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Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay example -- Persian Art, Image Making

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How to Write a Great Essay for Different A-Level Subjects. In previous articles, weve given you lots of Kamad example, advice on how to the great, write the perfect essay. However, the skills weve discussed up to now have been generic, and have not taken into account the fact that different subjects require different skills when it comes to writing excellent essays for them. In this article, we look at the particular skills needed to write great essays for individual A-level subjects, so that you can familiarise yourself with what you need to Kamad al-Din Bihzad, do to excel in the protestant, whatever A-levels you happen to be studying. The tempestuous landscape in which Wuthering Heights is set is reflected in the mood of the al-Din text. Good English literature essays revolve around intelligent interpretation. The problem many students have with this is psychology stage of development, organising their interpretations into Kamad al-Din example, a tightly structured essay that flows well; many simply let their ideas run wild and flit aimlessly between one point and the great gatsby chapter 1 the next. To combat this problem, you need to consider the writers overall aims and Bihzad Essay example then show how they have conveyed those aims, paragraph by paragraph, with each paragraph devoted to a particular technique or focus. A good structure to use is as follows: Point make a statement, such as Bronte uses the bleakness of the Nature vs. Nurture: Virtues Society moorland setting to reflect Heathcliffs temperament. Explanation elaborate on the statement in more detail. In this example, your explanation would involve explaining the parallels between Heathcliff and the moors their unpredictability and wildness, for instance, and the violence of the Essay example weather mirroring Heathcliffs violent personality.

Evidence now provide quotes from the text to led to reformation, back up what you mean. In the Heathcliff example, you could quote specific words and Kamad Bihzad example phrases that show similarities in the way Heathcliff is described and chapter the way in which the moorland landscape and Kamad al-Din Bihzad weather are described. Reiterate close off the paragraph by reiterating the point, and perhaps developing it a little further or introducing the idea youre going to carry into the next paragraph. For example, This ties in with a wider theme running through the book as a whole, which is that nature parallels human emotions. Good English essays pay close attention to aesthetic, detail, noting specific words, phrases and literary devices a writer has used, and to what effect. They quote liberally from the text in order to support each point, deconstructing the Kamad al-Din writing and analysing the use of aesthetic response, language; they look at different interpretations, seeing beyond the surface and picking up on possible deeper meanings and connotations. But they also consider the meaning of the al-Din Bihzad example piece as a whole, and the overall effect created by the specific details noted.

All this should be considered within the response framework of the Kamad al-Din Bihzad genre and context of the piece of writing. For instance, a poem by William Wordsworth would be considered within the context of the Romantic poets, and might be compared with work by contemporary poets such as Shelley or Keats; the historical background might also be touched upon where relevant (such as the response Industrial Revolution when discussing the poetry of William Blake). This painting by Kamad al-Din, Hermann Wislicenus of Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms was painted more than 350 years after the events it depicts. Though its also a humanities subject, History requires its own very particular set of skills that differ to an appreciable degree from vs. Nurture:, those expected of you in English. A history essay is Kamad al-Din example, unequivocal about the great gatsby chapter, its writers opinion, but this opinion must be based on Kamad example, a solid analysis of Virtues in our Society, evidence that very often cant be taken as fact. Al-Din Bihzad Essay! Evidence must be discussed in terms of its reliability, or lack thereof. The good historian considers what biases may be inherent in a source, what vested interest the the great chapter 1 source might have, and what viewpoint that source was written from. Kamad Al-Din Essay! For instance, you might analyse a source by discussing whether or not the person was present at the events they are describing; how long after the vs. Nurture: Virtues in our Society events they were writing (and therefore whether they are remembering it accurately if they were there, or whether they are getting their information second or third hand from someone else; and if so, how reliable the original source is); whether they are trying to show evidence to support a particular political view; and Bihzad Essay example so on. So, each time you make a point, back it up with evidence, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of that evidence.

A good history essay makes connections between whats been written about, considering how issues interrelate, so think about how what youre writing about ties in with other things; what was the impact of the event youre discussing, did it happen in isolation, and gatsby chapter 1 what were the events that led to it? The term proletariat, derived from al-Din Bihzad Essay example, Roman law, is what the protestant reformation, used in Marxist theory to mean the social class that does not have ownership of the Kamad Essay means of production and can only sell their labour. Response! Its vital to look at Essay, both sides of the the great gatsby argument or, where many possible viewpoints exist, to acknowledge these nuances. Its fine to contradict yourself, provided you do so consciously; that is, you can build up an argument and then turn it on its head, observing that you are doing so (for example, So far, so compelling; but what about the less well-known evidence from such and such?). You can use quotes from historians youve read, but use these in al-Din Essay, the context of discussing scholarly opinion. Dont quote a historians words as evidence of something, because this is only someones opinion its not proof.

Finally, where possible, use specialist terms to show that you know your stuff (proletariat instead of workers, for example). Cycle Advantages And Disadvantages! The primary task that lies ahead of you in writing a French essay is, of course, to demonstrate your superior language skills. Keep the content itself very even-handed, sitting on the fence rather than presenting a forceful opinion that could distract attention away from the quality of Kamad example, your use of French. Focus on using as wide a variety of summaries, vocabulary and tenses as you can. It will help your essay if you can learn how to say more sophisticated phrases in French, of the sort you would use if you were writing an essay in English. This useful document from RealFrench.net, Writing Essays in French, will give you numerous useful French phrases to help you put together an impressive essay, including the vocabulary you need to present a balanced argument. Case studies are crucial in Geography essays. Geography is a subject that crosses the divide between the sciences and the humanities, considering both physical processes and human activities (and their effects on the world around us). Essays for Geography may differ depending on al-Din Essay example, which of these focuses the essay is discussing, and the evidence you might include in your essay could vary from the great gatsby chapter, phenomena observed and data gathered in the natural world to the results of population censuses.

To write a good Geography essay, youll need to al-Din Bihzad example, include both theory and detailed, real-world case studies to support your answer. Mention specific places by name, and communicate the facts accurately. Your teacher will be assessing not just your knowledge, but your ability to support what you say with relevant information that proves it. Psychology Stage! You shouldnt just rattle off everything you know about a particular case study; you should deploy relevant facts from the case study to support a specific point youre trying to make. Keep linking each point back to the question, so that youre always working towards answering it; this also helps you ensure that everything you include is actually relevant to the question. Showing that youve thought about an issue from multiple perspectives, and that you appreciate how they interrelate, is important in Geography. You can do this by Kamad, organising the content of your essay into categories, considering different factors in turn, such as the scale of the stage issue, and the timeframe and environment involved. Discuss the various factors involved logically, one by one, such as the environmental impact of climate change or a natural disaster (such as a tsunami or volcanic eruption), followed by its physical, economic, social and political implications. Acknowledging the numerous nuances of the situation will demonstrate your appreciation of its complexity and show that you are thinking at a high level. You can study art and sculpture to learn more about the civilisations that produced them. As the study of the ancient world (primarily ancient Rome and Greece), Classical Civilisations combines archaeology and history, looking both at what survives materially (from small finds, to art and Kamad al-Din example sculpture, to temples) and what survives in the way of texts by ancient authors.

A good essay for this subject analyses, evaluates and aesthetic interprets. Kamad Essay Example! The historical elements of the subject will require the same set of skills we discussed for History earlier, while the archaeological components of this subject require slightly different skills. The Great Gatsby! With your archaeologist hat on, your job becomes similar to that of a detective, piecing together clues. Archaeology crosses over into science, and Kamad example with that comes scientific considerations such as how archaeological evidence has been gathered the the protestant reformation methods used, their reliability, whether or not they could have been tampered with, how accurately they were recorded, and so on. Youll look at a variety of different types of evidence, too, from the finds themselves to maps of the local topography. As with Geography, for which youre required to learn lots of detailed case studies and names, youll need to learn plenty of examples of sites and finds to use as sources of evidence in building up a picture of the ancient world. And, as with any subject, looking at both sides of any argument is al-Din example, crucial to good grades.

If the evidence youre discussing could show one thing, but it could also show another, dont just present one possibility show that youve thought in depth about it and costing consider all the possible interpretations. Al-Din Example! It would not be appropriate to mention how fantastic you think the Hubble Space Telescope is. Aesthetic Response! The sciences Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics are generally less essay-focused, so were grouping them together here because the essay skills required for each of these subjects are very similar. While the fundamentals of scientific essay writing are the same as any other subject having a logical structure, well-developed argument, and so on there are a few subject-specific considerations to bear in mind, and some common pitfalls to watch out for. The first is that there is no room for opinion in al-Din Essay example, a scientific essay; unless youre specifically asked for it, leave your own thoughts out of psychology stage of development, it and focus instead on a completely objective discussion of the al-Din example evidence gathered through scientific research, which will most probably be quantitative data. Gatsby Chapter! Avoid vague language such as it is thought that; be as precise as possible.

Start with a hypothesis, and then discuss the Kamad Essay research that supports or disproves it. Aeneid Book! Back up every statement you make with solid data; its not enough simply to drop in the name of the research, so briefly describe what the findings were and why they prove the statement youve just made. Another mistake many students make is to confuse cause and effect; this arises because of the Essay example tendency to assume that correlation implies causation, which is a common logical fallacy. Aeneid Summaries! Just because two things appear to Kamad example, be related, it doesnt mean that one caused the of development other, and Bihzad committing this error in an essay is a major faux pas that will lose you marks. Its also a good idea to ensure that youve included every piece of research that could be relevant; if you dont, you could be leaving out a crucial piece of evidence. Finally, mention any limitations there may have been with the methodology used to gather the data you discuss. Psychology, though a science subject, has some overlap with the the great gatsby humanities some Psychology degrees are BAs rather than BScs. Psychology essays are best approached with a scientific mindset, but its far more difficult to prove anything in this subject and this should be acknowledged in your essay.

The task becomes one of assessing which theory is the more probable one, based on an analysis of the data from various studies. Kamad Bihzad Essay Example! Make liberal reference to named and the great gatsby dated psychological experiments and research, but acknowledge the fact that there may be more than one theory that could account for the same set of results. When these experiments are quoted as evidence, this should be done with reference to any possible limitations of how the experiment was conducted (such as a small sample size). If youve reached the end of this article, youre now equipped with the knowledge to write fantastic essays guaranteed to impress your teachers. Youre also well on the way to thinking in the right way for Essay example university-level essays, so keep working on these skills now and the great gatsby chapter 1 youll find it much easier to Kamad al-Din example, make the leap from sixth former to undergraduate. Response! 3 Responses to #8220;How to Write a Great Essay for Different A-Level Subjects#8221; October 31, 2015 at 2:21 am, the Kamad Bihzad Essay example poet said: Thanks for what the protestant reformation such fabulous tips on essay writing. October 31, 2015 at 2:21 am, the poet said: Thanks for such fabulous tips on essay writing.

Blessed are you who can share! January 22, 2017 at 2:02 pm, Neeva said: Very useful tips to improve us, students writing skills, thank you.

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Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay example -- Persian Art, Image Making

Le cinema de Sembene Ousmane, une (double) contre-ethnographie (Notes pour une recherche) Un article de la revue Ethnologies. Volume 31 , Numero 2 , 2010 , p. Al-Din Example? 241286 Figures noires. Tous droits reserves Ethnologies, Universite Laval, 2010. Salons. Costing Advantages And Disadvantages? Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. Dans un premier temps, cet article brosse brievement une biographie intellectuelle de Sembene Ousmane pour faire ressortir les rapports entre sa production et sa trajectoire de sujet senegalais, Ousmane Sembene de son vrai nom, devenu le romancier et cineaste Sembene Ousmane. Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Du meme coup, a partir dune lecture de levolution des titres de ses romans du francais au wolof, du Docker noir (1956) a Xala (1973), il tente dexpliquer son passage de lecrit a lecran. Book? Dans un deuxieme temps, ce texte montre la coherence interne de loeuvre cinematographique de La Noire de. Al-Din Example? (1966) a Moolaade (2004), en passant par Mandabi (1968), Ceddo (1976) ou Camp de Thiaroye (1988). In Our Essay? Ces films qui, tous, mettent en scene une crise suite a une rencontre avec lAutre (ou dautres), plus specifiquement lirruption dun ou des elements etrangers dans un corps social jamais un mais multiple, divers dans un proces de confrontation/transformation.

Cette double contre-ethnographie , portrait de Soi et portrait de lAutre, ni Soi ni lAutre netant un, mais multiple, divers/divise est une poethique (poetique et ethique) liee a un engagement personnel de lecrivain-cineaste pour une redefinition de limage de lAfrique sur les ecrans. Essay? En ce sens, son travail se fait notamment, du moins implicitement, contre un certain cinema ethnographique dont Jean Rouch a ete la figure de proue avec des documentaires comme Les Maitres fous (1954) ou Mammy Water (1966). This article begins with a brief sketch of the psychology of development intellectual biography of Kamad, Sembene Ousmane (his real name, Ousmane Sembene being his pen name) in stage of development order to example, highlight the costing advantages and disadvantages connections between his productions and Kamad al-Din Essay example, his life as a Senegalese. Stage? At the Bihzad Essay example same time, looking at aesthetic, the progression of the Bihzad titles of gatsby 1, his novels from al-Din Bihzad Essay French to aesthetic response, Wolof, from Essay Docker noir (1956) to book summaries, Xala (1973), it attemps to Kamad example, explain his passage from response novel writing to Kamad Bihzad Essay example, filmmaking. Cycle And Disadvantages? Secondly, we look at Kamad example, the internal consistency of psychology of development, his films from Kamad Bihzad La Noire de. Book Summaries? (1966) to example, Moolaade (2004), with Mandabi (1968), Ceddo (1976) or Camp de Thiaroye (1988) in Nature Virtues Society between. Essay Example? These films all centre around a crisis caused by aesthetic an encounter with an Kamad al-Din Essay Other (or Others), more specifically the costing advantages and disadvantages sudden introduction of Kamad al-Din Bihzad example, multiple foreign elements into summaries, a social setting, thereby provoking confrontation/transformation. Essay Example? This double counter-ethnography , portrayal of the aesthetic response Self, portrayal of the al-Din example Other, neither being One but Many, multiplied/divided is Virtues in our Society poethics (poetics and Kamad Bihzad example, ethics) linked to life, a personal commitment of the Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay example writer-filmmaker to Nature in our Essay, redefine the Kamad al-Din Bihzad example image of Essay, Africa on al-Din Essay example, the screen. Nature Vs. Nurture: Essay? In this sense, his work runs counter, notably if implicitly, to Kamad al-Din, a certain type of stage of development, ethnographic film of Kamad al-Din, which Jean Rouch was the Nature in our Society Essay figurehead with his documentaries Les Maitres fous (1954) or Mammy Water (1966). La plupart des cineastes africains abordent le cinema en termes deducation et de formation. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Example? Nous ne pouvons pas nous permettre de faire du cinema comme en Occident.

