the whole character of on Texas University´s Wittliff, your resume. For instance, the housewives rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on essay a place the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn.

Use blocks of 1950s housewives, color and/or lines to christianity, separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If youre going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of 1950s, graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and descriptive essay about a place, helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from 1950s her educational and pearl harbor, professional details. Although this resume design is 1950s text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the breadth of his skills and experience.

Similar in function to of integrity, the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiaus proficiency in 1950s housewives various areas, such as management and design. The size of the stress essay circles corresponds with his amount of experience a fresh way to 1950s, illustrate core competencies. The Importance? Give the person looking at your resume an 1950s excuse to find out more about stress essay, you. Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on housewives your resume. The Importance? Tamas Leb has included space to do so on 1950s housewives this resume template, and it makes an impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to present your information. Stress Essay? Here, Peter Kistemans laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in 1950s housewives a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and pearl harbor, accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidates career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by housewives Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent.

This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Critique State Wittliff? Besides being another nice example of using an housewives accent color, this design by statistics Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and housewives, simple, showing that resumes dont have to be fancy to make a good impression. The Importance? If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of 1950s housewives, a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd. This resume by in roman Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch.

As if to say that a normal paper resume just wont cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when its ok to let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. Housewives? For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is stress essay a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. 1950s? As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents.

Sometimes you have to do what you can to get noticed. For an the importance illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and 1950s, gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to stress essay, make sure Joao Andrades resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Just the essentials enough to get someone interested in wanting to know more about 1950s housewives, Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of white space give Maxat Malbekovs resume a sleek look thats easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from essay about a place this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section. Need to keep your resume fairly conservative?

A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from housewives ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadillas illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesnt allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an accent color. Resumes dont always have to read from left to right, top to harbor, bottom.

You can play with the housewives layout of your resume to make the of integrity best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. 1950s? You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and Critique State University´s Wittliff, make it easier to navigate, similarly to 1950s housewives, how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to your entire workplace.

Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in of integrity art to housewives, explore design. and loved it. Essay About A Place? Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Design The Perfect Google+ Banner Image With Tips And E. Housewives? 50 Unique and teenage pregnancy statistics, Engaging About Us Pages to housewives, Inspire You. Stress Essay? These Are Some of The Most Beautiful Album Covers We#8. Graphic Design From Around the World: Spanish Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En.

50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of 1950s housewives, 2015. Pearl? 100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to 1950s housewives, Apply Them . Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp. Free Stock Photos: 73 Best Sites To Find Awesome Free I. You're almost there!

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essay on leverage Folks who do systems analysis have a great belief in leverage points. These are places within a complex system (a corporation, an housewives, economy, a living body, a city, an ecosystem) where a small shift in essay, one thing can produce big changes in everything. This idea is not unique to systems analysis its embedded in legend. The silver bullet, the trimtab, the miracle cure, the secret passage, the 1950s housewives, magic password, the single hero who turns the tide of history. The nearly effortless way to cut through or leap over huge obstacles.

We not only want to believe that there are leverage points, we want to know where they are and how to get our hands on them. Leverage points are points of uk, power. The systems analysis community has a lot of lore about leverage points. Those of us who were trained by the great Jay Forrester at 1950s housewives, MIT have all absorbed one of speech harbor, his favorite stories. People know intuitively where leverage points are, he says. 1950s. Time after time Ive done an analysis of a company, and Ive figured out a leverage point in inventory policy, maybe, or in christianity in roman, the relationship between sales force and housewives, productive force, or in personnel policy. Christianity In Roman. Then Ive gone to the company and 1950s, discovered that theres already a lot of Critique on Texas State University´s Collection, attention to that point. Everyone is trying very hard to push it IN THE WRONG DIRECTION! The classic example of that backward intuition was my own introduction to 1950s, systems analysis, the world model. Stress Essay. Asked by the Club of Rome to show how major global problems poverty and 1950s, hunger, environmental destruction, resource depletion, urban deterioration, unemployment are related and how they might be solved, Forrester made a computer model and christianity empire, came out with a clear leverage point 1 : Growth. Not only population growth, but economic growth.

Growth has costs as well as benefits, and we typically dont count the costs among which are poverty and hunger, environmental destruction, etc. the whole list of problems we are trying to solve with growth! What is needed is much slower growth, much different kinds of growth, and in some cases no growth or negative growth. The worlds leaders are correctly fixated on economic growth as the answer to virtually all problems, but theyre pushing with all their might in the wrong direction. Another of Forresters classics was his urban dynamics study, published in 1969, which demonstrated that subsidized low-income housing is a leverage point. 2 The less of it there is, the housewives, better off the pregnancy statistics uk, city is even the 1950s, low-income folks in the city. This model came out at a time when national policy dictated massive low-income housing projects, and Forrester was derided. Now those projects are being torn down in roosevelt pearl harbor, city after city. Counterintuitive. 1950s. Thats Forresters word to describe complex systems.

Leverage points are not intuitive. Stress Essay. Or if they are, we intuitively use them backward, systematically worsening whatever problems we are trying to solve. The systems analysts I know have come up with no quick or easy formulas for 1950s housewives, finding leverage points. When we study a system, we usually learn where leverage points are. But a new system weve never encountered? Well, our counterintuitions arent that well developed. Give us a few months or years and well figure it out. And we know from bitter experience that, because of counterintuitiveness, when we do discover the systems leverage points, hardly anybody will believe us. Very frustrating, especially for those of us who yearn not just to of integrity, understand complex systems, but to make the world work better.

So one day I was sitting in a meeting about how to 1950s, make the stress essay, world work better actually it was a meeting about how the new global trade regime, NAFTA and GATT and the World Trade Organization, is likely to 1950s housewives, make the world work worse. Teenage Uk. The more I listened, the more I began to simmer inside. This is a HUGE NEW SYSTEM people are inventing! I said to 1950s, myself. Empire. They havent the SLIGHTEST IDEA how this complex structure will behave, myself said back to me. Its almost certainly an example of cranking the system in the wrong direction its aimed at growth, growth at any price!! And the control measures these nice, liberal folks are talking about to combat it small parameter adjustments, weak negative feedback loops are PUNY. Suddenly, without quite knowing what was happening, I got up, marched to housewives, the flip chart, tossed over to a clean page, and wrote: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 9. Teenage. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). 8. Regulating negative feedback loops. 7. Driving positive feedback loops. 6. Material flows and nodes of material intersection. 5. Information flows. 4. Housewives. The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints). 3. The distribution of power over the rules of the system.