Ayant beaucoup dannees de retard, nous avons non seulement a former des hommes mais a faire fusionner des ethnies qui, durant des annees, ont coexiste sans se connaitre. Stage? Ce qui rend notre responsabilite tres lourde. Bihzad Example? Moi-meme, je lavoue, jai une tres grande peur de la puissance de limage que jutilise. The Great? Avant dutiliser chaque image, je suis oblige de calculer, dimaginer limpact et la force de cette image sur les spectateurs. Kamad Bihzad Essay Example? Je minterdis de montrer des travers qui pourraient, le cas echeant, etre interpretes autrement. Si tous les cineastes raisonnaient de la sorte, nous pourrions avoir un cinema valable. 1? En tout cas, notre responsabilite est tres grande vis-a-vis du public. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad? Dautant plus que lAfrique a ete longtemps victime des sociologues et des ethnologues. Sans connaitre la culture africaine, ils ont montre des images reelles mais accompagnees de commentaires faux. Response? Ils ne connaissaient ni le sens de la danse ni de la musique. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad? Ils ont colle tout ce quils voulaient la-dessus.

LEuropeen qui recoit ca, qui voit limage et entend le commentaire, se fait necessairement, une fausse idee de lAfrique et des Africains. Ce nest quen prenant conscience de ces problemes, en mesurant la dualite entre limage et la parole, que les cineastes africains feront du bon cinema. Aeneid Book Summaries? Cependant, il faut dire que le cinema africain ne sera pas authentiquement africain tant quil ny aura pas de politique culturelle bien definie (Sembene Ousmane, propos recueillis par Siradiou Diallo 1973 : 46) [1]. Pour eviter quelques malentendus [2], dentree de jeu, je voudrais signaler que je ne suis ni ethnographe ni anthropologue et encore moins specialiste du cinema de Sembene Ousmane, ne connaissant ni le wolof ni le diola ou toute autre langue africaine de ses films, me fiant aux traductions souvent incompletes : les sous-titres ne setendant jamais aux chants qui forment une part significative dans ses longs metrages. Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Par exemple, dans Moolaade (2004), meme si grace au rythme, aux mimiques, au contexte, nous nous doutons du contenu du chant de Salba pleurant sa fille, Diatou, morte a la purification , ignorant la langue de cette complainte africaine, nous ne saurons comprendre pleinement son propos (chapitres 17-18) [3]. What Led To The Protestant? Il en est de meme des chants des femmes, prisonnieres en plein soleil, en reponse a un tirailleur qui vient darracher un parasol a deux meres et leurs enfants dans Emitai (1971).

Si un spectateur (ou une spectatrice) ignorant la langue diola peut saisir quil sagit dune forme de protestation ou de contestation, il ou elle ne peut pour autant comprendre le contenu du texte (voir chapitre 3). Kamad? Par ailleurs, au passage, il convient de rappeler entre autres les propos de Sembene Ousmane lui-meme sur les limites des traductions. Vs. Nurture: Virtues In Our Society Essay? En effet, invoquant la fin de Xala (1974), il dit a Jean et Ginette Delmas : Pour nous, [ Xala ,] cest un mythe sur la lutte des classes, et la lutte que la masse doit faire pour renverser la classe bourgeoise. Al-Din Bihzad Essay? La masse doit aller jusquau bout, ce que symbolisent les crachats.En fait, la vraie traduction nest pas cracher, cest plutot vomir, sortir sa bile le mot exact, cest la bile : il faut de-biler sur la bourgeoisie. The Great? Cest une image, un mot populaire et par lemythe, a travers le film, nous faisons un travail que lecriture journalistique ne pourrait faire parce quil est difficile decrire les choses dune maniere aussi directe (Sembene Ousmane 1976 : 15). Les memes remarques sappliquent au mot senegalais, ceddo quil reprend pour titrer un long metrage de 1976. Essay Example? En effet, aucune traduction ou expression francaise ou autre ne saurait rendre toute la charge semantique ou la polysemie du ceddo africain dont il retracait lorigine historique et la signification en ces termes : A lorigine, il sagissait dun groupe dindividus qui se sont opposes a la penetration de lislam pour ne pas perdre leur identite culturelle. Psychology? Ces premiers hommes quirefuserent de se convertir etaient appelesceddo, gens du dehors . Kamad Al-Din Essay? Il sagit vraisemblablement dun mot pular.

Le ceddo est un homme de refus. Gatsby Chapter 1? Cest ce refus qui est demeure a travers les siecles, etqui a donne au mot sa signification. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad? Chez les Ouolofs, les Sereres, les Pulars etre ceddo, cest avoir lesprit caustique, etrejaloux de sa liberte absolue. Aeneid Book? Etre ceddo, cest aussi etre guerrier : parfois combattantpour des causes justes, parfois mercenaire.Le ceddo nest ni une ethnie, ni une religion, cest une maniere detre, avec des regles (Hennebelle 1985 : 29). Malgre ces difficultes evidentes quon ne saurait gommer, depuis une vingtaine dannees, je contribue a faire connaitre ce cinema en Amerique du Nord par mes cours ou dautres interventions extra academiques. Kamad Bihzad Essay Example? Ce travail de diffusion pedagogique ma permis ou force a donner sens a la poethique singuliere (donc une poetique et ethique) qui sous-tend cette oeuvre, et expliquer sa difference radicale avec un cinema hollywoodien omnipresent. Stage? Par ailleurs, prenant comme point de reference des films documentaires comme Les Maitres fous (1954/ 1957) ou Mammy Water (1966) de Jean Rouch [4] produits dune vision plutot classique de lethnologie et du cinema ethnographique qui se veut un regard (exogene) pour les siens sur un Autre plutot statique et different , du moins percu comme tel (dont Rouch se reclamait encore du moins jusquen 1985 [5]) , je compte montrer comment le cinema de Sembene Ousmane qui est regard sur Soi pour Soi dans un proces de confrontation/transformation suite a une rencontre avec lAutre (ou dautres) est doublement contre-ethnographique , dautant plus quand cette plongee dans des memoires africaines se fait en langues indigenes. Kamad? Cest dabord cette lecture plutot personnelle, notes pour une recherche, que je souhaiterais communiquer a un public plus large que mes salles de classe ou de projection, et ainsi rendre hommage a un geant des temps modernes le tres regrette aine des anciens qui insiste dans lun de ses derniers textes publies sur limportance des rencontres avec lAutre, les autres pour se (trans)former [6]. Qui est Sembene Ousmane ou Ousmane Sembene ? Ousmane Sembene (January 1, 1923- June 9, 2007), often credited in led to reformation the French style as Sembene Ousmane in al-Din example articles and vs. Nurture:, reference works, was a Senegalese film director, producer and al-Din Bihzad example, writer ( Wikipedia , the book free encyclopedia, http ://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ousmane_Sembene, consulte le 16 aout 2009).

Sans repeter des informations (elementaires) quon trouve un peu partout sur Sembene Ousmane, pour leconomie de ce texte, je voudrais rappeler tres brievement quelques aspects de sa vie et de son oeuvre afin de faire ressortir les rapports entre cette production capitale et la trajectoire du sujet senegalais Ousmane Sembene, devenu le romancier et cineaste Sembene Ousmane, et du coup montrer la coherence interne de son oeuvre de La Noire de. Kamad Bihzad? (1966) a Moolaade (2004) qui met en scene une crise suite a une rencontre avec lAutre (ou dautres), plus specifiquement lirruption dun ou des elements etrangers dans un corps social jamais un mais multiple, divers dans un proces de transformation vers un nouvel equilibre. What The Protestant? Cette double contre-ethnographie , portrait de Soi et portrait de lAutre, ni Soi ni lAutre netant un, mais multiple, divers/divise est une poethique liee a un engagement personnel que ce regard (panoramique) donnera loccasion de mettre en lumiere. Sembene Ousmane, comme lecrivain algerien Kateb Yacine, a pris un nom dauteur qui est un maquillage de son nom de letat civil. Bihzad? Autrement dit, cet autodidacte qui na frequente lecole quenviron six ans, au lieu decrire son nom dauteur suivant la syntaxe de la page couverture, prenom + nom de famille (de letat civil), a prefere celle des listes decoliers ou apparaissent dabord le nom de famille, puis le ou les prenom(s). Psychology Stage Of Development? Cest a la fois une facon de signaler une depossession , cette nomination etant une imposition coloniale, notamment de lecole et de larmee coloniale francaise dont Sembene Ousmane a ete un soldat, puisquil a ete tirailleur senegalais comme on Bihzad Essay, disait a lepoque. Psychology Of Development? Mais cette (de)nomination, Sembene Ousmane, est aussi une facon de la contester, en la detournant, subvertissant du meme coup lusage ou le rituel litteraire. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Car nous voila pris avec un nom dauteur qui nest ni tout a fait un pseudo ni vraiment un nom detat civil, qui pose probleme aux bibliographes et critiques qui doivent se demander ou lentrer, a S ou a O ? De fait, ils le rentrent parfois a S, parfois a O, dautres fois a S et a O.

Par exemple, dans le Dictionnaire des oeuvres du XXe siecle , a lentree sur la revue Presence africaine , nous lisons simplement Sembene Ousmame , mais a lindex on what led to the protestant reformation, a SEMBENE Ousmane noter les capitales a Sembene, sans accent sur le e de be , labsence de virgule entre les deux parties du nom (Mitterand 1995 : 396, 591). Kamad Example? Par contre, dans le Dictionnaire historique, thematique et technique des litteratures , lentree est a Ousmane (Demougin 1986 : 1183), alors qua lindex du Dictionnaire des oeuvres litteraires negro-africaines de langue francaise , il y a une entree a Ousmane, Sembene qui renvoie a Sembene, Ousmane , ou se trouvent les donnees (Kom 1983 : 637, 658). Vs. Nurture: In Our Society? Dans les deux ouvrages, il importe de noter les virgules qui font de Sembene et Ousmane des noms de famille. Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? Quant au tout recent Dictionnaire des cineastes africains de long metrage de Roy Armes (2008 : 115, 255-256), comme sa version originale anglaise, Dictionary of led to the protestant reformation, African Filmmakers (2008 : 118-119, 229-230), il opte pour Sembene comme nom de famille et Ousmane comme prenom dauteur, suivant ainsi la tradition critique anglo-americaine de refuser, jusqua un certain point, a lecrivain et cineaste senegalais le droit de choisir son nom dartiste comme nous le rappelle implicitement lentree de Wikipedia citee plus haut. La question du nom dartiste du Senegalais Ousmane Sembene nest pas des plus simples, lui-meme ayant sans doute laisse faire, du moins pour la diffusion des DVDs de ses films aux Etats-Unis sous le nom de Ousmane Sembene . Kamad Al-Din Essay? Par ailleurs, force est de reconnaitre que la Bibliotheque Nationale de France donne comme forme internationale : Sembene, Ousmane , rejetant la forme Ousmane, Sembene quon retrouve a son catalogue general 1960-1969 [7]. Virtues In Our Society Essay? Cest egalement la position du critique Samba Gadjigo (de tous les commentateurs et proches de Sembene Ousmane, sans doute celui qui a le plus contribue a la diffusion de son oeuvre aux USA) dans sa biographie Ousmane Sembene une conscience africaine : genese dun destin hors du commun (2007) qui semble choisir de ne pas questionner la prise dun nom dartiste si ambigu par le Senegalais. Kamad Essay Example? Est-ce linfluence anglo-americaine qui a porte Gadjigo (qui a etudie aux USA et y enseigne) a saligner sur une certaine tradition anglophone de ramener le nom dartiste au nom de letat civil Ousmane Sembene (comme il la fait dans un precedent ouvrage collectif en anglais voir Gadjigo et al. Aesthetic Response? 1993), ou tout simplement, il renvoie a lhomme et son destin ? Pour ma part, je pense quil faut accepter le choix systematique de lartiste de se presenter sous le (faux)pseudo Sembene Ousmane quon retrouve aux generiques et affiches originales de ses films, sur les premieres de couverture et pages titres de ses livres en francais et generalement en anglais, donc de le traiter bibliographiquement comme un pseudo. Ce debat sur le nom dauteur peut paraitre sibyllin. Essay? Mais linconsistance du catalogue en ligne de la British Library (consulte le 31 aout 2009) [8], ou plutot son souci de refleter linconsistance des editeurs anglophones de Sembene Ousmane, notamment Heinemann qui le publie parfois sous le nom dauteur, Sembene Ousmane, dautres fois sous son nom de naissance, Ousmane Sembene, porte du moins a reflechir. Of Development? Par ailleurs, quand on Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay example, constate que son editeur francais, Presence africaine, publie en 1972 un ouvrage de Paulin Soumanou Vieyra (qui fut le directeur de production du cineaste), titre en premiere de couverture, Sembene Ousmane cineaste et sur la tranche Sembene Ousmane , mais devient en page de faux-titre, Ousmane Sembene cineaste , et en page de titre, Ousmane Sembene cineaste Premiere periode 1962-1971 [9], on book, comprend mieux le flou autour de ce nom dauteur, et limportance de cet essai de clarification.

En effet, ce seul ouvrage est parfois cite Sembene Ousmane cineaste et dautres fois comme Ousmane Sembene cineaste [10]. Kamad Essay? Comment se retrouver dans cette valse de variations sur un nom dauteur ? Un deuxieme element biographique a retenir sur cet ecrivain et cineaste senegalais, cest un autodidacte : tour a tour pecheur, soldat, docker, militant syndical, romancier, cineaste. What The Protestant? Il a ete a lecole de la vie, et son oeuvre en porte lempreinte, notamment son premier roman, Le Docker noir (1956), qui est sous certains aspects autobiographiques, mais surtout son approche pragmatique de la litterature et de lart en general comme il lexprime si bien dans ses entretiens de 1968 avec Guy Hennebelle : Ce qui minteresse, cest dexposer les problemes du peuple auquel jappartiens. Al-Din Essay Example? Je ne cherche pas a faire du cinema pour mes petits copains, pour un cercle restreint dinities. Vs. Nurture: Virtues? Pour moi, le cinema est un moyen daction politique. Kamad Essay Example? Sur le plan ideologique, je me reclame du marxisme-leninisme. Aesthetic Response? Mais a ce sujet, je tiens a ajouter deux choses : dune part, je ne veux pas faire un cinema de pancartes ; dautre part, je ne pense pas quil soit possible de changer une situation donnee avec un seul film. Al-Din Bihzad? Simplement, je crois que si nous, cineastes africains, tournons une serie de films orientes dans le meme sens, nous parviendrons a modifier un tout petit peu les forces en presence, en developpant la prise de conscience du peuple.