2. Essay. The goals of the system. 1. The mindset or paradigm out of which the 1950s, system its goals, power structure, rules, its culture arises. Everyone in empire, the meeting blinked in surprise, including me. 1950s Housewives. Thats brilliant! someone breathed. Huh? said someone else. I realized that I had a lot of explaining to in roman empire, do. I also had a lot of thinking to do. 1950s Housewives. As with most of the stuff that come to me in boil-over mode, this list was not exactly tightly reasoned. Christianity Empire. As I began to housewives, share it with others, especially systems analysts who had their own lists and descriptive essay a place, activists who wanted to put the list to 1950s, immediate use, questions and comments came back that caused me to statistics, rethink, add and delete items, change the order, add caveats. In a minute Ill go through the list I ended up with, explain the jargon, give examples and 1950s, exceptions. Stress Essay. The reason for housewives, this introduction is to place the on Texas Wittliff, list in a context of humility and to leave room for evolution.

What bubbled up in me that day was distilled from decades of rigorous analysis of many different kinds of systems done by many smart people. But complex systems are, well, complex. Its dangerous to generalize about them. What you are about to read is a work in progress. Its not a recipe for finding leverage points. Rather its an invitation to think more broadly about system change. Here, in the light of a cooler dawn, is a revised list: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 12. Constants, parameters, numbers (such as subsidies, taxes, standards).

11. Housewives. The sizes of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. 10. The structure of material stocks and flows (such as transport networks, population age structures). 9. The lengths of delays, relative to the rate of system change.

8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to teenage pregnancy statistics, correct against. 7. 1950s. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. 6. The structure of information flows (who does and does not have access to information). 5. The rules of the the importance, system (such as incentives, punishments, constraints). 4. The power to housewives, add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure. 3. The goals of the system.

2. The mindset or paradigm out of essay, which the system its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters arises. 1. The power to 1950s housewives, transcend paradigms. To explain parameters, stocks, delays, flows, feedback, and so forth, I need to start with a basic diagram. The state of the christianity in roman empire, system is whatever standing stock is of importance amount of water behind the dam, amount of harvestable wood in the forest, number of people in the population, amount of money in the bank, whatever. System states are usually physical stocks, but they could be nonmaterial ones as well self-confidence, degree of trust in housewives, public officials, perceived safety of speech harbor, a neighborhood. There are usually inflows that increase the stock and outflows that decrease it. Deposits increase the money in 1950s housewives, the bank; withdrawals decrease it. River inflow and rain raise the water behind the dam; evaporation and discharge through the christianity in roman, spillway lower it. Births and immigrations increase the population, deaths and emigrations reduce it. Political corruption decreases trust in public officials; experience of a well-functioning government increases it.

Insofar as this part of the system consists of physical stocks and flows and they are the bedrock of any system it obeys laws of conservation and accumulation. You can understand its dynamics readily, if you can understand a bathtub with some water in it (the state of the housewives, system) and an inflowing faucet and outflowing drain. If the inflow rate is higher than the outflow rate, the stock gradually rises. If the outflow rate is higher than the inflow, the stock gradually goes down. The sluggish response of the water level to what could be sudden twists in christianity empire, the input and output valves is typical it takes time for flows to accumulate, just as it takes time for 1950s, water to fill up or drain out of the tub. The rest of the diagram is the information that causes the flows to change, which then cause the stock to roosevelt speech pearl harbor, change. If youre about to take a bath, you have a desired water level in mind. You plug the drain, turn on the faucet and watch until the water rises to your chosen level (until the discrepancy between the desired and housewives, the actual state of the system is Critique Paper Collection zero). Then you turn the 1950s, water off.

If you start to get in of integrity, the bath and discover that youve underestimated your volume and are about to housewives, produce an overflow, you can open the drain for awhile, until the water goes down to your desired level. Those are two negative feedback loops, or correcting loops, one controlling the inflow, one controlling the outflow, either or both of which you can use to bring the water level to your goal. Stress Essay. Notice that the goal and the feedback connections are not visible in the system. If you were an extraterrestrial trying to figure out why the tub fills and empties, it would take awhile to 1950s, figure out Critique Paper on Texas Wittliff, that theres an invisible goal and a discrepancy-measuring process going on in the head of the creature manipulating the faucets. But if you watched long enough, you could figure that out. Very simple so far.

Now lets take into account that you have two taps, a hot and a cold, and housewives, that youre also adjusting for another system state temperature. Christianity. Suppose the hot inflow is housewives connected to a boiler way down in the basement, four floors below, so it doesnt respond quickly. And youre making faces at yourself in the mirror and not paying close attention to the water level. And, of course, the inflow pipe is connected to empire, a reservoir somewhere, which is connected to 1950s housewives, the whole planetary hydrological cycle. The system begins to get complex, and realistic, and descriptive essay a place, interesting. Mentally change the bathtub into your checking account. Write checks, make deposits, add a faucet that keeps dribbling in a little interest and housewives, a special drain that sucks your balance even drier if it ever goes dry. Attach your account to a thousand others and let the bank create loans as a function of your combined and fluctuating deposits, link a thousand of those banks into a federal reserve system and you begin to see how simple stocks and flows, plumbed together, make up systems way too complex to figure out. Thats why leverage points are not intuitive. And thats enough systems theory to proceed to of integrity, the list.

12. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). Parameters in systems jargon means the numbers that determine how much of a discrepancy turns which faucet how fast. 1950s Housewives. Maybe the descriptive about, faucet turns hard, so it takes awhile to get the water flowing or to turn it off. Maybe the drain is blocked and housewives, can allow only a small flow, no matter how open it is.

Maybe the about a place, faucet can deliver with the force of a fire hose. These considerations are a matter of numbers, some of which are physically locked in and unchangeable, but most of which are popular intervention points. Consider the housewives, national debt. Its a negative bathtub, a money hole. Descriptive About. The rate at housewives, which it sinks is stress essay called the annual deficit. Tax income makes it rise, government expenditures make it fall. Housewives. Congress and the president spend most of their time arguing about the many, many parameters that open and speech pearl, close tax faucets and spending drains. Since those faucets and drains are connected to us, the 1950s, voters, these are politically charged parameters. Pregnancy. But, despite all the fireworks, and no matter which party is in charge, the money hole has been sinking for years now, just at different rates.

To adjust the 1950s housewives, dirtiness of the air we breathe, the government sets parameters called ambient air quality standards. To assure some standing stock of the importance, forest (or some flow of money to 1950s housewives, logging companies) it sets allowed annual cuts. Corporations adjust parameters such as wage rates and product prices, with an eye on the level in their profit bathtub the stress essay, bottom line. The amount of land we set aside for conservation. The minimum wage. How much we spend on AIDS research or Stealth bombers. The service charge the bank extracts from your account. Housewives. All these are parameters, adjustments to faucets. So, by the way, is firing people and getting new ones, including politicians. Putting different hands on the faucets may change the rate at which the faucets turn, but if theyre the same old faucets, plumbed into stress essay the same old system, turned according to the same old information and goals and rules, the 1950s, system isnt going to change much. Electing Bill Clinton was definitely different from electing George Bush, but not all that different, given that every president is plugged into on Texas State Wittliff Collection the same political system. (Changing the way money flows in that system would make much more of a difference but Im getting ahead of myself on this list.)

Parameters are dead last on my list of 1950s housewives, powerful interventions. Diddling with the details, arranging the deck chairs on the Titanic. Probably 90, no 95, no 99 percent of our attention goes to parameters, but theres not a lot of leverage in them. Not that parameters arent important they can be, especially in the short term and to the individual whos standing directly in the flow. People care deeply about parameters and fight fierce battles over them. But they RARELY CHANGE BEHAVIOR. If the system is teenage statistics uk chronically stagnant, parameter changes rarely kick-start it. If its wildly variable, they dont usually stabilize it.

If its growing out of control, they dont brake it. Whatever cap we put on campaign contributions, it doesnt clean up politics. The Feds fiddling with the interest rate havent made business cycles go away. 1950s. (We always forget that during upturns, and are shocked, shocked by the downturns.) After decades of the the importance of integrity, strictest air pollution standards in the world, Los Angeles air is less dirty, but it isnt clean. Spending more on police doesnt make crime go away. Since Im about to get into some examples where parameters ARE leverage points, let me stick in a big caveat here. Parameters become leverage points when they go into ranges that kick off one of the items higher on housewives this list. Interest rates, for example, or birth rates, control the gains around positive feedback loops. System goals are parameters that can make big differences. Sometimes a system gets onto a chaotic edge, where the tiniest change in a number can drive it from order to what appears to be wild disorder. These critical numbers are not nearly as common as people seem to of integrity, think they are.

Most systems have evolved or are designed to 1950s housewives, stay far out of critical parameter ranges. Mostly, the numbers are not worth the sweat put into them. Heres a story a friend sent me over the Internet to makes that point: 3. When I became a landlord, I spent a lot of stress essay, time and energy trying to figure out what would be a fair rent to charge. I tried to consider all the variables, including the relative incomes of my tenants, my own income and 1950s, cash flow needs, which expenses were for upkeep and which were capital expenses, the equity versus the interest portion of the mortgage payments, how much my labor on the house was worth, etc.

I got absolutely nowhere. Finally I went to roosevelt, someone who specializes in housewives, giving money advice. She said: Youre acting as though there is a fine line at which the rent is fair, and at any point above that point the tenant is being screwed and at any point below that you are being screwed. In fact there is a large grey area in stress essay, which both you and the tenant are getting a good, or at least a fair, deal. Stop worrying and get on with your life. 11. Housewives. The sizes of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. Consider a huge bathtub with slow in and outflows. Now think about a small one with very fast flows.

Thats the difference between a lake and a river. You hear about the importance, catastrophic river floods much more often than catastrophic lake floods, because stocks that are big, relative to their flows, are more stable than small ones. In chemistry and 1950s, other fields, a big, stabilizing stock is known as a buffer. The stabilizing power of buffers is stress essay why you keep money in the bank rather than living from the flow of change through your pocket. Its why stores hold inventory instead of calling for new stock just as customers carry the old stock out the door. Its why we need to maintain more than the minimum breeding population of an 1950s housewives, endangered species. Soils in the eastern U.S. are more sensitive to acid rain than soils in the west, because they havent got big buffers of calcium to descriptive essay, neutralize acid. You can often stabilize a system by increasing the capacity of a buffer.

4 But if a buffer is too big, the system gets inflexible. 1950s Housewives. It reacts too slowly. And big buffers of some sorts, such as water reservoirs or inventories, cost a lot to build or maintain. Businesses invented just-in-time inventories, because occasional vulnerability to fluctuations or screw-ups is cheaper (for them, anyway) than certain, constant inventory costs and because small-to-vanishing inventories allow more flexible response to shifting demand. Theres leverage, sometimes magical, in changing the size of buffers. But buffers are usually physical entities, not easy to descriptive about a place, change. The acid absorption capacity of eastern soils is housewives not a leverage point for alleviating acid rain damage. The storage capacity of a dam is literally cast in in roman, concrete. So I havent put buffers very high on 1950s the list of leverage points.

10. The structure of material stocks and flows and nodes of intersection (such as transport networks, population age structures, flow of nitrogen through soil). The plumbing structure, the stocks and flows and their physical arrangement, can have an harbor, enormous effect on how the system operates. When the housewives, Hungarian road system was laid out so all traffic from one side of the nation to the other has to pass through central Budapest, that determined a lot about air pollution and commuting delays that are not easily fixed by pollution control devices, traffic lights, or speed limits. The only way to fix a system that is laid out wrong is to rebuild it, if you can. Amory Lovins does wonders of energy conservation by straightening out bent pipes and enlarging too-small ones. If we let him do energy retrofits on all the buildings of the nation,we could shut down at roosevelt harbor, least half of our electric power plants. But often physical rebuilding is the slowest and housewives, most expensive kind of change to make in a system.

Some stock-and-flow structures are just plain unchangeable. Teenage Pregnancy. The baby-boom swell in the U.S. population first caused pressure on the elementary school system, then high schools, then colleges, then jobs and housing, and housewives, now were looking forward to supporting its retirement. Not much we can do about it, because five-year-olds become six-year-olds, and sixty-four-year-olds become sixty-five-year-olds predictably and unstoppably. The same can be said for the lifetime of destructive CFC molecules in the ozone layer, for stress essay, the rate at which contaminants get washed out of aquifers, for the fact that an 1950s housewives, inefficient car fleet takes 10-20 years to turn over. Physical structure is crucial in a system, but rarely a leverage point, because changing it is rarely quick or simple. The leverage point is in proper design in the first place. After the structure is built, the leverage is in understanding its limitations and bottlenecks, using it with maximum efficiency, and refraining from fluctuations or expansions that strain its capacity. 9. The lengths of delays, relative to the rate of christianity in roman, system changes. Remember that bathtub on 1950s the fourth floor I mentioned, with the water heater in the basement?

I actually experienced one of those once, in an old hotel in London. It wasnt even a bathtub, it was a shower no buffering capacity. The water temperature took at least a minute to respond to my faucet twists. Guess what my shower was like. Right, oscillations from hot to cold and back to speech harbor, hot, punctuated with expletives. Delays in 1950s housewives, feedback loops are critical determinants of stress essay, system behavior. They are common causes of oscillations. If youre trying to adjust a system state to your goal, but you only receive delayed information about what the system state is, you will overshoot and undershoot. Same if your information is timely, but your response isnt.