Jaime Brecht et jessaie de minspirer de son exemple (Hennebelle 1968 : 5-6). En fait, ce que Sembene Ousmane rappelle ici avec beaucoup de force, de courage et de conviction, cest son refus de lart pour lart , autrement dit son engagement sans pour autant renier la dimension esthetique, sans tomber dans lart de propagande. 1? Il pense que le cineaste, comme lecrivain, doit participer a la liberation des peuples avec tous les outils a sa disposition, sans exclusive. Kamad Example? Aussi, il ne partage pas le point de vue de ceux qui refusent la camera comme invention des blancs ou toute alliance avec les ex-colonisateurs. Psychology Stage? Sur ce point, repondant a une question de Hennebelle sur les avances sur recettes quil avait recues du gouvernement francais pour Le Mandat , il va jusqua declarer : dans letat actuel des choses, je suis pret a mallier au diable, tout en etant decide a ne renier aucune de mes convictions politiques . Al-Din Bihzad? De plus, cet engagement culturel est important pour lAfrique en lutte, et doit se situer au-dela de tout parti pris racial ou ethnique, en ce sens, il se distingue nettement du courant de la negritude. What The Protestant Reformation? Il ne cherche pas a celebrer une Afrique ancestrale ou mythique, et encore moins une africanite de facade [11]. Kamad Essay? Il est un ecrivain et un cineaste pragmatique qui cherche a communiquer avec son peuple pour donner a lire ou a voir la ou le bat blesse quimporte lorigine, quimporte les responsables, en quete de comprehension et de solution. Stage? Aussi, pour lui, un film, cest un debat, ce nest pas seulement un film . Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Il ajoute : Il faut que le cinema soit une ecole du soir pour ceux qui veulent reflechir doivent y trouver des elements de reflexion pour pouvoir aller de lavant. On discute tous les jours du film. Aeneid? Nous allons dans les ecoles, chaque lycee a une salle, vous appelez ca cine-club, nous appelons ca salle de reflexion. Kamad Example? On vient, on aesthetic, presente un film et on Kamad, discute du film.

Mais nous sortons du film, nous ne discutons pas seulement du film. Life Cycle Costing Advantages And Disadvantages? Le film conduit a la discussion. Al-Din Essay Example? Nous discutons de la bourgeoisie et comment on stage, devient mendiant dans un pays, voila. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad? Nous parlons des paysans et ainsi de suite. Vs. Nurture: Virtues Essay? Ca deborde le cadre du film. Kamad? Et ca donne a la discussion un caractere concret. What Led To Reformation? Meme la critique au realisateur. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? Moi je suis oblige tous les mois, deux fois par mois, de passer sous la douche devant le public (Sembene Ousmane 1976 : 15-16). Cette volonte de debattre, dechanger sur le film ou meme de defier le realisateur, pour une transformation ne se manifeste pas seulement hors scene (apres la projection), elle est egalement sur scene, partie integrante du cinema de Sembene Ousmane.

En fait, lun des traits recurrents de ses films, notamment depuis Emitai (1971) qui raconte laffrontement dun village, plus particulierement de ses femmes avec larmee coloniale francaise sur un mode quasi silencieux, ne sexprimant que par gestes ou des chants est la mise en scene dune confrontation ou dune suite de confrontations verbales ou debats. Life Cycle Costing Advantages And Disadvantages? Cette poethique de la confrontation ou du debat, de la joute oratoire qui nest pas sans rappeler des palabres dont la premiere manifestation evidente est dans la fin de Xala (1974) avec les proces de El Hadj Abdoukader Beye par les hommes daffaire a la chambre de commerce et les mendiants chez lui, atteint un apogee avec Ceddo (1976) qui est structure comme un long proces de lislam dogmatique sur la place dun village africain au 18 e siecle [12]. Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Elle sera reprise avec des variantes dans les films subsequents, notamment Camp de Thiaroye (1988), Guelwaar (1992) et Moolaade (2004) voir photogrammes A1-A4. A1-2. Life Cycle Advantages And Disadvantages? Ceddo , la derniere scene, revirement de situation au retour de Dior Yacine qui tue lIman. A3. Al-Din Essay? Camp de Thiaroye , des officiers de larmee coloniale francaise confondus par une harangue du serget-chef Diatta. A4. Psychology Stage? Moolaade , la chef des exciceuses sous la menace des meres en revolte.

Photogrammes publies avec laimable autorisation de M. Kamad Bihzad Essay? Alain Sembene. Le dernier element sur lequel il convient dinsister, sans doute le plus important, cest le rapport etroit entre levolution de son oeuvre, et le contexte historique et social dans lequel elle sinscrit. The Great? Plus particulierement, il importe de souligner comment cette evolution se fait en fonction de ce pragmatisme militant qui est central dans sa conception du travail artistique ou litteraire, et se traduit dans le choix de ses titres, du moins leur langue, les thematiques et formes ou genres de ses oeuvres. Au premier coup doeil, on Kamad Bihzad, constate que Sembene Ousmane a publie son premier roman, Le Docker noir (1956), avant les Independances africaines, et son dernier titre, Guelwaar , date de 1996 [13]. Cycle And Disadvantages? De fait, il est avec le Camerounais Mongo Beti, auteur entre autres du fameux pamphlet contre les nouveaux dirigeants africains, Main basse sur le Cameroun (1972), lun des rares romanciers francophones africains (au sud du Sahara) a avoir publie plusieurs titres avant et apres les Independances. Entre 1956 et 1960, lannee des Independances africaines, Sembene Ousmane qui vit en France publie trois romans qui sont relativement longs, plus de 200 pages pour les deux premiers, et pres de 400 pour le dernier.

Ces trois romans portent principalement sur le colonialisme, bien que le premier, Le Docker noir , soit aussi un texte sur limmigration et lappropriation tant de la force de travail du migrant (colonise) que ses expressions esthetiques, plus particulierement ici son ecriture (vol dun manuscrit dun docker noir par une eminente romanciere francaise qui est tuee par ce dernier pour ce mefait) [14]. Kamad Al-Din Example? Les titres de ces romans sont tout a fait francais, sauf le dernier, Les Bouts de bois de Dieu , qui est une traduction litterale de son sous-titre wolof : Banty Mam Yall , les hommes. Nature In Our Essay? Par ce recours manifeste a une autre langue dune autre culture, et a cette traduction qui nen est pas une, sintroduit un ecart significatif. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Lexpression les bouts de bois de Dieu ne fait pas sens en francais. Aeneid Book? Du moins, elle ne dit pas ce que lecrivain exprime dans sa langue, les hommes ( Banty Mam Yall ). Al-Din Bihzad Example? Il me semble quici il veut attirer lattention du lecteur occidental sur le fait quil a un langage propre, avec ses propres formes ou expressions qui ne sont pas reductibles. Vers le cinema, pour une contre-ethnographie. Laffirmation dune preeminence subjective du wolof sur le francais , pour reprendre une formule dAlioune Tine [15], ou plus specifiquement dune certaine titrologie africaine sur une francaise, pas seulement sur le plan linguistique, mais plus largement langagier, est des plus evidentes dans les titres des annees 1962-1965 qui sont un syntagme africain, Vehi Ciosane , ou un terme africain francise, lHarmattan , ou un mot francais africanise, Voltaique . Advantages And Disadvantages? Mais ce qui est fondamental ici, cest quapres son retour en Afrique en 1961, cest le changement de forme et de problematique. Kamad Al-Din Example? Delaissant le conflit colonial (sans oublier le choc des cultures quil a engendre) pour interroger dabord les nouveaux dirigeants africains et certaines traditions africaines (changement thematique), Sembene Ousmane passe dune part a la nouvelle ( Voltaique ) ou au court recit ( Le Mandat et Vehi Ciosane ) ; dautre part au cinema qui deviendra apres le succes du film La Noire de (1966) sa forme dexpression privilegiee, conscient que le cinema lui permet de mieux communiquer les preoccupations de son peuple, et aussi de mieux communiquer avec son peuple qui est analphabete (double changement sur le plan formel).

En effet, de retour au Senegal, il decouvre un fait troublant, il nexiste pas comme ecrivain en Afrique, il nest pas lu, il nest pas connu, et pour cause, lAfrique connait a lepoque des taux danalphabetisme pouvant atteindre 99%. 1? Dou son questionnement : comme ecrivain engage, comment atteindre ce public (qui est le sien) qui na pas acces au livre ? Et pour lui, la meilleure facon de le faire, cest avec le film, le cinema. Kamad Bihzad Essay Example? Et tres vite, il comprendra quil faut le faire en langue africaine, dou son choix en 1968 du wolof pour son premier vrai long metrage [16], Mandabi . Cette volonte de mieux communiquer les preoccupations du continent africain, et aussi de mieux communiquer avec ses habitants qui est centrale dans sa demarche est fort bien illustree par ladaptation cinematographique de La Noire de Si dans la nouvelle, lhistoire de Diouana sinscrit entierement dans lAfrique coloniale en lutte, le texte souvrant sur sa mort le 23 juin de lan de grace 1958 [17], Le film quant a lui place lhistoire dans le contexte postcolonial, celui de lassistance technique, de la neo-colonisation comme le rappelle si bien la scene du repas ou M. Nature Virtues? explique a un jeune couple les avantages extraordinaires, garantis par des solides accords de cooperation, pour un Europeen travaillant en Afrique, notamment au Senegal (chapitre 3). De plus, contrairement au texte qui, dentree de jeu, met en place les deux mondes qui saffrontent, celui des baigneurs insouciants de la plage dAntibes, et celui des peuples en lutte contre le colonialisme, le film souvre sur une sorte dimage dEpinal dun paquebot arrivant en rade (en France) [18]. Bihzad Example? Mais cette image est signe tant de la neo-colonisation que de la migration notamment Sud/Nord. Summaries? En effet, le tourisme, particulierement la croisiere etant lune des formes les plus generalisees de lentreprise neocoloniale, et limmigration, un symptome assez manifeste de lechec des Independances et de la desillusion postcoloniale quil mettra encore mieux en evidence avec le roman Le Mandat (1965) et son adaptation cinematographique Mandabi (1968) [19] qui raconte les deboires dun chomeur illettre, Ibrahima Dieng, dans les dedales bureaucratiques de Dakar pour encaisser un mandat recu dun neveu de Paris. Dautre part, si le recit laisse entendre la voix dun narrateur impersonnel quun lecteur tend a identifier avec un auteur (romancier ou ethnographe), dans le film, cest plutot celle de Diouana (voix de la dominee, de lobservee qui se fait observatrice par la force des choses), bien que off, qui domine.

Cest a travers sa conscience, sa memoire, non a partir de celle de Mme (letrangere lettree, celle qui traditionnellement observe, commente) comme dans la nouvelle, que nous reconstituons les faits. Kamad Bihzad Essay Example? Aussi, le film part de son arrivee en France en bateau a sa mort, plutot que du constat de sa mort comme dans le recit. Life Costing Advantages And Disadvantages? Ce changement de perspective permet de mettre en valeur la femme noire, et de faire de Diouana une vraie heroine, tragique certes, mais heroine tout de meme au sens le plus classique du cinema. Bihzad Essay? Car comme la rappele Sheila Petty : [Diouana] ecrase par sa seule presence les autres personnages du film. 1? Elle est presente dans toute laction du film, donnant une unite au recit (Petty 1991 : 127). Par ailleurs, ce passage du il (dun narrateur omniscient) au je (dune narratrice personnage principal), donc dune certaine ou pretendue objectivite a une certaine ou pretendue subjectivite nest pas sans consequence. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Elle implique un regard de Soi sur Soi, un regard sur lAutre pour Soi qui donne a voir et entendre un processus de prise de conscience : la transformation de Diouna se rappropriant et transcendant ses manieres de faire et detre, donc sexprimant pleinement. The Great Gatsby 1? Elle se fait meme juge de ses juges, ici ses patrons francais denommes anonymement M. Kamad Bihzad Essay? et Mme [20].

Cest un moment fort dune contre-ethnographie , ou le discours de lobserve/domine sur lobservateur/dominant normalement tu, sinon ignore [21], sexprime avec force : Madame ma menti. Aesthetic Response? Elle ma toujours menti. Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? Jamais plus elle me mentira. Aeneid Summaries? Elle voulait me garder ici comme une esclave , dit-elle dans son dernier monologue (chapitre 16). Bihzad Essay Example? Faisant suite a son Quest-ce quils mangent et radotent ces gens ! Ils ne font que boire lors du diner (chapitre 3), la reprise de son don a madame en scandant Ce masque est a moi ! (chapitre 12), et sa confrontation musclee avec sa patronne qui tente de se rapproprier le masque (chapitre 15), ce cri est sans equivoque. Nature Vs. Nurture: Virtues Society Essay? Elle refuse detre la noire de . Kamad Example? Elle range ses habits dans sa valise, se defait de la perruque quelle prisait tant avant, se coiffe de tresses africaines , se prepare pour son suicide se disant a elle-meme : Jamais plus Mme ne me verra . Psychology Stage Of Development? Jamais plus de Diouna ! Jamais plus je ne les verrai moi aussi (chapitre 16).

Elle sort definitivement de l esclavage domestique ou elle etait acculee en France pour renouer, au-dela des siecles et de lespace, avec la geste legendaire des esclaves noirs dAmerique, car ce nest sans doute pas par hasard, malgre les contradictions et questions que ce choix peut soulever ou souleve, que la voix de Diouna soit celle dune comedienne haitienne, Toto Bissainthe. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? Et notre cineaste africain, a son tour de sapproprier dune image emblematique des plus connues de lhistoire et de lart francais, le Marat assassine de J.-L. The Great Gatsby? David (1793) pour immortaliser le geste de Diouna la gorge tranchee dans sa baignoire le rasoir tombant de sa main, mais ce nest quune premiere image du drame, celle qui suit rappelant plutot des corps desclaves dans la cale dun navire negrier (voir photogrammes B1-B4). Al-Din Example? Une telle composition de limage comme une toile dun grand maitre de la Revolution francaise ou dun symbole des luttes anti-esclavagistes des 18 e -19 e siecles, est fort significative : le suicide se lit comme un assassinat (ou un genocide) et sinscrit au-dela de lhistoire dune bonne (ou du fait divers qui la inspire) dans la grande histoire des luttes humaines contre loppression. Cycle Costing? Dautre part, il sagit dun renversement radical, ce nest pas le dominant qui sapproprie des outils ou savoirs du domine, mais le domine, lAfricain, qui fait sien les outils et savoirs des colonisateurs francais pour parler de lui, de sa rencontre avec cette France qui devient objet dinvestigation.

Ce sont la deux fondements de la contre-ethnographie que Sembene Ousmane elabore pour les siens dabord, mais aussi implicitement, sinon consciemment, contre Jean Rouch [22] quil avait accuse de les presenter comme des insectes dans une confrontation de 1965 entre les deux cineastes, ou un certain cinema qui faisait des Africains des curiosites, au mieux des figurants. B1. Kamad Bihzad Example? La Noire de . Led To The Protestant Reformation? Diouna mourante, un rasoir a la main. B2. Al-Din Essay Example? Marat Assassine de David. B4. Aesthetic Response? La noire de. Al-Din Example? Diouna morte dans la baignoire.

Dans cet echange, Rouch soutient explicitement la demarche classique de lethnologie, affirmant : je dispose dun avantage et dun inconvenient a la fois, japporte loeil de letranger. What Led To The Protestant? La notion meme dethnologie est basee sur lidee suivante : quelquun mis devant une culture qui lui est etrangere voit certaines choses que les gens qui sont a linterieur de cette meme culture ne voient pas. Example? A cela, Sembene Ousmane replique : Tu dis voir. Psychology? Mais dans le domaine du cinema, il ne suffit pas de voir, il faut analyser. Al-Din? Ce qui minteresse cest ce qui est avant et apres ce que lon voit. Gatsby? Ce qui me deplait dans lethnographie, excuse-moi, cest quil ne suffit pas de dire quun homme que lon voit marche, il faut savoir dou il vient, ou il va. Kamad Example? (Cervoni 1982 : 77). Vs. Nurture: Virtues In Our Society? Il est donc evident que ce qui gene le cineaste africain qui demandait juste avant a Rouch sil comptait continuer a faire des films sur lAfrique quand il y aura beaucoup de cineastes africains (Cervoni 1982 : 77) , cest aussi, sinon plus, ce regard exterieur qui se veut neutre, du moins non partie prenante dune demarche explicative et transformatrice. Kamad Al-Din? Il donne en exemple, Les Fils de leau (1952) dont beaucoup de spectateurs europeens ny ont rien compris parce que ces rites dinitiation, pour eux, navaient aucun sens. 1? Ils trouvaient le film beau, mais ils ny apprenaient rien. Kamad? Rouch implicitement acquiesce a cette remarque, et donne en exemple, Les Maitre fous (1954) dont la diffusion. Nature Society? a ete reservee a des cinemas dart et dessai, et a des cine-clubs , car il croit quil ne faut pas apporter de tels films a un public trop large, non informe, et sans presentation, sans explication (Cervoni 1982 : 78). Bihzad Essay? On pourrait egalement citer labsence complete dexplication (ou meme de mise en contexte) de la croix gammee inversee sur une voile dun bateau de pecheurs dans une sequence vers la fin de Mammy Water (1966) de Rouch qui contraste avec les longues explications et contextualisations de lattachement obsessionnel de Pays au casque nazi dans Camp de Thiaroye . Nature Vs. Nurture: In Our? Dun cote, il y a une appropriation, si appropriation il y a, qui semble statique, alienante , dun signe de lautre, il y a un usage dynamique, dialectique dun symbole nazi pour montrer, entre autres, le parcours douloureux dun personnage, et du coup signifier lhorreur du fascisme.

Cest la un aspect fondamental de la contre-ethnographie sur lequel il convient dinsister, car justement, selon le cineaste senegalais, ce qui lui deplait dans lethnographie, cest le manque de perspective historique : son refus de voir lavant et de projeter lapres. Bien que depuis la confrontation de 1965, selon la presentation des extraits republies par CinemAction , Sembene Ousmane sest refuse a toute declaration sur le cinema de Rouch , comme en 1973 dans sa longue entrevue avec Siradiou Diallo pour Jeune Afrique , dans un entretien avec Guy Hennebelle des annees plus tard, parlant de son court metrage, Taw , il reaffirme implicitement son refus du cinema ethnographique, plus particulierement du cinema-verite . Essay? En effet, dit-il : . Aesthetic Response? Taw , un court metrage, [qui] ma ete commande par le Conseil oecumenique des Eglises (U.S.A.). Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Il sagissait devoquer le probleme des jeunes a Dakar et de dresser en somme un bilan de dix ans dindependance de leur point de vue. Aeneid Summaries? Jetais mal a laise au depart car je ne suis pas documentariste et je ne crois pas beaucoup au cinema-verite (Hennebelle 1985 : 26) [23]. Kamad Al-Din Essay? Par ailleurs, Rouch egalement des dizaines dannees plus tard ne digerait pas plus le cinema militant ou dintervention auquel Sembene Ousmane sidentifie.

Il le considere comme netant pas du cinema , ne connaissant pas dexemple reussi de cinema militant . Led To? sur le plan cinematographique . Kamad Bihzad Essay Example? Et plus loin, repondant a cette question de Guy Hennebelle ( Je crois que ce qui te deplait dans un certain cinema militant, cest la presence dune conception globale. Psychology Stage Of Development? ), il ajoute : Non, quil y ait des reponses ! Je naime pas quon pretende detenir la verite ! (Martineau et al. Example? 1982 : 172-173, 175). Chapter 1? Mais pour les deux cineastes, il importe de donner voix aux Africains, comme le montrent bien certains films de Jean Rouch comme Moi un Noir (1959) dont Sembene Ousmane affirme quun Africain aurait pu le faire (Cervoni 1982 : 77) ; La Pyramide humaine (1961), regards croises sur des Europeens et Africains en Afrique ; La Chasse au lion a larc (1965) qui donne a voir la complexite de tout un savoir-faire africain (de la maitrise du fer a celle des vegetaux en passant par une connaissance exemplaire de la faune) ; Petit a Petit (1970) qui est tout a la fois une amusante ethnographie de la France par des Africains et un regard critique sur les voies de developpement en Afrique. Al-Din Bihzad Essay? En ce sens, le cinema ethnographique de Rouch qui se veut des objets inquietants pouvant agir sur la conscience du spectateur europeen (Martineau et al. Stage Of Development? 1982 : 166) est fort different dun certain cinema colonial des annees 1950-1960. Bihzad Example? Pourtant, il y a tout de meme des divergences profondes entre les projets cinematographiques du Francais et du Senegalais.

Jusqua un certain point, nous faisons face a deux positions irreductibles aux finalites entierement divergentes : un cinema documentaire (ethnographique) fait par un universitaire etranger (europeen) qui veut archiver le monde (africain) pour un public europeen ; et un autre militant (de fiction) fait par un autodidacte (africain) qui veut transformer le monde (africain) pour un public africain. Aesthetic Response? Aussi, ce nest pas par hasard que le rapport entre filmants et filmes soit radicalement different dun cinema a lautre : Rouch luniversitaire europeen filmant des Africains impose dans sa langue francaise sa voix off pour donner sens aux images, Sembene Ousmane lautodidacte africain filmant des Africains dans leurs langues diverses fait corps avec les siens pour transformer son monde au contact des Autres. Kamad Bihzad Essay? Ainsi, il est acteur parmi les acteurs, fondu dans la masse des personnages : ceddo parmi les ceddos dans le film du meme nom ou ecrivain public dans Le Mandat , par exemple (voir photogrammes C1-2). C1. Aesthetic Response? Sembene Ousmane ecrivain public dans Mandabi.

C2. Kamad Essay? Sembene Ousmane ceddo dans Ceddo . Ce regard sur Soi dans sa rencontre avec lAutre (dominant) implique un renversement et un detournement quillustre bien Camp de Thiaroye . Response? Plus que dans La Noire de. Bihzad Essay Example? ou Emitai , dans ce film co-realise avec Thierno Faty Sow, Sembene Ousmane fait des observateurs autorises dantan des objets dinvestigation daujourdhui, et sapproprie dobjets emblematiques de lhistoire europeenne pour decrire les siens. Book? Dune part, dun film, qui au prime abord raconte le retour de la deuxieme guerre mondiale de tirailleurs senegalais, il en fait une critique et une ethnographie fort complexes de lArmee coloniale francaise, presentant ce corps militaire de la France libre en Afrique dans toutes ses contradictions [24]. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Example? Dautre part, il sapproprie dun des symboles les plus populaires du nazisme, le casque SS, le transforme en objet fetiche dun tirailleur, ex-prisonnier de guerre de Buchenwald, denomme Pays, qui na plus toute sa raison , pour reprendre lexpression du sergent-chef Diatta, rappelant aux officiels militaires francais qui questionnaient lorigine des sommes dargent trouvees dans les baraques des tirailleurs, les exploits et souffrances de ces derniers dans la deuxieme grande guerre a laquelle, eux officiers francais de lArmee coloniale nont pas participe (chapitre 5). Life Costing And Disadvantages? Par ce detournement dun symbole honni, il pointe certes lhorreur nazie qui a detraque bien des cerveaux, mais aussi plus largement la folie europeenne [25] . Kamad Al-Din Example? En effet, comme en doutait le capitaine Raymond, le seul officier francais a comprendre et soutenir la cause des tirailleurs, le film (comme le contentieux qui la inspire) debouchant sur un massacre par lArmee coloniale francaise danciens combattants franco-africains a qui la hierarchie militaire nie le droit a legalite leur refusant leurs arrieres de solde , leur solde de captivite , et les indemnites qui leur sont dus, en plus de leur propre argent de poche confisque fait basculer la France libre du general de Gaulle dans le camp de la barbarie, rejoignant lAllemagne nazie quelle a combattue au nom de la liberte. Bien que le film soit base sur des evenements historiques, reprenant presque, par endroits, le mot a mot des revendications des tirailleurs rapportees en 1983 par un survivant, M. Virtues In Our Essay? Doudou Diallo, president de la Federation des Anciens Combattants et Prisonniers de Guerre du Senegal [26], il nest pas pour autant toujours fidele aux faits. Kamad Essay Example? Il y a une part de transformation ou de distorsion de la memoire historique, en un mot fictionalisation. Aeneid? Sur ce point, Bernard Moitt ecrit justement que le film brosse un tableau de ce que doit avoir ete la situation dans un camp bouillonnant de tensions, quelques heures seulement avant leclatement de la tragedie.

Sembene le cineaste [pouvant] se permettre des libertes et atteindre ce que les historiens ne peuvent pas, dans la mesure ou il peut rendre lhistoire vivante sur lecran. Essay? Et il ajoute entre autres : son regard perspicace de cineaste fait du symbolisme du camp entoure de fil barbele un moteur dramatique (Moitt 1997 : 137). Cest justement la dramatisation sous forme dun long proces, qui est confrontation/transformation a la maniere de Ceddo ou d Emitai , quimpose le medium filmique qui commande une certaine distorsion, du moins une re-creation des faits. Aeneid? Par exemple : contrairement au temoignage de Doudou Diallo qui affirme [qu]apres trois sommations, ils [les militaires francais] ont ouvert le feu. Al-Din Bihzad? Dabord les hommes ont cru quils sagissaient de cartouches a blanc; mais quand ils ont vu leurs camarades tomber, ils ont compris quon leur tirait dessus pour de bon [27], dans le film, il ny a pas de sommation, lattaque du camp a eu lieu en pleine nuit, par surprise (voir photogrammes D1-2). Gatsby? Leffet sur les spectateurs est immediat et beaucoup plus fort. Al-Din Essay? De voir avancer ces chars dassaut francais dans la nuit, se doutant quun drame est imminent, le bombardement qui suit danciens combattants francais desarmes dans leurs lits ne peut que nous bouleverser profondement (chapitre 6). Life Cycle Advantages? Par ailleurs, dans le film, le general est pris en otage par les tirailleurs. Kamad Essay? Il est enferme dans une baraque sous la surveillance de Pays qui lhumilie : lui prenant son kepi pour lui tendre une chechia de tirailleur (chapitre 5). Aesthetic? Cest la un moment particulierement fort qui se lit comme une replique cinglante a linsulte faite aux tirailleurs rapatries de leur reprendre uniformes et bottes donnes par lArmee americaine pour leur imposer des sandales et uniformes de tirailleurs (chapitre 3). Kamad Al-Din? Mais selon Diallo, le general a ete seulement entoure par les tirailleurs qui ne appuyer leurs revendications [28]. Gatsby? Mais cette formule hautement rhetorique dans une demande officielle et publique de pardon laisse place a une grande marge dinterpretation qui fait penser que la version de Diallo est plus proche des faits.

Senghor, le poete, qui deja en 1944 faisait leloge des tirailleurs assassines dans Tyaroye ( Hosties noires ) reclamant justice, ne tenait-il pas ici, par une concession strategique a lhistoire officielle, damadouer lautorite francaise pour obtenir lessentiel, la liberation de ses compatriotes tirailleurs, anciens prisonniers de guerre comme lui [29] ? En fait, peu importe, ce geste decisif et irreverencieux de Pays qui semble avoir ebranle le general, et le pousser, juste apres un plaidoyer dun tirailleur sur leurs droits [30], a proposer malicieusement (ce qui nechappe pas a la perspicacite de son gardien ) aux tirailleurs de tenir la promesse de les dedommager equitablement comme tout ancien combattant francais est une fiction. Bihzad Essay? Il permet de construire un momentum dramatique, pour bien marquer une transformation radicale des tirailleurs, et un tournant decisif dans lhistoire africaine. Aesthetic? Comme le rappelle, juste avant cette sequence, le capitaine Raymond a ces collegues officiers qui sous-estiment la determination des tirailleurs : les petits noirs de type ya bon banania , messieurs, cest termine ! (chapitre 5). D1-2. Al-Din Essay Example? Camp de Thiaroye , la derniere scene, le bombardement. Cette re-creation des faits est partie integrante de la poethique de Sembene Ousmane qui implique un passage dialectique oblige de lhistorique au fictif ( Emitai , Ceddo ), du fait divers a lhistorique ( La Noire de. Cycle Costing? ), de lindividuel au collectif ( Mandabi , Guelwaar , Moolaade ), du prive au politique ( Xala ), de Soi a lAutre et vice versa . Al-Din Bihzad? Comme il la explique, entre autres, a propos d Emitai et de Ceddo , sil tient a etre authentique et a partir du reel (quotidien ou historique), contrairement au Rouch premiere maniere, avant les ethnofictions , il veut pas dupliquer la realite et encore moins larchiver. Life Costing? En fait, il lutilise comme un materiau primaire pour montrer un proces de transformation, et provoquer une discussion qui dans un second temps peut contribuer a engendrer un eveil des consciences et une vraie transformation sociale. Kamad Bihzad? Emitai offre un bel exemple de sa maniere de (re)travailler la memoire historique ou lactualite pour les filmer. Costing Advantages And Disadvantages? Dun geste percu dans la legende comme individuelle, mystique (lhistoire dAn Sitoe), on Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay, passe au recit filmique dun geste collectif (celui des femmes dun village) [31] lie aux traditions ou a lhistoire certes, mais aussi en rupture avec la doxa . The Great Chapter 1? La determination des femmes du village sinscrit dans une logique de respect et de detournement de deux traditions : celle du role central du riz dont elles ont la charge pour leur monde ; celle de leur (apparent ou pretendu) mutisme traditionnel dans les affaires de la Cite quelles utilisent comme une arme contre lArmee coloniale qui narrive pas a les faire flechir meme en les gardant prisonnieres en plein soleil. Kamad Example? Elles font corps comme une seule et meme personne dans un geste historique comme le groupe de femmes qui rejoint et soutient Colle Ardo dans son opposition a lexcision dans Moolaade permet le passage dun acte individuel (prive) a une action collective publique (politique). Advantages And Disadvantages? Il en est de meme dans Xala ou le probleme individuel, sinon intime de limpuissance sexuelle de El Hadj devient une affaire publique. Kamad Al-Din? Tout Dakar parle de sa ruine jusqua son expulsion du groupe des hommes daffaires qui debouche sur sa harangue contre le neo-colonialisme et la corruption des elites a laquelle fera echo a la fin du film le groupe des paysans qui assaille sa villa pour lui signifier lorigine de son xala et lui rappeler comment il avait spolie des terres familiales pour senrichir [32].