For example, it takes several years to build an electric power plant, and then that plant lasts, say, thirty years. Those delays make it impossible to housewives, build exactly the right number of plants to supply a rapidly changing demand. Even with immense effort at forecasting, almost every electricity industry in stress essay, the world experiences long oscillations between overcapacity and undercapacity. A system just cant respond to short-term changes when it has long-term delays. Thats why a massive central-planning system, such as the Soviet Union or General Motors, necessarily functions poorly.

Because we know theyre important, we systems folks see delays wherever we look. The delay between the time when a pollutant is dumped on the land and when it trickles down to the groundwater. The delay between the 1950s, birth of a child and the time when that child is ready to descriptive, have a child. The delay between the first successful test of a new technology and the time when that technology is 1950s installed throughout the of integrity, economy. Housewives. The time it takes for harbor, a price to adjust to a supply-demand imbalance. A delay in a feedback process is critical RELATIVE TO RATES OF CHANGE (growth, fluctuation, decay) IN THE STOCKS THAT THE FEEDBACK LOOP IS TRYING TO CONTROL. 1950s. Delays that are too short cause overreaction, chasing your tail, oscillations amplified by statistics uk, the jumpiness of the response. Delays that are too long cause damped, sustained, or exploding oscillations, depending on how much too long.

At the extreme they cause chaos. Overlong delays in a system with a threshold, a danger point, a range past which irreversible damage can occur, cause overshoot and collapse. I would list delay length as a high leverage point, except for the fact that delays are not often easily changeable. Things take as long as they take. You cant do a lot about the construction time of a major piece of capital, or the maturation time of 1950s housewives, a child, or the growth rate of a forest. Its usually easier to SLOW DOWN THE CHANGE RATE, so that inevitable feedback delays wont cause so much trouble.

Thats why growth rates are higher up on the leverage-point list than delay times. And thats why slowing economic growth is a greater leverage point in Forresters world model than faster technological development or freer market prices. Those are attempts to speed up the rate of adjustment. But the worlds physical capital plant, its factories and boilers, the concrete manifestations of its working technologies, can only change so fast, even in the face of new prices or new ideas and prices and ideas dont change instantly either, not through a whole global culture. Pearl Harbor. Theres more leverage in slowing the system down so technologies and prices can keep up with it, than there is in 1950s housewives, wishing the delays away. But if there is a delay in your system that can be changed, changing it can have big effects. Watch out! Be sure you change it in the right direction! (For example, the great push to descriptive essay about a place, reduce information and money transfer delays in financial markets is just asking for wild gyrations)

8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. Now were beginning to 1950s, move from the physical part of the system to the information and control parts, where more leverage can be found. Negative feedback loops are ubiquitous in systems. Nature evolves them and humans invent them as controls to keep important system states within safe bounds. A thermostat loop is the classic example. Essay About A Place. Its purpose is to keep the system state called room temperature fairly constant at a desired level.

Any negative feedback loop needs a goal (the thermostat setting), a monitoring and signaling device to housewives, detect excursions from the goal (the thermostat), and a response mechanism (the furnace and/or air conditioner, fans, heat pipes, fuel, etc.). A complex system usually has numerous negative feedback loops it can bring into play, so it can self-correct under different conditions and impacts. Some of those loops may be inactive much of the time like the emergency cooling system in a nuclear power plant, or your ability to sweat or shiver to maintain your body temperature but their presence is critical to the long-term welfare of the system. One of the big mistakes we make is to strip away these emergency response mechanisms because they arent often used and they appear to be costly. In the short term we see no effect from speech pearl harbor, doing this. In the long term, we drastically narrow the range of conditions over which the 1950s housewives, system can survive. One of the most heartbreaking ways we do this is in encroaching on the importance of integrity the habitats of endangered species. Another is in encroaching on our own time for rest, recreation, socialization, and meditation. The strength of a negative loop its ability to keep its appointed stock at or near its goal depends on the combination of all its parameters and links the accuracy and housewives, rapidity of monitoring, the quickness and power of response, the directness and size of corrective flows.

Sometimes there are leverage points here. Take markets, for of integrity, example, the negative feedback systems that are all but worshipped by economists and 1950s, they can indeed be marvels of teenage pregnancy statistics, self-correction, as prices vary to moderate supply and demand and keep them in balance. The more the price the housewives, central piece of the importance of integrity, information signaling both producers and consumers is kept clear, unambiguous, timely, and 1950s, truthful, the more smoothly markets will operate. Christianity In Roman. Prices that reflect full costs will tell consumers how much they can actually afford and will reward efficient producers. Companies and governments are fatally attracted to the price leverage point, of course, all of them determinedly pushing it in 1950s housewives, the wrong direction with subsidies, fixes, externalities, taxes, and other forms of confusion. These folks are trying to weaken the feedback power of market signals by twisting information in their favor. The REAL leverage here is to the importance of integrity, keep them from doing it. Hence the necessity of anti-trust laws, truth-in-advertising laws, attempts to internalize costs (such as pollution taxes), the removal of perverse subsidies, and 1950s housewives, other ways of leveling market playing fields. None of which get far these days, because of the weakening of another set of negative feedback loops those of democracy. Stress Essay. This great system was invented to put self-correcting feedback between the people and their government.

The people, informed about what their elected representatives do, respond by voting those representatives in or out of office. The process depends upon the free, full, unbiased flow of information back and forth between electorate and leaders. Billions of dollars are spent to limit and bias and dominate that flow. Give the people who want to distort market price signals the power to pay off government leaders, get the 1950s housewives, channels of communication to be self-interested corporate partners themselves, and none of the necessary negative feedbacks work well. Speech Pearl. Both market and 1950s housewives, democracy erode. The strength of a negative feedback loop is important RELATIVE TO THE IMPACT IT IS DESIGNED TO CORRECT. If the impact increases in strength, the feedbacks have to Paper Collection, be strengthened too.

A thermostat system may work fine on a cold winter day but open all the windows and its corrective power will fail. Democracy worked better before the advent of the brainwashing power of housewives, centralized mass communications. Traditional controls on fishing were sufficient until radar spotting and drift nets and other technologies made it possible for a few actors to wipe out the fish. The power of big industry calls for the power of big government to hold it in christianity, check; a global economy makes necessary a global government and global regulations. Here are some examples of strengthening negative feedback controls to improve a systems self-correcting abilities: preventive medicine, exercise, and good nutrition to bolster the bodys ability to fight disease, integrated pest management to encourage natural predators of crop pests, the Freedom of Information Act to reduce government secrecy, monitoring systems to report on environmental damage, protection for 1950s housewives, whistleblowers, impact fees, pollution taxes, and performance bonds to recapture the externalized public costs of private benefits. 7. Stress Essay. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. A negative feedback loop is self-correcting; a positive feedback loop is self-reinforcing. The more it works, the more it gains power to work some more. The more people catch the housewives, flu, the more they infect other people. Paper On Texas State University´s Wittliff Collection. The more babies are born, the more people grow up to have babies.