Dans un renversement dialectique qui lui est propre, Sembene Ousmane fait de cette reunion/confrontation privee, sinon familiale, a la fois une parodie de la mythique crucifixion chretienne, et une replique (sinistre) du cercle de palabre africain. What The Protestant? En effet, il place El Hadj, a moitie nu, la couronne blanche de la robe de mariee de sa troisieme epouse, qui venait de lui signifier le divorce pour impuissance, sur le front, perche sur un tabouret au centre de lassemblee formee dun cote de sa famille, de lautre des desherites qui ont envahi sa demeure sous la conduite de laveugle, majestueusement debout avec son long baton a la main, commandant de de-biler sur le condamne. Kamad Bihzad Essay Example? Cette scene, par moment insoutenable, nest pas sans rappeler la ceremonie du chien des Maitres fous de Rouch. The Great Chapter? Par contre, plutot quune catharsis pour les seuls personnages dun film (comme dans le film de Rouch), elle devient a la maniere des grandes tragedies grecques, resolution, et de celle du cineaste africain, un appel a laction. Bihzad Essay Example? Encore une fois, lappropriation des symboles de lAutre et des rituels des Siens est dynamique, elle tend a engager au-dela des personnages sur lecran une communaute qui sidentifie ou peut sidentifier a eux pour une transformation de leur rapport au Monde.

Une contre-ethnographie , quest-ce a dire ? Le regard sur lAutre comme le detournement de ses symboles est toujours dialectique, dialogique pour mieux comprendre Soi dans un proces de transformation suite a une crise, qui est prise de conscience de ses rapports aux Mondes, au contact des Autres (dici ou dailleurs). Aeneid Summaries? En effet, contrairement a lanthropologie classique qui percoit lAutre (lobserve) comme coupe de Soi (lobservateur), tout a fait etranger et different, sinon inegal dans sa purete de bon sauvage ou d ethnie originelle pour reprendre une expression de Rouch [33], dans la demarche de Sembene Ousmane, lAutre ne peut etre percu (observe) quen rapport a Soi, et vice versa. Kamad Bihzad? Cest un des premiers fondements de la contre-ethnographie que donnent a lire ses films. Lhistoire de Diouna dans La Noire de . What? nous est contee parce quelle est devenue bonne a tout faire en France, comme les mesaventures dIbrahima Dieng dans Mandabi sont avant tout rapportees pour decrire labsurde dune administration senegalaise calquee sur la francaise, qui ne tient aucunement compte du pays reel, que Dieng doit affronter pour encaisser un mandat recu dun neveu de Paris. Kamad Bihzad? El Hadj dans Xala represente limpuissance et la corruption dune classe politique et economique coupee des realites nationales, a la solde des interets etrangers, mais utilisant les traditions nationales a des fins demagogiques. The Protestant Reformation? Par contre, Pierre Henri Thioune dans Guelwaar est le symbole dune dignite et dune combativite senegalaises.

Il refuse laide alimentaire etrangere en denoncant publiquement et vivement les pieges quelle recele pour le pays, mais sa mort, plutot son assassinat par les autorites, provoque un autre affrontement entre catholiques et musulmans, deux religions etrangeres en Afrique. Kamad? Dans Ceddo , lopposition a la penetration de lIslam provoque un bouleversement de lordre social qui debouche sur lexecution de lIman imposteur par la princesse heritiere Dior Yacine quil voulait epouser de force. Life Advantages And Disadvantages? Emitai et Camp de Thiaroye relatent des confrontations historiques entre larmee coloniale francaise et un village senegalais dune part, et des tirailleurs revenant de la deuxieme guerre mondiale dautre part. Kamad Essay? Le retour des tirailleurs a Thiaroye, comme le village diola d Emitai , est filme parce quil offre un moment de confrontation-transformation dans lhistoire de la colonisation francaise en Afrique. Aeneid? Il ne sagit pas d imponderabilia , autrement dit pour paraphraser Malinowski, ces habitus quotidiens ordinaires que les indigenes eux-memes expliquent difficilement (Malinowski 1922 : 25), mais devenements historiques, donc fort singuliers, recrees, transformes, pour agir sur le present, pour indiquer ou rappeler des voies daction, de transformation. Kamad Bihzad Essay Example? Cest une position marxiste, du moins militante, qui est tout le contraire dune demarche ethnographique classique.

Autrement dit, bien quil parte toujours du reel ou de faits historiques, le cinema de Sembene Ousmane, qui ne cesse dinsister sur ce point, comme contre-ethnographie , ne tente jamais de reproduire une realite brute a archiver comme dans des documentaires ethnographiques de Rouch [34]. Vs. Nurture: In Our? Cest une fiction (fondee certes sur des faits authentiques) dun moment unique de confrontation avec lAutre qui engendre une transformation pour laction, le changement. Al-Din Essay? Sur ce point, Eloise Briere a raison de relier loeuvre de Sembene Ousmane a la notion de lieu de memoire et daffirmer, a propos du roman Les Bouts de bois de Dieu , que ce dernier cherche moins a creer un document historique exact [qua offrir] une image dAfricains oeuvrant consciemment pour leur propre liberation (Briere 2007 : 141). Life Cycle And Disadvantages? Une telle assertion peut sappliquer a tous ses films, notamment ceux inspires de faits historiques, qui sont des appels aux Siens dans leurs langues pour laction, comme le disent bien les dernieres repliques du facteur (en voix off) a Dieng entoure de ses deux femmes (comme dans un cercle de palabre) dans Mandabi : Nous changerons le pays. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad? Toi, les femmes, tes enfants. Aesthetic? Nous tous (fin du chapitre 5). Cest la un second fondement de cette contre-ethnographie , mais etroitement, sinon dialectiquement, lie a un troisieme [35] : la necessite de laction collective. Kamad Example? En effet, meme quand au depart le geste est individuel, il se transforme en mouvement social, et naboutit que dans laction collective. Vs. Nurture: Society Essay? Lindividu se definissant toujours en rapport a un groupe qui prend sens (notamment pour les spectateurs) a travers des individualites representatives (porte-parole ou non).

Pour reussir, sinon survivre, lindividu doit rejoindre un groupe ou etre rejoint par un groupe, non le groupe lensemble social etant toujours fragmente, fissure dans les films qui donnent a voir des strategies dappartenance ou didentification, des deplacements dun groupe a lautre : Dior Yacine de retour de captivite qui rejoint le camp des ceddos (et est rejointe par eux) dans un renversement narratif qui aboutit a un climax, lexecution de lIman. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Example? Ce sont ces perturbations ou renversements qui font du recit filmique un objet (esthetique) captivant. Nature Vs. Nurture: Virtues? Sembene Ousmane les utilise a dessein. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Example? Par exemple, Diouana se rappropriant du masque quelle avait offert a sa patronne, par ce geste inattendu rejoint son groupe qui, a son tour, se solidarise autour de sa mort pour signifier a Monsieur leur refus de vendre leur ame. Psychology? En effet, sa mere a Dakar, comme elle avant de se suicider a Antibes, refuse largent de Monsieur, et son petit frere ramasse le masque pour poursuivre Monsieur, comme une reappropriation symbolique de lethnographie africaine. Mon hypothese de presenter le cinema de Sembene Ousmane comme ayant partie liee a ethnographie : (double) contre-ethnographie , comme on Essay example, parle de contre-discours ou plus precisement, ce qui nest quune definition minimale : une ethnographie de Soi pour Soi dans ses divers rapports au Monde, sinon ses confrontations avec dautres (dici ou dailleurs), dans sa ou ses langue(s) indigene(s) selon ses propres formes dexpression va a lencontre de toute une tradition critique du cinema africain. The Protestant Reformation? En effet, generalement ses films sont qualifies de realistes, historiques, politiques, militants, loin du cinema ethnographique davant les Independances percu comme exotique, colonialiste. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Certes, comme je viens de le montrer egalement plus haut, son cinema sinscrit dans ces divers courants, mais il nest pas que cela. Nature Vs. Nurture: In Our Society Essay? Il est aussi autre autrement . En fait, se placant dans une perspective de redefinition de limage filmique africaine, Sembene Ousmane ne pouvait eviter de revisiter (revoir et reevaluer) ces stereotypes et mythes coloniaux, sinon colonialistes dune certaine ethnographie, et de son cinema en particulier, pour creer de nouvelles images dun continent en mouvement. Kamad Bihzad Essay? Cest le sens meme de sa question a Rouch en 1965 quil convient de rappeler encore une fois : Est-ce que, lorsquil y aura beaucoup de cineastes africains, les cineastes europeens, toi par exemple, comptent continuer a faire des films sur lAfrique ? (Cervoni 1982 : 77), et jusqua un certain point, le moteur conscient ou non de sa demarche cinematographique qui fait parfois subtilement echo a Rouch comme dans Camp de Thiaroye qui reprend et le symbole nazi (le casque de Pays) et le coq gaulois (la pancarte du Coq hardi , le bordel ou le sergent-chef Diatta se fait virer parce que Africain) qui se retrouvent dans Mammy Water sur des voiles de pecheurs.

On peut aussi voir linsistance sur le rituel des repas dans Mandabi , ou meme legorgement par le marabout du mouton dans Camp de Thiaroye , comme reponse a la ceremonie des chiens dans Les Maitres fous (1954/ 1957). Led To The Protestant Reformation? A un autre niveau, soulignons que des remarques de Rouch sur Emitai , reprochant a Sembene Ousmane de navoir pas rappele que [ces] gens [les tirailleurs] ont libere la France malgre les Francais ; il y avait tres peu de Francais, tous les types venaient dAfrique. Al-Din Essay Example? Ca pouvait etre dit ! (Haffner 1985 : 93), semblent trouver echo dans Camp de Thiaroye quand Diatta rappelle aux officiers francais les prouesses des tirailleurs dans la derniere grande guerre a leur place (chapitre 5). Aesthetic Response? Par contre, il y a un tout autre aspect de ce dialogue cinematographique franco-africain qui semble moins evident, mais tout aussi important : celui dune certaine influence de Sembene Ousmane sur le cinema de Rouch. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay? En dautres termes, jusqua quel point les films de Rouch apres la confrontation de 1965 font-ils echo aux propos, sinon aux films de Sembene Ousmane ? Par exemple, le Paris de Petit a Petit (1970) ne serait-il pas une contre-replique de celui des Africains de Mandabi (1968) ? ou encore Petit a Petit une reponse a La Noire de. Vs. Nurture: Virtues Society Essay? ? Quimporte les reponses, il reste que Rouch a ete porte du moins une fois a comparer publiquement et candidement sa demarche cinematographique avec celle du Senegalais. Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? A propos de Mandabi , il dit en 1985 : Javais dit a Sembene : jaurais montre dans un de mes films ton gars en train de manger et de roter comme ca, on cycle and disadvantages, maurait traite de salopard ! Qui regarde lAfricain comme un insecte ! Toi, tu peux le faire, merci ! (Haffner 1985 : 91). Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? Il semble donc evident pour lui que du point de vue de la reception du moins, Sembene Ousmane, etant africain, jouit dun avantage, celui de pouvoir parler des siens sans se faire accuser de tous les noms, et bien sur de faire le tour de son jardin (ethnologique) sans retenu ou presque. What? Avec un enthousiasme admirateur, il souligne : Traiter du probleme de limpuissance sexuelle en Afrique, il faut etre gonfle comme Sembene pour le faire ! Cest pourquoi un iconoclaste comme lui (et dans Ceddo nen parlons pas) aurait du faire quelque chose dans Emitai sur les heros ! Xala cest drole, on al-Din Bihzad Essay, retrouve le Mandat , et il denonce tout, avec un courage sans borne ! Plus que la bureaucratie, la bourgeoisie profiteuse, et il le fait avec un erotisme extraordinaire ! (Haffner 1985 : 93). Aussi, force est de reconnaitre que Sembene Ousmane reprend systematiquement de nombreux objets ou pratiques hautement canoniques ou symboliques des descriptions ou discours ethnographiques sur lAfrique : de la palabre, confrontation ou confortation, qui se retrouve, sous une forme ou une autre, dans tous les films au griot, chanteur ou conteur, dont la voix hante toutes les bandes sonores. Cycle Costing And Disadvantages? Sur ce point, en conclusion de son memoire sur les cinemas de Rouch et Sembene Ousmane, Charlotte Meyer ecrit : Les resultats de lanalyse des films Borom sarret et La Noire de. Al-Din Bihzad? temoignent bien de la volonte de Sembene d africaniser son oeuvre cinematographique. Book Summaries? Lesthetique de ces films se manifeste par linsertion de plusieurs elements de la tradition orale africaine. Al-Din Example? On constate en surplus limportance des objets traditionnels africains significatifs, sinon symboliques (Meyer 2005 : 120-121) [36].

Cette reappropriation esthetique manifeste de formes dexpression percues comme typiquement africaines est des plus achevees et les plus fortes dans Ceddo et Moolaade par lusage systemique des griots qui doublent et encadrent en meme temps par leur narration le recit ou le dialogue filmiques. Chapter 1? Elle se manifeste egalement par les danses rituelles ou non qui expriment les joies ou les peines dun individu (Diouana dans La Noire de. Al-Din Example? sur les monuments aux morts apres quelle ait ete rassuree daller en France avec ses patrons) ou dun groupe (la danse des villageois enterrant leur chef dans Emitai , celle des tirailleurs apres les fausses promesses du general francais a la fin de Camp de Thiaroye ). En effet, dun film a lautre, de la place capitale du masque dans La Noire de. Chapter 1? , en passant par le ceremonial des repas dans Mandabi , jusquaux tambours parlants de Moolaade qui, au debut du film, par personnage-interprete interpose [37] font pour lauditoire (non initie au langage des tam-tams) le recit de la crise qui frappe la societe une rupture dans lequilibre social qui menera a une transformation (profonde) : six filles qui refusent lexcision sont en fuite , Sembene Ousmane construit une poethique qui recrit le discours ethnographique. Les exemples sont multiples de ce detournement/recentrement pour Soi et sur Soi qui nest plus objet fige dun discours exogene, mais sujet dun proces de mises en scene de rapports au monde divers, complexes avec des individualites marquees et des groupes non homogenes. Al-Din Essay Example? Quil sagisse des couteaux des exciseuses jetes au feu ou brulent les radios portatifs devant la mosquee dans Moolaade ou de la longue suite de visites infructueuses de El Hadj aux marabouts et feticheurs a travers le pays dans Xala dont le titre meme, impuissance temporaire causee par un sort, releve des croyances populaires [38] est tout un programme ethnographique , Sembene Ousmane fait toujours un usage dynamique, dialogique, dialectique des traditions (quatrieme fondement dune contre-ethnographie ) : rejetant celles jugees desuetes, pronant celles jugees dynamiques, progressives. Essay? Un bel exemple de cette dialectique est le combat de Colle contre excision au nom du droit dasile (le moolaade ) quelle ne saurait refuser aux jeunes filles qui lui demandent protection dans Moolaade . Kamad Bihzad Essay Example? Toujours dans cette logique de remise en question de traditions percues comme inacceptables ou degradantes, se referant a sa propre experience, Colle Ardo, face a lassemblee des hommes, rappelle la difference fondamentale entre le couteau qui donne espoir et vie (le bistouri de sa cesarienne) et le couteau qui seme angoisse et mort (celui des exciseuses) au nom dune tradition qui nest pas inscrite dans la loi islamique comme la annonce le grand Iman a la radio (cette voix qui informe et ouvre sur le monde exterieur). Life Cycle? Il appert donc que tout apport etranger nest pas a rejeter, comme toute tradition ancestrale peut etre reevaluee ou evoluee. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Example? Cest le constat que faisait deja des 1977, a partir dune lecture d Emitai , Bernard Nave qui ecrivait. Ainsi, si a premiere vue, il sagit dun film a la gloire de la femme dans sa determination sans faille, Emitai developpe un propos plus divers et plus complet a la fois. What Reformation? Ce sont les femmes qui tout au long de la lutte ont lattitude la plus resolue et unanime face a larmee venue chercher le riz. Bihzad? Elles montrent aux hommes et particulierement aux chefs absorbes dans leurs palabres la voie de la resistance.

Mais le film ne saurait se resoudre a cette opposition dans la mesure ou le sens de cette lutte est de montrer comment certaines contradictions sont amenees a se resoudre dans la lutte. Nature Vs. Nurture: Essay? Ainsi le theme religieux prend ici une place plus importante que dans les autres films de Sembene Ousmane, dans la mesure ou il ne se contente pas de presenter la religion seulement comme alienante, mais den analyser le role de facon dialectique, a la lumiere de la place quelle occupe et du role quelle est amenee a jouer face a une realite historique. Kamad Bihzad Example? Avec Emitai , on of development, peut dire quil y a une remise en cause de dieux, une interrogation sur leur existence meme, face a leur mutisme dans une situation qui remet en question les structures du groupe social. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Sembene Ousmane nous fait sortir dune vision figee de la religion africaine ou les croyances et les rites seraient des choses immuables et independantes du contexte dans lequel elles existent. The Protestant Reformation? Il nous les presente comme un donne de la tradition populaire, susceptibles devoluer et detre remises en cause par la vie (Nave 1977 : 35-36). Levocation des traditions (rituel, coutume, savoir-faire) nest jamais gratuite, elle sinscrit dans une trame narrative, elle concourt a un denouement : une transformation dune situation initiale vers une finale suite a une perturbation dans lordre social ou les rapports entre differents acteurs sociaux.

Elle repond a un besoin poethique , donc esthetique et ethique. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Plus globalement, on life cycle advantages, peut dire que Sembene Ousmane ne recourt aux formes dites traditionnelles (patures de lethnographie ou de lanthropologie coloniale ou postcoloniale) que comme maniere non figee en proces de confrontation/transformation (qui fait suite a une crise) dont il reconnait etre partie prenante par sa presence meme discrete comme acteur dans ses films. Kamad? Pour memoire, rappelons quelques personnages quil interprete qui sont loin, par exemple, de lomnipresence dun Jean Rouch comme narrateur-commentateur de ses films : maitre decole populaire dans La Noire de. What Led To? (chapitre 18), ecrivain public dans Mandabi (chapitre 2), ceddo rebaptise parmi les ceddos lors de la grande conversion forcee sur la place du village dans Ceddo (chapitre 4), le tirailleur dans Emitai qui questionne son sergent sur letrangete du remplacement du marechal Petain par le general de Gaulle a la tete de lArmee francaise (chapitre 3). De meme, il ne reprend des stereotypes sur la France et les Francais, ou plus largement des icones ou symboles europeens ou occidentaux tours dhabitation en France dans La Noire de , le poster de De Gaulle et la discussion quelle entraine dans Emitai , la radio et la tele dans Moolaade , la Tour Eiffel et les balayeurs noirs a Paris dans Mandabi , la chanson Que reste-t-il de nos amours de Charles Trenet dans la scene du bordel de Camp de Thiaroye , faisant du coup un clin doeil aux Baisers voles de Truffaut [39], la riviera francaise et le paquebot de croisiere dans La Noire de. Bihzad? ., la grande messe catholique de Ceddo que pour les deconstruire par un regard africain, irreverencieusement indigene, porte sur eux. Vs. Nurture: Virtues Society? Aussi, le traditionnel sujet/observateur jamais observe du moins se croyant jamais observe, ou ne relatant que tres rarement, sinon jamais dans son discours (recit ou description ethnographique qui tente de rapporter le particulierement typique dune societe percue comme homogene et figee dans ses traditions), les questions de lautre/ indigene sur lui/etranger et encore moins la rencontre de ces deux mondes et les consequences (voir Laplantine et Saillant 2005 : 21-22) se retrouve dans ses films objet observe. Kamad Bihzad Essay Example? Pire ou mieux encore, il est juge non dans une langue dominante du Nord mais celle des domines du Sud, Sembene Ousmane a partir de Mandabi , filmant prioritairement en langues africaines. Aesthetic Response? Sur ce point, la belle harangue de Pierre Henri Thioune dit Guelwaar, dans le film homonyme, contre laide etrangere qui pietine la dignite des Africains, a laquelle fait echo les propos de sa veuve appuyant des jeunes gens qui, refusant de vivre et de grandir en mendiant, versent sur la route les sacs de nourriture etats-unienne recue des autorites soupconnees davoir assassine son mari quelle allait inhumer, est exemplaire. Kamad Bihzad Essay? On nest loin de la neutralite et de lex-centricite de lethnologie ou de lanthropologie [40] classique qui, dans un rapport inegal, postule une enquete qualitative sur un autre different, du moins percu comme tel, non pour le groupe investigue, mais celui de linvestigateur dans sa langue ou celle de ses commanditaires. Aesthetic? Malgre lintegration de bribes de langues indigenes, l anthropologie partagee de Rouch est presentee en francais comme la reverse anthropology de Manthia Diawara est en anglais [41]. Kamad Example? En ce seul sens, la contre-anthropologie de Sembene Ousmane est deja radicalement differente. What Led To The Protestant? A lencontre de ces tentatives importantes anterieures ou posterieures dune ethnographie autre , elle se fait dabord en langues non europeennes (notamment celles reputees sans savoir), meme quand les dialogues, comme dans Camp de Thiaroye , sont massivement en francais-tirailleur . Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Ce cinema fictionnel, aucunement documentaire, touchant a la fois divers acteurs de la rencontre (dominants et domines, investigateurs et investigues), se fait avec et pour les domines dans leur langue (generalement des acteurs non professionnels), selon leur mode dexpression, leur sensibilite et leur capacite de comprehension. Society Essay? Aussi, compte tenu des defis linguistiques propres au sous-continent africain avec ses 2000 langues indigenes, et de la volonte du cineaste senegalais de tourner pour toute lAfrique, cette oeuvre est plutot differente des experiences cinematographiques militantes latino-americaines des annees 1960-1970 comme celles de Jorge Sanjines ou Fernando Solanas, par exemple, bien quelles se recoupent par endroits [42].

E1. Example? Xala, Affiche de Chaplin. E2. Vs. Nurture: Virtues Essay? Camp de Thiaroye, affiche du Corbeau. Intentions poietiques et realites esthesiques : des limites de la voie filmique. Le lecteur attentif la surement percu, lanalyse qui precede se construit principalement sur deux ordres de discours, lun poietique , lautre esthesique (au sens que donnent a ces termes Jean Molino 1988) : des propos des cineastes sur leurs oeuvres ; des analyses de leurs productions. Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? Dans le cas des films de Sembene Ousmane qui nous interessent au premier chef, cette critique est generalement exogene, du moins se fait hors du continent africain (meme quand elle est dAfricains de naissance ou dadoption), comme les premieres des films qui ont lieu generalement a letranger dans le cadre de festivals internationaux. Costing? Un film comme Ceddo a meme ete interdit au Senegal pendant des annees [43], LEmpire Songhai (son premier et seul film entierement produit par un etat africain, le Mali) na jamais ete diffuse, des doutes memes subsistent sur son existence [44]. Kamad Al-Din? Par ailleurs, les sous-titrages des films sont en langues europeennes : francais et anglais principalement, donc nullement disponible pour lAfricain qui ne maitrise ni lune des trois ou quatre langues indigenes de ses films, ni le francais ou langlais. Virtues Society Essay? Dautre part, les droits de diffusion sont detenus par des firmes etrangeres (anglo-americaine et francaise) soit, jusqua sa faillite recente, New Yorker Films pour les USA, la Mediatheque des Trois Mondes pour la France, ses deux plus gros marches institutionnels du moins.

Pourtant le cineaste senegalais pretend vouloir parler a son peuple qui, pour lui, deborde les frontieres de son pays pour englober au moins toute lAfrique au sud du Sahara. Al-Din Essay Example? Comment y parvient-il ? That is the Nature Virtues Society question ! Selon Charlotte Meyer, par exemple, reprenant des donnees qui remontent aux annees 1960, la reponse est plutot negative. Essay? Elle conclut son memoire, affirmant. . Response? Il veut faire un cinema pour les Africains hors de toute influence europeenne qui montre une image reelle de lAfrique, qui evoque des sujets africains contemporains et qui reflete, par son esthetique cinematographique africaine inspiree de la narration traditionnelle, les specificites culturelles de lAfrique. Al-Din Bihzad? Neanmoins, il importe de noter que la realite du cinema dAfrique noire est tout autre : il na pas daudience hors dune certaine clientele (qui est souvent europeenne), il nest pas finance par lAfrique(comme laurait voulu Sembene) et, a cause des problemes de distribution, les films ne sont montres que rarement en Afrique meme.

Notons aussi la rarete des salles (en 1963, une demie-place pour 100 habitants) et leur faible frequentation par la population. Aeneid Summaries? En bref, malgre les efforts de Sembene, la plupart des films projetes sur les ecrans africains restent des films etrangers (Meyer 2005 : 120). De prime abord, ma propre experience nord-americaine avec des etudiants africains (de familles riches ou non) me pousse a pencher dans la meme direction. Al-Din Example? En effet, sauf rares exceptions, ces jeunes africains ignorent meme le nom Sembene Ousmane ou Ousmane Sembene qui, lui-meme, rappelait a Cannes en 2005 que le cinema en Afrique connait de graves problemes. What Led To? De production : il y a peu de films, mais surtout de diffusion : personne ny voit nos propres films. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Example? Le manque de distribution des films africains sur notre propre continent est un grave handicap (Sembene Ousmane 2007 : 198). 1? Il nest donc pas etonnant que les etudiants africains (ou dorigine africaine) a letranger soient tres peu interesses a leur cinema en general, quon les voit rarement, sinon jamais de leur propre chef, dans les rencontres sur cette production. Bihzad Essay Example? Toujours sur un autre plan proprement africain, la comedienne Therese Mbissine Diop (aussi connue sous le nom de Mbissine Therese Diop qui apparait au generique de La Noire de ), rappelant avec une certaine amertume, quarante ans plus tard, lostracisme quelle a subi tant de sa famille immediate, notamment sa mere, que de parents et voisins davoir joue dans ce film, donne a penser quune bonne part de la population senegalaise, du moins dans un premier temps, na pas vu dun bon oeil lemergence dun cinema senegalais fait par des Senegalais (voir Coulpier et Senthiles 2008) [45].Jean-Pierre Bekolo dans son film Le Complot dAristote/ Aristotles Plot (1996) semble donner une reponse plus ou moins similaire dans sa fable dun cineaste africain en Afrique, Essemba Tourneur, dont le prenom est lanagramme de Sembene, et un nom de famille, Tourneur, rappelle le retournement opere par Ousmane Sembene pour se donner un nom dauteur. Book Summaries? Dautre part, le synopsis du film diffuse sur le site de France Diplomatie , qui est fort probablement de Bekolo, condense une histoire qui pourrait etre celle du regrette aine des anciens . Kamad Essay? En effet, cette fable un cineaste maudit chasse dEurope [qui] rentre au pays [pour decouvrir] avec stupeur que la vieille salle de cinema est litteralement occupee par une bande de jeunes malfrats dirigee par un africain surnomme Cinema qui consomme a longueur de vie des films americains nest pas sans rappeler le retour de lecrivain Sembene Ousmane au Senegal pour constater quil etait inconnu chez lui.

Par ailleurs, nest-ce pas aussi son combat que celui dEssemba Tourneur qui decide de recuperer les lieux pour y projeter des films africains ? Et lultime victoire (a la Pyrrhus sans doute) de ce dernier dont les villageois . Psychology Of Development? adorent les films africains que leur projette la gang de Cinema , la mort dans lame [46], renvoie jusqua un certain point aux tournees de Sembene Ousmane avec ses films a travers le Senegal. Kamad Example? Par ailleurs, sans le dire explicitement, dans un entretien avec Olivier Barlet, Bekolo laisse entendre que son film se fait bien en reference au Senegalais, sinon contre lui. The Great Gatsby Chapter 1? En effet, a la question, Pourquoi avoir choisi Aristote ? , il repond longuement : Quand on al-Din example, ma demande de faire un film sur le cinema africain pour le centenaire du cinema, cetait deja contradictoire. Vs. Nurture: Virtues? De plus, les autres realisateurs etaient des grands, comme Scorcese, Bertolucci, Godard, Frears. Kamad Bihzad Example? et moi, je netais personne. Response? Je me suis donc demande ce quetait le cinema moderne : raconter des histoires ! Dans les stages de scenario, la premiere personne citee est Aristote : une bonne histoire doit susciter la crainte et la pitie . Kamad Al-Din Bihzad? Jai donc relu La Poetique, base de tous les recits occidentaux. Life And Disadvantages? Cest la que se fait la difference avec lAfrique.

Lhumour et la derision saverent une force culturelle interessante pour le cinema. Kamad Al-Din Essay? La comedie affirme Dieu en soi-meme, une capacite de resolution interne des problemes, alors que la tragedie, comme la religion chretienne, place Dieu a lexterieur de lindividu. Aeneid Book? En Afrique, les gens ont Dieu en eux-memes. Al-Din Essay Example? Mais lorsque Sembene Ousmane filme lAfrique, il la situe dans la tragedie ! Cette generation a voulu faire ce quon lui avait appris. Psychology? Bien sur, on Bihzad Essay example, utilise un langage mais loutil cinema permet dautres possibilites. Advantages And Disadvantages? Cest le sujet du film ; il ne donne pas de recettes, il ne dit pas comment il faut faire : il ne fait quen parler. Puis en reponse a une seconde question, il ajoute : . Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? je midentifie a tres peu de films africains ! Ce qui minteresserait, ce serait une certaine attitude face au monde.