The more money you have in the bank, the more interest you earn, the more money you have in the bank. The more the 1950s housewives, soil erodes, the on Texas State University´s Wittliff Collection, less vegetation it can support, the fewer roots and leaves to soften rain and runoff, the more soil erodes. The more high-energy neutrons in 1950s, the critical mass, the more they knock into a place nuclei and 1950s housewives, generate more. Positive feedback loops are sources of growth, explosion, erosion, and collapse in systems. A system with an unchecked positive loop ultimately will destroy itself.

Thats why there are so few of them. Usually a negative loop will kick in teenage uk, sooner or later. The epidemic will run out of infectable people or people will take increasingly strong steps to avoid being infected. The death rate will rise to housewives, equal the birth rate or people will see the consequences of stress essay, unchecked population growth and have fewer babies. The soil will erode away to bedrock, and after a million years the bedrock will crumble into new soil or people will stop overgrazing, put up checkdams, plant trees, and housewives, stop the erosion.

In all those examples, the first outcome is what will happen if the positive loop runs its course, the second is what will happen if theres an intervention to reduce its self-multiplying power. Reducing the stress essay, gain around a positive loop slowing the growth is usually a more powerful leverage point in systems than strengthening negative loops, and much preferable to letting the positive loop run. Population and economic growth rates in the world model are leverage points, because slowing them gives the many negative loops, through technology and markets and other forms of 1950s, adaptation, all of which have limits and about a place, delays, time to function. Its the same as slowing the car when youre driving too fast, rather than calling for housewives, more responsive brakes or technical advances in steering. Another example: there are many positive feedback loops in stress essay, society that reward the winners of a competition with the resources to 1950s housewives, win even bigger next time. Systems folks call them success to the successful loops. Rich people collect interest; poor people pay it. Stress Essay. Rich people pay accountants and lean on politicians to reduce their taxes; poor people cant. Rich people give their kids inheritances and good educations; poor kids lose out.

Anti-poverty programs are weak negative loops that try to housewives, counter these strong positive ones. It would be much more effective to weaken the positive loops. Thats what progressive income tax, inheritance tax, and universal high-quality public education programs are meant to do. (If rich people can buy government and christianity empire, weaken, rather than strengthen those of measures, the government, instead of balancing success to the successful loops, becomes just another instrument to reinforce them!) The most interesting behavior that rapidly turning positive loops can trigger is 1950s chaos. This wild, unpredictable, unreplicable, and yet bounded behavior happens when a system starts changing much, much faster than its negative loops can react to it. For example, if you keep raising the capital growth rate in the world model, eventually you get to a point where one tiny increase more will shift the economy from exponential growth to oscillation. Another nudge upward gives the oscillation a double beat. And just the tiniest further nudge sends it into teenage pregnancy uk chaos. I dont expect the world economy to turn chaotic any time soon (not for that reason, anyway).

That behavior occurs only in unrealistic parameter ranges, equivalent to doubling the size of the economy within a year. Housewives. Real-world systems can turn chaotic, however, if something in them can grow or decline very fast. Fast-replicating bacteria or insect populations, very infectious epidemics, wild speculative bubbles in money systems, neutron fluxes in the guts of nuclear power plants. These systems are hard to control, and control must involve slowing down the the importance of integrity, positive feedbacks. In more ordinary systems, look for 1950s housewives, leverage points around birth rates, interest rates, erosion rates, success to the successful loops, any place where the more you have of something, the more you have the possibility of christianity in roman empire, having more. 6. The structure of information flows (who does and housewives, does not have access to teenage pregnancy statistics uk, information).

There was this subdivision of identical houses, the story goes, except that for some reason the housewives, electric meter in some of the in roman, houses was installed in the basement and in others it was installed in the front hall, where the residents could see it constantly, going round faster or slower as they used more or less electricity. With no other change, with identical prices, electricity consumption was 30 percent lower in the houses where the meter was in the front hall. We systems-heads love that story because its an example of a high leverage point in the information structure of the system. Its not a parameter adjustment, not a strengthening or weakening of an existing loop. Its a NEW LOOP, delivering feedback to a place where it wasnt going before. A more recent example is the Toxic Release Inventory the U.S. governments requirement, instituted in 1986, that every factory releasing hazardous air pollutants report those emissions publicly every year. Suddenly every community could find out housewives, precisely what was coming out empire, of the smokestacks in town. 1950s Housewives. There was no law against those emissions, no fines, no determination of safe levels, just information. Christianity In Roman Empire. But by 1990 emissions dropped 40 percent. Theyve continued to go down since, not so much because of citizen outrage as because of corporate shame.

One chemical company that found itself on the Top Ten Polluters list reduced its emissions by 90 percent, just to get off that list. Missing feedback is one of the most common causes of system malfunction. Adding or restoring information can be a powerful intervention, usually much easier and cheaper than rebuilding physical infrastructure. The tragedy of the 1950s, commons that is crashing the worlds commercial fisheries occurs because there is no feedback from the state of the fish population to stress essay, the decision to invest in fishing vessels. (Contrary to economic opinion, the 1950s, price of fish doesnt provide that feedback. Roosevelt Speech Pearl. As the fish get more scarce and hence more expensive, it becomes all the more profitable to go out and catch them. Thats a perverse feedback, a positive loop that leads to collapse.)

Its important that the missing feedback be restored to the right place and in compelling form. To take another tragedy of the commons, its not enough to inform all the housewives, users of an empire, aquifer that the 1950s, groundwater level is dropping. That could initiate a race to the bottom. It would be more effective to roosevelt harbor, set a water price that rises steeply as the pumping rate begins to 1950s housewives, exceed the recharge rate. Compelling feedback. Suppose taxpayers got to specify on their return forms what government services their tax payments must be spent on. (Radical democracy!) Suppose any town or company that puts a water intake pipe in a river had to put it immediately DOWNSTREAM from its own outflow pipe. Descriptive Essay About. Suppose any public or private official who made the decision to invest in a nuclear power plant got the waste from that plant stored on his/her lawn. Suppose (this is an old one) the housewives, politicians who declare war were required to spend that war in the front lines. There is a systematic tendency on of integrity the part of 1950s, human beings to avoid accountability for their own decisions. Thats why there are so many missing feedback loops and roosevelt pearl harbor, why this kind of leverage point is so often popular with the masses, unpopular with the powers that be, and effective, if you can get the powers that be to permit it to happen (or go around them and make it happen anyway). 5. The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints).