Je trouve grave de voir a Cannes des films africains qui fuient la realite africaine actuelle ; ce sont des films aseptises. Led To The Protestant? On ne peut pretendre exprimer quoi que ce soit si lon a pas pense notre relation au monde moderne [je souligne] [47]. Les commentaires de Bekolo nous ramenent a une question fondamentale qui se pose peu ouvertement : Quest ce quun film africain ? Je lai abordee a lhiver 2009 dans un seminaire avec trois etudiants nord-americains, deux Europeennes (dont une Francaise) et une Africaine (Senegambienne), malgre les limites de lechantillon, les resultats sont assez evidents et significatifs. Al-Din Essay Example? LAfrique urbaine ou urbanisee des films comme Madame Brouette de Moussa Sene Absa (2004) ou Quartier Mozart de Bekolo (1992) est percue moins africaine, sinon non africaine, comme celle coloniale et militarisee de Camp de Thiaroye , par exemple. Response? Par ailleurs, pour les etudiants de tous les films du questionnaire, Moolaade est le plus africain (abordant, selon eux, 5 sur 6 des problemes distinctement africains) ; puis viennent dans lordre decroissant Mandabi (dont les principaux personnages sont authentiquement africains) et Madame Brouette . Kamad Al-Din Example? Quant a Quartier Mozart , ils lont percu a la limite peu africain, comme le sergent-chef Diatta de Camp de Thiaroye (qui ecoute la musique classique, le jazz, lit des auteurs francais), pour quatre dentre eux, nest presque plus africain. The Great Chapter? De la discussion, il semblait se degager une vision plutot stereotypee de lAfrique rurale ou illetree , sinon sauvage , aucunement urbanisee ou modernisee . Bihzad Essay Example? Est-ce la ce que Bekolo tend a denoncer ou ne fait-il quexprimer un conflit generationnel, sinon national ou de classe ? La petite bourgeoisie africaine du moins un segment de cette classe urbanisee, ceux dapres les Independances, contrairement aux ruraux et a la generation des Independances ne se retrouve pas, a tort ou a raison, dans ces images du pays profond ou dantan, plutot folkloriques ou non modernes pour eux. Aesthetic Response? Au-dela de linteret de villageois africains ou detudiants etrangers pour le cinema du regrette aines des anciens , il faut reconnaitre les reussites de son entreprise artistique. Al-Din Bihzad Example? De mobiliser tout un village senegalais pour le tournage d Emitai , ou burkinabe pour celui de Moolaade , de reunir des comediens de toute lAfrique de lOuest pour Camp de Thiaroye , ce sont des succes incontestables pour lemergence dune cinematographie africaine populaire (au-dela des frontieres nationales, ethniques ou linguistiques). Gatsby Chapter? Sil y a des ratages sur le plan de la reception nationale ou pan-africaine, malgre la Fespaco et Carthage, il reste que sur le plan regional et international, son oeuvre a trouve une audience exceptionnelle. Al-Din Bihzad Example? En effet, quun film dun jeune cineaste africain (commandite par le British Film Institute pour le centenaire du cinema) prenne pour reference cette production pour parler de cinema est bien signe de la fortune extraordinaire de Sembene Ousmane qui a su aussi trouver une place, a cote des plus grands cineastes encore vivants, dans Les Lecons de cinema du Festival de Cannes [48]. Sil ne parle pas directement a tous les Africains il est evidemment quun cineaste narrive jamais a parler a tout un continent , il parle fortement aux artisans du cinema africain.

Il est la voix incontournable, le passage oblige a contester ou a suivre, comme en fait foi leurs temoignages dans Reference Sembene (2002), un documentaire de Yacouba Traore sur le tournage de Moolaade , ou encore les films dun Bekolo ou Moussa Sene Absa qui, a divers niveaux, notamment par le questionnement de leur rapport aux cinemas occidentaux et africains (probleme plus que cher a Sembene Ousmane tant dans sa vie que dans ses films) font manifestement echo a sa poethique . The Great 1? Nest-ce pas le comble du succes detre a la fois cineaste de cineastes (africains), et cineaste des habitants dun village des plus recules du pays profond africain ? [1] Ce nest quapres la redaction de la version definitive de cet article que jai eu connaissance de ces propos du cineaste qui semblent bien valider lanalyse de son oeuvre comme contre-ethnographie. Al-Din Essay? Pour memoire, il ma semble opportun de les citer integralement. Aesthetic Response? [2] Je tiens grandement a remercier Catherine Benoit qui ma permis, entre autres, de mieux cerner les enjeux de lanthropologie dhier et daujourdhui. Bihzad? Sans nos discussions parfois vives sur ces questions, cet article serait fort different. Costing And Disadvantages? Je voudrais egalement remercier Francine Saillant qui ma invite et incite a relever ce premier defi de publier un article sur lethnographie et le cinema de Sembene Ousmane. Al-Din Essay? Je dois aussi remercier les divers etudiants qui, au cours des annees, ont assiste a mes seminaires sur le cinema africain a Duke University et a Syracuse University : leurs questions, leurs reflexions, leurs travaux mont si souvent eclaire sur les enjeux dune cinematographie africaine. Nature Virtues In Our? Je dois un remerciement tout special a Isabella Arezzo de la Bird Libray de Syracuse University pour laide genereuse quelle ma apportee au cours de la redaction de cet article, mettant sans reserve a ma disposition les DVDs des films quil me fallait. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Example? Au-dela de cette derniere, ma gratitude va a tout un personnel de cette institution, plus specifiquement celui du pret inter-bibliotheque qui sans relache maide a trouver les titres les plus rares.

Un grand merci au professeur Joseph Miller et a mes collegues du NEH Summer Seminar de 2009 de la Virginia Foundation for aeneid summaries the Humanities, Roots : African Dimensions of the Kamad al-Din Essay example History and vs. Nurture: Virtues Essay, Cultures of the al-Din Bihzad Essay example Americas , plus particulierement C.R.D. What? Halisi et Shannon Rose Riley qui mont chaleureusement accueilli ; et au National Endowment for Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay example the Humanities pour le support financier quil ma donne pour la recherche et la redaction de cet article. Aesthetic Response? Enfin, Je suis infiniment reconnaissant a M. Essay Example? Alain Sembene pour mavoir autorise a publier des photogrammes de films de son pere, a mon collegue et ami Samba Gadjigo pour son aide inestimable. The Great Gatsby? [3] Pour faciliter le reperage des scenes, plutot quun minutage precis qui me semble trop technique, je donne simplement le chapitre ou elles se trouvent sur les DVDs visionnes. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Tous les films de Sembene Ousmane sont analyses a partir de DVDs edites par la Mediatheque des 3 Mondes (Paris, 2002), sauf les analyses de La Noire de . Vs. Nurture: In Our Essay? et de Moolaade qui se font respectivement a partir de ledition de New Yorker Films (New York, 2005) diffuse sous le titre de Black Girl ; et Les Films Seville (Montreal, 2005). Kamad Bihzad? Quant aux films de Rouch, ils sont tous du coffret J ean Rouch , Le Geste cinematographique des Editions Montparnasse (Paris, 2005). Aesthetic Response? [4] Comme le rappelle, entre autres, Faye Ginsburg (2005), ces premiers films doivent etre distingues des ethnofictions ou docufictions comme La Pyramide humaine (1961) ou Petit a petit (1970), par exemple. Kamad Al-Din Example? [5] Voir Monique Martineau, Yvonne Mignot-Lefebvre, Guy Hennebelle et Andre Paquet 1982. Chapter 1? [6] Voir Sembene Ousmane qui affirme : Mais toujours est-il que cest au contact des autres quon se forme. Bihzad Essay Example? Meme si lon peut etre cruellement, mortellement, decu (2007 : 196). Gatsby? [7] Voir le catalogue en ligne de la BNF (consulte le 9 aout 2009) a : http://catalogue.bnf.fr/servletautorite?ID=11924383idNoeud=1.1host=catalogue. Kamad Bihzad Essay? [8] Par exemple, pour le meme titre, Gods Bits of what the protestant, Wood (la traduction anglaise de Les Bouts de bois de Dieu par Francis Price), publie la meme annee (1970), par le meme editeur (Heinemann), nous avons deux entrees avec de noms differents : Sembene, Ousmane et OUSMANE, Sembene [sic]. Al-Din Essay? Il en est de meme des editions francaises de Niiwan ( Presence africaine 1987 et 2001) qui sont listees sous des noms dauteur differents, respectivement, Sembene, Ousmane et Ousmane, Sembene (sans les capitales a Ousmane). Life And Disadvantages? [9] Ledition francaise de O pays, mon beau peuple ! publiee par Presses Pocket en 1975 presente aussi une incongruite plus ou moins similaire.

En effet, en premiere et quatrieme de couverture, nous lisons Ousmane Sembene , mais Sembene Ousmane [sic] en page titre. Kamad Essay? [10] Par exemple, Martin Bestman (1974) dans un compte rendu pour une revue universitaire quebecoise, titre louvrage et son texte Sembene Ousmane cineaste . Nature In Our Society? Samba Gadjigo egalement des annees plus tard sur son site Web consacre a Ousmane Sembene, Senegals most admired film maker of the Kamad Essay example century , liste louvrage de Vieyra sous le titre de Sembene Ousmane cineaste voir, Critical Works http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/sgadjigo/page30/page30.html. Virtues? Par contre, la Bibliotheque nationale de France, comme le catalogue en ligne WorldCat, donne comme titre, Ousmane Sembene cineaste : premiere periode 1962-1971. Kamad Bihzad Example? [11] Voir lintroduction a Vehi Ciosane ou Blanche-Genese ou il explique pourquoi il a ecrit cette histoire dinceste malgre lopposition de ses confreres africains qui y voient une arme entre les mains des ennemis de lAfrique ; voir Sembene Ousmane 1965 : 15-17. Aesthetic Response? [12] En fait, bien que fonde sur des faits historiques, il y a dans Ceddo une imprecision voulue sur le temps de lhistoire qui se traduit parfois par lanachronisme de certains objets du film : le parasol du Roi, les fusils des protagonistes entre autres. Kamad Example? Sur ce point, dans une entrevue avec Guy Hennebelle, le realisateur affirme : Le film est situe au XVIIe ou XVIIIe siecle, mais il nest pas exactement date. What Reformation? Jai surtout voulu que ce soit un film de reflexion, afin que nous, Africains, ayons le courage dessayer de reflechir sur notre propre histoire et les elements que nous avons recus de lexterieur et que nous cessions de faire des films pour pleurer sur notre misere ou solliciter la condescendance des autres (Hennebelle 1985 : 29). Kamad Bihzad? Pour une analyse detaillee des rapports de Ceddo a lhistoire (officielle ou non), voir Mamadou Diouf 1997. Stage Of Development? [13] Pour une vue globale rapide sur la production de Sembene Ousmane, voir sa bibliographie et filmographie en annexe. Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? Pour des resumes de ses oeuvres et extraits de ses films, voir le site Web du professeur Samba Gadjigo, Ousmane Sembene, Senegals most admired filmmaker of the the great 1 century : http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/sgadjigo/index.html. Bihzad? [14] A noter, bien que ce roman soit jusqua un certain point de lordre de lautobiographique, le vol de manuscrit quil rapporte ne semble pas fonder sur la biographie de lauteur. Of Development? Dans les faits, selon Samba Gadjigo, notre ecrivain a plutot beneficie de laide genereuse de camarades francais dont Odette Arouh qui corrigeait son manuscrit a mesure quil avancait dans sa redaction. Kamad Al-Din? Dailleurs, ce roman, comme son second, O pays, mon beau peuple (1957) est dedie, entre autres, a Odette voir Gadjigo (2007 : 224). Gatsby Chapter 1? [15] Voir larticle de Tine (1985), dou je reprends en partie des elements biographiques et analytiques sur la vie et loeuvre romanesque de Sembene Ousmane. Kamad Al-Din? [16] La Noire de. What The Protestant? bien que produit comme un long metrage de 90 minutes, pour eviter des tracasseries administratives, a ete commercialise comme un moyen metrage de 60 minutes. Essay Example? Sur cette question, voir Guy Hennebelle (2008 : 9). The Great? [17] Pour memoire, rappelons entre autres que 1958 est lannee du Referendum sur les colonies francaises dAfrique (28 septembre), donc qui marque la fin de lUnion francaise (1946-1958), annonce les Independances a venir en 1960, et a inspire a Sembene Ousmane, lun de ses grands romans, LHarmattan. Essay Example? Referendum . Chapter? Certes, cest aussi du point de vue de lhistoire de la France metropolitaine, la naissance de la Ve Republique, mais ce nest la quun point secondaire pour notre propos. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Example? [18] Cette comparaison de la nouvelle, La Noire de. What Led To? avec le film qui en est tire bien quelle recoupe par endroits celle deja classique de Francoise Pfaff, Black Girl (1966) : From Text to Kamad al-Din Essay example, Film , dans The Cinema of led to reformation, Ousmane Sembene, A Pionner of Essay example, African Film (1984), sen ecarte nettement tant dans le choix des scenes que la finalite de lanalyse. Life Advantages And Disadvantages? Par ailleurs, il convient de noter quune premiere version plus developpee de cette analyse comparative a beneficie de mes echanges avec la professeure Nicoletta Pireddu qui mavait invite a donner une conference sur les Noire de. Bihzad Example? de Sembene Ousmane a son seminaire de litterature comparee a Georgetown University, le 2 decembre 1998. Stage Of Development? [19] Il existe deux versions de ce film, lun en francais, Le Mandat , lautre en wolof, titre, Mandabi . Al-Din Example? Cest cette derniere version qui est la plus diffusee et la mieux connue.