The rules of the system define its scope, its boundaries, its degrees of freedom. Thou shalt not kill. Everyone has the right of free speech. Contracts are to be honored. The president serves four-year terms and 1950s housewives, cannot serve more than two of them. Nine people on a team, you have to touch every base, three strikes and christianity empire, youre out. If you get caught robbing a bank, you go to housewives, jail. Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the USSR and opened information flows ( glasnost ) and changed the economic rules ( perestroika ), and look what happened. Constitutions are the strongest examples of stress essay, social rules. 1950s Housewives. Physical laws such as the second law of thermodynamics are absolute rules, whether we understand them or not or like them or not. Laws, punishments, incentives, and informal social agreements are progressively weaker rules.

To demonstrate the power of rules, I like to ask my students to imagine different ones for teenage pregnancy statistics uk, a college. Suppose the students graded the teachers, or each other. Suppose there were no degrees: you come to college when you want to learn something, and you leave when youve learned it. Suppose tenure were awarded to 1950s housewives, professors according to roosevelt harbor, their ability to solve real-world problems, rather than to 1950s, publish academic papers. Suppose a class got graded as a group, instead of as individuals. As we try to imagine restructured rules like that and what our behavior would be under them, we come to understand the power of rules. They are high leverage points. Power over the rules is real power. Thats why lobbyists congregate when Congress writes laws, and why the Supreme Court, which interprets and christianity in roman empire, delineates the Constitution the rules for writing the rules has even more power than Congress.

If you want to understand the deepest malfunctions of systems, pay attention to the rules, and to who has power over them. Thats why my systems intuition was sending off alarm bells as the new world trade system was explained to me. It is a system with rules designed by corporations, run by corporations, for the benefit of corporations. Its rules exclude almost any feedback from any other sector of society. Most of its meetings are closed even to the press (no information flow, no feedback). Housewives. It forces nations into positive loops racing to teenage pregnancy statistics uk, the bottom, competing with each other to weaken environmental and social safeguards in 1950s housewives, order to attract corporate investment. Its a recipe for unleashing success to the successful loops, until they generate enormous accumulations of power and huge centralized planning systems that will destroy themselves, just as the Soviet Union destroyed itself, and for similar systemic reasons. 4. The power to a place, add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure.

The most stunning thing living systems and some social systems can do is to change themselves utterly by creating whole new structures and behaviors. In biological systems that power is called evolution. In human economies its called technical advance or social revolution. In systems lingo its called self-organization. Self-organization means changing any aspect of a system lower on this list adding completely new physical structures, such as brains or wings or computers adding new negative or positive loops, or new rules. The ability to self-organize is the strongest form of 1950s housewives, system resilience. A system that can evolve can survive almost any change, by changing itself. The human immune system has the power to develop new responses to (some kinds of harbor, ) insults it has never before encountered. The human brain can take in new information and pop out completely new thoughts. The power of self-organization seems so wondrous that we tend to regard it as mysterious, miraculous, manna from heaven. Economists often model technology as literal manna coming from nowhere, costing nothing, increasing the productivity of an 1950s housewives, economy by some steady percent each year.

For centuries people have regarded the spectacular variety of nature with the same awe. Only a divine creator could bring forth such a creation. Further investigation of self-organizing systems reveals that the in roman empire, divine creator, if there is one, does not have to produce evolutionary miracles. He, she, or it just has to 1950s housewives, write marvelously clever RULES FOR SELF-ORGANIZATION. These rules basically govern how, where, and what the system can add onto or subtract from itself under what conditions. As hundreds of self-organizing computer models have demonstrated, complex and teenage statistics uk, delightful patterns can evolve from quite simple evolutionary algorithms. (That need not mean that real-world algorithms are simple, only that they can be.) The genetic code within the DNA that is the basis of all biological evolution contains just four different letters, combined into 1950s words of three letters each. That pattern, and the rules for in roman empire, replicating and rearranging it, has been constant for something like three billion years, during which it has spewed out an unimaginable variety of failed and successful self-evolved creatures. Self-organization is basically a matter of an evolutionary raw material a highly variable stock of information from which to select possible patterns and a means for experimentation, for selecting and testing new patterns. For biological evolution the raw material is DNA, one source of 1950s, variety is spontaneous mutation, and the testing mechanism is descriptive essay a place something like punctuated Darwinian selection. For technology the raw material is the body of 1950s housewives, understanding science has accumulated and stored in libraries and in the brains of its practitioners. Of Integrity. The source of variety is human creativity (whatever THAT is) and the selection mechanism can be whatever the 1950s housewives, market will reward, or whatever governments and foundations will fund, or whatever meets human needs.

When you understand the Critique on Texas Collection, power of system self-organization, you begin to understand why biologists worship biodiversity even more than economists worship technology. The wildly varied stock of DNA, evolved and accumulated over billions of years, is the source of evolutionary potential, just as science libraries and labs and universities where scientists are trained are the housewives, source of statistics, technological potential. Allowing species to go extinct is a systems crime, just as randomly eliminating all copies of particular science journals, or particular kinds of scientists, would be. The same could be said of 1950s housewives, human cultures, of course, which are the store of behavioral repertoires, accumulated over not billions, but hundreds of thousands of years. They are a stock out of which social evolution can arise. Unfortunately, people appreciate the stress essay, precious evolutionary potential of cultures even less than they understand the preciousness of 1950s, every genetic variation in the worlds ground squirrels. The Importance. I guess thats because one aspect of almost every culture is the housewives, belief in the utter superiority of that culture. Insistence on a single culture shuts down learning. Cuts back resilience. Any system, biological, economic, or social, that gets so encrusted that it cannot self-evolve, a system that systematically scorns experimentation and wipes out the raw material of innovation, is stress essay doomed over the long term on this highly variable planet. The intervention point here is obvious, but unpopular.

Encouraging variability and experimentation and diversity means losing control. Let a thousand flowers bloom and ANYTHING could happen! Who wants that? Lets play it safe and push this leverage point in the wrong direction by wiping out biological, cultural, social, and market diversity! Right there, the diversity-destroying consequence of the push for control, that demonstrates why the goal of 1950s, a system is descriptive about a place a leverage point superior to the self-organizing ability of a system. 1950s. If the goal is to bring more and more of the world under the stress essay, control of one particular central planning system (the empire of Genghis Khan, the world of Islam, the Peoples Republic of China, Wal-Mart, Disney, whatever), then everything further down the list, physical stocks and flows, feedback loops, information flows, even self-organizing behavior, will be twisted to conform to that goal.

Thats why I cant get into arguments about whether genetic engineering is a good or a bad thing. Like all technologies, it depends upon 1950s housewives, who is wielding it, with what goal. Critique Paper University´s Collection. The only thing one can say is that if corporations wield it for the purpose of generating marketable products, that is a very different goal, a different selection mechanism, a different direction for evolution than anything the planet has seen so far. As my little single-loop examples have shown, most negative feedback loops within systems have their own goals to keep the bathwater at the right level, to keep the room temperature comfortable, to keep inventories stocked at sufficient levels, to keep enough water behind the dam. Housewives. Those goals are important leverage points for pieces of systems, and most people realize that. If you want the room warmer, you know the Critique Paper State University´s Wittliff Collection, thermostat setting is the housewives, place to intervene. But there are larger, less obvious, higher-leverage goals, those of the entire system. Even people within systems dont often recognize what whole-system goal they are serving. To make profits, most corporations would say, but thats just a rule, a necessary condition to stay in the game.

What is the point of the game? To grow, to of integrity, increase market share, to bring the world (customers, suppliers, regulators) more and more under the housewives, control of the corporation, so that its operations becomes ever more shielded from uncertainty. John Kenneth Galbraith recognized that corporate goal to engulf everything long ago. 5 Its the goal of the importance, a cancer too. Actually its the goal of every living population and only a bad one when it isnt balanced by higher-level negative feedback loops that never let an upstart power-loop-driven entity control the world.

The goal of keeping the market competitive has to trump the goal of housewives, each corporation to eliminate its competitors (and brainwash its customers and swallow its suppliers), just as in ecosystems, the goal of keeping populations in balance and evolving has to pregnancy statistics, trump the goal of each population to 1950s housewives, reproduce without limit. I said awhile back that changing the players in the system is stress essay a low-level intervention, as long as the players fit into the same old system. The exception to that rule is at the top, where a single player can have the 1950s, power to change the systems goal. I have watched in wonder as only very occasionally a new leader in an organization, from Dartmouth College to Nazi Germany, comes in, enunciates a new goal, and swings hundreds or thousands or millions of perfectly intelligent, rational people off in a new direction. Thats what Ronald Reagan did, and we watched it happen. Not long before he came to office, a president could say Ask not what government can do for you, ask what you can do for the government, and no one even laughed. Reagan said over and over, the goal is not to get the people to help the government and not to get government to stress essay, help the people, but to get government off our backs. One can argue, and I would, that larger system changes and the rise of corporate power over government let him get away with that. But the thoroughness with which the public discourse in the U.S. and even the world has been changed since Reagan is 1950s housewives testimony to the high leverage of articulating, meaning, repeating, standing up for, insisting upon new system goals. 2. Critique Paper University´s Collection. The mindset or paradigm out of which the 1950s, system its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters arises.

Another of Jay Forresters famous systems sayings goes: it doesnt matter how the tax law of a country is written. There is a shared idea in the importance, the minds of the society about what a fair distribution of the tax load is. Whatever the 1950s housewives, rules say, by fair means or foul, by complications, cheating, exemptions or deductions, by constant sniping at christianity in roman, the rules, actual tax payments will push right up against the accepted idea of fairness. The shared idea in the minds of society, the great big unstated assumptions unstated because unnecessary to state; everyone already knows them constitute that societys paradigm, or deepest set of beliefs about how the world works. There is a difference between nouns and verbs. Money measures something real and 1950s housewives, has real meaning (therefore people who are paid less are literally worth less). Growth is good. Nature is a stock of resources to be converted to human purposes. Critique On Texas State Collection. Evolution stopped with the emergence of Homo sapiens . 1950s Housewives. One can own land.

Those are just a few of the stress essay, paradigmatic assumptions of our current culture, all of which have utterly dumfounded other cultures, who thought them not the least bit obvious. Paradigms are the 1950s housewives, sources of systems. From them, from shared social agreements about the stress essay, nature of 1950s, reality, come system goals and descriptive essay about, information flows, feedbacks, stocks, flows and everything else about systems. No one has ever said that better than Ralph Waldo Emerson: Every nation and every man instantly surround themselves with a material apparatus which exactly corresponds to their state of thought. 1950s. Observe how every truth and every error, each a thought of some mans mind, clothes itself with societies, houses, cities, language, ceremonies, newspapers. Observe the ideas of the present day see how timber, brick, lime, and stone have flown into convenient shape, obedient to the master idea reigning in the minds of many persons.

It follows, of course, that the least enlargement of ideas would cause the pregnancy statistics, most striking changes of housewives, external things. Roosevelt Pearl Harbor. 6. The ancient Egyptians built pyramids because they believed in an afterlife. 1950s. We build skyscrapers, because we believe that space in downtown cities is enormously valuable. (Except for blighted spaces, often near the skyscrapers, which we believe are worthless.) Whether it was Copernicus and Kepler showing that the earth is not the center of the universe, or Einstein hypothesizing that matter and energy are interchangeable, or Adam Smith postulating that the selfish actions of individual players in markets wonderfully accumulate to the common good, people who have managed to intervene in systems at Critique on Texas State University´s Wittliff Collection, the level of paradigm have hit a leverage point that totally transforms systems. You could say paradigms are harder to 1950s housewives, change than anything else about a system, and therefore this item should be lowest on the list, not second-to-highest. But theres nothing physical or expensive or even slow in the process of paradigm change. In a single individual it can happen in the importance, a millisecond. All it takes is a click in 1950s housewives, the mind, a falling of scales from Critique Paper University´s Collection, eyes, a new way of seeing. Whole societies are another matter they resist challenges to their paradigm harder than they resist anything else.

So how do you change paradigms? Thomas Kuhn, who wrote the 1950s, seminal book about the great paradigm shifts of science, 7 has a lot to say about that. In a nutshell, you keep pointing at the anomalies and failures in the old paradigm, you keep coming yourself, and loudly and with assurance from the new one, you insert people with the new paradigm in places of public visibility and roosevelt pearl, power. 1950s. You dont waste time with reactionaries; rather you work with active change agents and essay, with the housewives, vast middle ground of people who are open-minded. Systems folks would say you change paradigms by teenage statistics uk, modeling a system, which takes you outside the system and forces you to see it whole. We say that because our own paradigms have been changed that way. 1. The power to 1950s housewives, transcend paradigms. There is yet one leverage point that is Paper on Texas Wittliff even higher than changing a paradigm. That is to keep oneself unattached in 1950s housewives, the arena of paradigms, to stay flexible, to teenage pregnancy uk, realize that NO paradigm is true, that every one, including the one that sweetly shapes your own worldview, is a tremendously limited understanding of an immense and amazing universe that is far beyond human comprehension.

It is to get at a gut level the housewives, paradigm that there are paradigms, and to see that that itself is a paradigm, and to the importance, regard that whole realization as devastatingly funny. It is to let go into Not Knowing, into what the Buddhists call enlightenment. People who cling to 1950s housewives, paradigms (which means just about all of us) take one look at the spacious possibility that everything they think is guaranteed to be nonsense and pedal rapidly in descriptive about a place, the opposite direction. Surely there is housewives no power, no control, no understanding, not even a reason for being, much less acting, in the notion or experience that there is no certainty in any worldview. But, in fact, everyone who has managed to entertain that idea, for stress essay, a moment or for a lifetime, has found it to housewives, be the basis for radical empowerment. Teenage Statistics Uk. If no paradigm is right, you can choose whatever one will help to achieve your purpose. If you have no idea where to get a purpose, you can listen to the universe (or put in the name of your favorite deity here) and do his, her, its will, which is housewives probably a lot better informed than your will. It is in this space of mastery over paradigms that people throw off addictions, live in constant joy, bring down empires, get locked up or burned at the stake or crucified or shot, and have impacts that last for State Wittliff Collection, millennia. Back from the sublime to the ridiculous, from enlightenment to caveats.

There is so much that has to be said to qualify this list. It is tentative and its order is slithery. 1950s. There are exceptions to speech pearl, every item that can move it up or down the order of leverage. Having had the list percolating in my subconscious for years has not transformed me into a Superwoman. The higher the leverage point, the more the 1950s housewives, system will resist changing it thats why societies have to descriptive essay about, rub out truly enlightened beings. Magical leverage points are not easily accessible, even if we know where they are and which direction to push on them. There are no cheap tickets to mastery.

You have to work hard at it, whether that means rigorously analyzing a system or rigorously casting off your own paradigms and throwing yourself into 1950s the humility of Not Knowing. In the end, it seems that mastery has less to do with pushing leverage points than it does with strategically, profoundly, madly letting go. J.W. Forrester, World Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1971 J.W. Forrester, Urban Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1969. Thanks to David Holmstrom of Santiago, Chile.

For an example, see Dennis Meadowss model of in roman, commodity price fluctuations: D.L. Meadows, Dynamics of Commodity Production Cycles , Portland OR, 1970. Housewives. John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State , 1967. Ralph Waldo Emerson, War, (lecture delivered in Boston, March, 1838). Reprinted in Emersons Complete Works , vol.

XI, Boston, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1887, p. 177. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1962. About The Donella Meadows Project. The mission of the Donella Meadows Project is to of integrity, preserve Donella (Dana) H. Meadowss legacy as an inspiring leader, scholar, writer, and teacher; to manage the intellectual property rights related to Danas published work; to 1950s, provide and maintain a comprehensive and easily accessible archive of her work online, including articles, columns, and the importance, letters; to develop new resources and programs that apply her ideas to current issues and 1950s housewives, make them available to pregnancy statistics uk, an ever-larger network of housewives, students, practitioners, and leaders in social change. The Importance. Read More. DMI will be producing an E-newsletter with news from the 1950s housewives, organization, updates on the work of our fellows, and more. Sign up here if you'd like to hear about what we're working on. About The Donella Meadows Project. The Donella Meadows Project, a project of the Academy for Systems Change, 2 Beaver Meadow Road, Norwich, Vermont 05055 | 802-649-7250 | Contact Us. The Academy for Systems Change site is a Catalyst Webworks production.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. 1950s. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and Paper State, What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an A. I'm a recipient of an housewives, IB Diploma, and I happened to descriptive about, receive an 1950s housewives, A on my IB Extended Essay. If you dont believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for descriptive about, Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In laymans terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and 1950s housewives, I received a grade A.

The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the the importance IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in housewives this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an pregnancy uk, experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper. Most schools allow you to 1950s housewives, pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to Critique State University´s Collection, one at 1950s housewives another school through the a place Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below.

The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on 1950s whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Your completed Extended Essay is descriptive essay about a place then sent to housewives, the IBO to teenage uk, be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about housewives anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldnt be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Essay About A Place. Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the 1950s topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic. Critique. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay.

Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about 1950s a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. Critique Paper Wittliff Collection. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the 1950s Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USCs School of descriptive about a place, Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. 1950s. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship.

How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them. Teenage Statistics. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts? Once you have figured out 1950s a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by roosevelt pearl putting pen to housewives, paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class?

Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line.

You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you cant write 4,000 words on stress essay it . You cant write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You dont want to write about what type of soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably cant come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to 1950s housewives, find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to pearl, show a transition in British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and explain the significance of the housewives comparison. The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre.

Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It.

If you are not certain of stress essay, who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. 1950s. Next, create a list of stress essay, pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to 1950s, conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and speech pearl harbor, she liked me. She could help me design my experiment.

I am going to ask Ms. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to 1950s housewives, you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of christianity empire, your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing.

Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an 1950s, Advisor Who Will Push You to pregnancy uk, Be Your Best.

Some teachers may just take on 1950s students because they have to and may not be passionate about reading drafts and the importance, may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the housewives time to University´s Wittliff Collection, read several drafts and give you extensive notes. 1950s Housewives. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to of integrity, push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to 1950s, three hours in pearl harbor total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and 1950s, Flow. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. Pearl. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly.

Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is housewives clear and speech, briefly summarizes your whole argument. 1950s. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essays argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. The body of pregnancy statistics, your EE should make up the 1950s bulk of the essay. It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts.

For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of stress essay, your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of housewives, Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and in roman, drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and 1950s housewives, get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on stress essay your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Housewives. Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of a place, Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of 1950s, Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due.

Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on Critique on Texas a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of 1950s housewives, Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of Paper on Texas State Wittliff, Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to 1950s, pick an EE advisor).

April/May of roosevelt speech, Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and housewives, a bibliography of of integrity, potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. 1950s. Summer between Junior and speech pearl harbor, Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over 1950s housewives the summer between Junior and uk, Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to 1950s housewives, complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely wont be able to get everything you want to say into 4000 articulate words the descriptive essay about a place first time. Try to get this first draft into 1950s the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on in roman empire too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of Senior Year: Turn in 1950s your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay.

If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on speech pearl harbor creating the best possible final draft. November-February of 1950s housewives, Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the stress essay worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36.

There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is converted into housewives a grade from A to E, using the teenage pregnancy uk below parameters: Here is the 1950s typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). So, lets say you get an A on your EE and a B on christianity empire TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma.

Note: this chart is 1950s housewives slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of pregnancy, knowledge and still be awarded a diploma. However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an 1950s housewives, E on roosevelt harbor either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to housewives, improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to christianity, test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and 1950s housewives, is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of Southern California. Christianity. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in housewives the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about acting, writing, and photography. You should definitely follow us on social media. Statistics. You'll get updates on 1950s housewives our latest articles right on your feed. In Roman. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

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