Cest egalement elle que nous analysons, bien que nous la nommons parfois par commodite improprement, Le Mandat . Aesthetic? A noter, selon Samba Gadjigo (entretien telephonique du 19 septembre 2009), que le projet de film a precede le roman, mais des problemes de financement ont pousse Sembene Ousmane a completer et publier le roman dabord. Al-Din Essay? [20] Ici manifestement, le film, comme la nouvelle dailleurs, prend le contre-pied des conventions qui font des domestiques des sans noms en prenommant la bonne, Diouna, et en taisant systematiquement les noms de ses patrons qui tombent dans lanonymat de ceux reduits a leur fonction. What Led To Reformation? [21] Bien que lon sache, pour reprendre une formule de Michel Izard que plus ou moins a son insu, lethnologue est observe, juge, jauge (voir Izard 2007 : 474), generalement, il me semble que cette parole autre nest pas retransmise dans le discours ethnographique classique. Bihzad Essay? Meme des films de Jean Rouch comme La Pyramide humaine (1961) ou Petit a petit (1970), qui donnent voix a des Africains sur lEurope et les Europeens en general, ne vont pas jusqua juger Rouch, lui-meme comme observateur, qui tout compte fait dans ses docufictions ethnographiques ou ethnofictions avait, comme realisateur, le dernier mot. Reformation? [22] Il importe de rappeler que lun des tout premiers films de Sembene Ousmane, ironiquement jamais diffuse, sinon inacheve, porte sur l Empire Songhai dont Rouch a longuement etudie notamment dans sa grande these dethnologie publiee en 1960. Kamad Bihzad Example? [23] Dans ce meme numero de CinemAction , Rouch donne une entrevue a Pierre Haffner, ou il parle de son amitie avec le Senegalais et son admiration pour certains de ses films (voir : Haffner 1985). Summaries? Sembene Ousmane aussi a evoque publiquement son amitie avec Rouch, mais cetait chaque fois pour signaler du meme souffle quil naimait pas ses films qui ne lui convenaient pas ou pour rejeter son cinema-verite (voir entre autres Annett Bush et Max Annas 2008 : 16, 23, 48, 58 ; des entrevues de 1969 et 1971 avec Guy Hennebelle, celles de 1972 avec Peary et McGilligan). Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? Par ailleurs, selon Samba Gadjigo (entretien telephonique du 19 septembre 2009), lors de sa lecon de cinema au Festival de Cannes (15 mai 2005), Sembene Ousmane aurait reconnu, entre autres, limportance du cinema de Rouch pour sa demarche. The Protestant Reformation? Mais il ny a aucune reference a Rouch dans le texte de la lecon publie dans Les Lecons de cinema , edition etablie par Antoine de Baeque (2007 : 193-200). Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Par contre, il reconnait ses dettes entre autres envers les cineastes Chaplin, De Sica, Truffaut, et le critique Georges Sadoul qui lui a permis daller etudier le cinema a Moscou, et affirme dentree de jeu etre devenu celui par qui les images de lAfrique sont arrivees en Europe . Life Cycle? Comment nier plus categoriquement le travail de Rouch ? Cela dit, la complexite de la relation Sembene/ Rouch meriterait plus de recherches qui manquent singulierement. Kamad Bihzad Essay? [24] A titre dexemples, citons les contradictions entre lArmee francaise et ses allies americains de qui elle depend a divers niveaux ; entre les officiers de la coloniale et le capitaine Raymond de lArmee de la France libre ; entre les officiers francais (coloniaux ou non) et les tirailleurs senegalais ; entre deux anciens combattants francais, le capitaine Raymond et le tirailleur, sergent-chef Diatta ; entre les veterans tirailleurs rapatries a Thiaroye et les tirailleurs locaux. Led To The Protestant? [25] Un autre detournement creatif important dans le film qui nest pas aborde ici, cest lusage du francais-tirailleur . Bihzad? Sur ce point voir larticle en ligne de Cecile Van den Avenne (2008) qui soutient en conclusion que le francais-tirailleur fictionnel envahit le film, il devient la norme a laune de laquelle les autres varietes vont etre mesurees en terme decart (et notamment la variete litteraire hypercorrecte du sergent-chef Diatta). Aeneid Book Summaries? Des lors il perd tout pouvoir de stigmatisation de ses locuteurs. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay? Un renversement sest opere . Life Cycle Costing Advantages And Disadvantages? [26] Diallo, Laube tragique du 1er decembre 1944 a Thiaroye (Senegal) , Afrique histoire 7 (1983), 49-51 ; article reproduit dans le dossier du DVD de Camp de Thiaroye fait par la Mediatheque des 3 Mondes. Kamad? [27] Cette version des faits survenus a Thiaroye a laube du 1 er decembre 1944 est plus ou moins la meme que celle de lhistorien Myron Echenberg que cite Bernard Moitt (1997 : 136-137). Aeneid Summaries? [28] Voir Intervention de L. Kamad Essay Example? S. Stage Of Development? Senghor en faveur des condamnes de Thiaroye , une lettre de Leopold Sedar Senghor publiee dans Reveil 215 (12 juin 1947), reproduite dans le dossier du DVD de Camp de Thiaroye fait par la Mediatheque des 3 Mondes. Kamad Bihzad? [29] Dans un article sur des reecritures de lhistoire coloniale par des createurs africains, Eloise A. What Reformation? Briere fait une toute autre lecture du reseau transtextuel evident entre le film de Sembene Ousmane et le poeme de Senghor. Al-Din Essay? Elle ecrit : On peut concevoir ce film comme faisant partie dun reseau memoriel alternatif au discours senghorien, premier a evoquer, des 1940, les Tirailleurs de la Deuxieme Guerre (Briere 2007 : 144). Aeneid Book? A mon avis, les rapports entre Sembene Ousmane et Senghor ne sont ni aussi tranches ni aussi simples. Essay? Il y aurait toute une recherche a faire sur les echos de loeuvre senghorienne dans celle de Sembene Ousmane, du Guelowar / Guelwaar au Tyaroye / Thiaroye que les deux invoquent a la femme noire et les tirailleurs senegalais que les deux ont chante a leur maniere en passant par la polemique pretendument orthographique qui les a oppose au sujet de Ceddo . The Protestant? [30] Sur ce plaidoyer en francais-tirailleur, voir lanalyse de Van den Avenne (2008 : 119). Kamad Bihzad Essay? [31] Sur le processus decriture d Emitai , voir Guy Hennebelle 1985 : 27-28, et Paulin Soumanou Vieyra 1972 : 123-140, qui donne en details le contenu du scenario original.

Sur An Sitoe , plus connu comme Aline Sitoe Diatta ou Aliin Sitoe Diatta avec ses variantes orthographiques Aliin Sitooye Diatta ou Jatta, voir Wilmetta J. Aesthetic Response? Toliver-Diallo 2005. Kamad Bihzad Example? [32] Dans une note du 30 septembre 2009 sur une version de ce texte, Samba Gadjigo me signalait le caractere nettement historique de la prise de la direction de la Chambre de commerce par des Senegalais sur laquelle souvre Xala , de meme que le caractere autobiographique des reproches faits a El Hadj par lassemblee des mendiants. Aesthetic Response? Ce telescopage dune histoire collective et dune histoire personnelle se retrouve aussi dans Camp de Thiaroye notamment. Kamad Essay? Cest la sans doute une forme de la contre-ethnographie et de la poethique de Sembene Ousmane qui meriterait detre plus amplement etudiee. Aeneid Summaries? Par ailleurs, sur limportance capitale de lhistoire et de lhistoriographie dans son oeuvre, voir Gadjigo 2004. Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? [33] Suite a une question de Guy Hennebelle qui rappelait quon accuse le cinema ethnographique dentretenir une nostalgie secrete pour le bon sauvage , Rouch repond sans hesitation : Mais cest vrai ! Cest vrai ! Rousseau nous a tous marques. Advantages And Disadvantages? Nous sommes tous a la recherche de notre ethnie originelle (Martineau et al. Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? 1982 : 170). Vs. Nurture: Virtues Society? Il est evident que cette quete dexotisme (ou de lAutre) qui caracterise toute une ethnographie classique na rien a voir avec la demarche de Sembene Ousmane qui porte sur la crise quengendre une rencontre de Soi avec dAutres dans un proces de transformation. Kamad Bihzad? En ce sens, elle est demblee contre-ethnographique . Psychology Of Development? Nous sommes loin de la demarche classique dun Malinowski qui veut seloigner des siens pour mieux comprendre lAutre que tend encore a enseigner meme aujourdhui une certaine ethnologie ; voir Karen OReilly 2005 : chapitre 1. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad? [34] Selon Faye Ginsburg (1996: 835), Rouch a realise plus de 120 films, aussi importe-t-il de rappeler que ce commentaire porte avant tout sur les documentaires cites ici, non sur lensemble de sa production qui est difficilement accessible, et surtout comprend au moins de grands types de films, des documentaires proprement dits, et des docu-fictions ou ethnofictions . What Led To? [35] Ce classement numerique nimplique aucunement une hierarchisation. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Example? Il est donne pour faciliter la lecture. Stage Of Development? [36] Au passage, il importe de souligner que suivant en ce sens une tradition critique bien instituee, Meyer ne voit point le cinema de Sembene Ousmane, comme je le soutiens ici, un cinema ayant partie liee a lethnographique. Al-Din Essay Example? Par ailleurs, les exemples quelle donne comme caracteristiques de la tradition orale africaine ( la structure lineaire des recits, une certaine dialectique entre le protagoniste et lantagoniste, le caractere de lescroc ainsi que la quete ou laventure ) sont loin detre exclusivement ou meme proprement africains. Vs. Nurture: Virtues In Our Society? [37] Il importe de noter que cest la premiere epouse du mari de Colle qui demande a son mari dinterpreter le message des tam-tams comme si elle ne savait pas deja, du moins intuitivement, de quoi il en retournait.

Dans Emitai , il y a une scene plus ou moins similaire, mais il semble evident que lofficier francais qui demande au sergent tirailleur de lui interpreter les tam-tams annoncant la nomination du nouveau chef ne se doute point du contenu de ce message typiquement africain. Al-Din Bihzad? Ici, il est manifeste que le recours a linterprete est aussi un rappel de lethnologue questionnant son informateur (chapitre 3). Life Cycle Costing Advantages And Disadvantages? [38] Avec lexcision (au centre du Moolaade ), les croyances traditionnelles dites superstitieuses sont les champs privilegies des discours occidentaux ethnographiques ou non sur lAfrique. Kamad Bihzad Example? Oubliant leur propres marquages/ marchandages des corps , de la vogue des tatouages a la chirurgie plastique en passant par lindustrie de laugmentation du volume des organes sexuels, le Nord en general ne cesse de gloser sur ces pratiques africaines. Book Summaries? Sembene Ousmane les rejette, certes, mais cest de maniere respectueuse dans un souci de transformation sociale et non dune hantise du refus des pratiques de lAutre percues comme sauvages, primitives. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay? [39] Il y a plusieurs references explicites au cinema ou a des cineastes dans les films de Sembene Ousmane, voir entre autres : le petit garcon jouant a Zorro dans La Noire de. Nature Vs. Nurture: In Our Essay? (chapitre 12) ; les affiches entre autres de Charlie Chaplin et du Mandat dans Xala (chapitre 3) ; laffiche du Corbeau de Henri-Georges Clouzot dans Camp de Thiaroye (chapitre 2) voir photogrammes E1-2. Kamad Al-Din Essay? La presence de cette derniere affiche, comme toutes les autres, est motivee.

Elle renvoie fort probablement a une certaine collaboration francaise avec le fascisme, notamment dans les colonies : Le Corbeau etant lhistoire dune serie de denonciations (par lettres anonymes). Aesthetic Response? Il convient aussi de rappeler qua cause de ce film produit par une compagnie allemande etablie en France, Continental Films, Clouzot a ete accuse detre un collaborateur. Kamad Essay Example? Cest justement le reproche du sergent-chef Diatta a lArmee coloniale francaise en Afrique, lui qui, quelques jours avant avait vu lannonce du film sur un trottoir de Dakar, juste avant de se faire virer dun bordel, parce que bougnoule . Aeneid Book Summaries? En fait, on Kamad al-Din example, pourrait meme extrapoler et dire avec Paulin Soumanou Vieyra qui cite a titre dexemple : le chapelet dans Borom Sarret ; le mandat dans le film eponyme ; le masque dans La Noire de. What? ; le pantalon dans Taw que les objets dans les films de Sembene Ousmane, peu importe leur nature, sont significatifs quand ils ne sont pas symboliques (Vieyra 1972 : 155). Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? [40] La similitude ici etablie entre ethnologie et anthropologie, bien que contestee ou contestable, est assez instituee, du moins dans lespace francophone. Life Cycle Costing? Elle se retrouve sous la plume de plusieurs auteurs fort representatifs de la profession de Michel Izard qui soutient : lethnographie intervient . Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Example? dans la premiere etape du travail anthropologique a Francois Laplantine et Francine Saillant qui ecrivent lanthropologie . Psychology Stage? est dabord ethnographie (voir Izard 2007 : 470 ; Laplantine et Saillant 2005 : 21). Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example? Par ailleurs, il importe de rappeler que notre propos concerne avant tout lethnologie/ethnographie moderne dite classique, celle instituee entre autres dans la foulee des travaux dun Malinowski qui fait du terrain , autrement dit le sejour prolonge dans la societe autre a decrire, une etape incontournable de la recherche (voir Izard 2007 et OReilly 2005 : chapitre 1). Aeneid Book? [41] Voir Manthia Diawara, Rouch in al-Din Essay Reverse [video] (San Francisco: California Newsreel, 1995). Aesthetic? [42] Pour un regard de premiere main sur ces cinemas latino-americains, voir entre autres : Fernando Solanas 1975 ; Jean Jonassaint 1978. Kamad Al-Din? [43] Selon Mamadou Diouf, dans une note fort judicieuse sur linterdiction du film au Senegal, ce nest que cinq ans apres sa sortie en 1981, suite a la demission du president Senghor, que Ceddo a pu etre presente au public senegalais voir Diouf (1997 : 20, note 2). Aesthetic? [44] Voir entre autres Pierre Haffner qui dit : cet Empire Songhai , . on Kamad al-Din Bihzad example, ne sait pas tres bien sil est acheve. Psychology Stage Of Development? (Haffner 1985 : 88). Al-Din Bihzad Essay? [45] Par ailleurs, comme me le signalait Samba Gadjigo dans un courriel en date du 30 septembre 2009, il importe de noter quune autre lecture possible soit que le veritable probleme rencontre par Therese Mbissine Diop, releve de lostracisme contre le metier de comedien qui est le plus souvent associe aux castes dites inferieures. Of Development? [46] Voir France Diplomatie, Le Complot dAristote de Jean-Pierre Bekolo a http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/actions-france_830/cinema_886/aides-production_5622/films-aides_5623/films-aides-par-fonds-sud_5624/cameroun_7113/complot-aristote_7178/index.html. Kamad Bihzad Example? [47] Voir Entretien dOlivier Barlet avec Jean-Pierre Bekolo (Cameroun) a propos du Complot dAristote , Africultures (juin 1997) en ligne a http://www.africultures.com/php/index.php?nav=articleno=2477 . Life And Disadvantages? [48] Voir Les Lecons de cinema (de Beaque 2007), avec entre autres des textes de Youssef Chahine, Milos Forman, Stephen Frears, Nanni Moretti, Sydney Pollack, Francesco Rosi, Volker Schlondorff, Oliver Stone, Bertrand Tavernier, Agnes Varda, Wim Wenders, Wong Kar Wai. Jean Jonassaint enseigne actuellement les litteratures francophones et antillaises et le cinema a Syracuse University. Essay Example? Cofondateur de lAssociation des editeurs de periodiques culturels quebecois devenue la SODEP, en plus de nombreux travaux sur les litteratures francophones et latino-americaines, il a publie cinq livres dont Typo/Topo/ Poethique. The Great Gatsby Chapter 1? Sur Franketienne (2008). Jean Jonassaint currently teaches Francophone and Bihzad Essay, Caribbean literature, and gatsby 1, cinema at al-Din Bihzad, Syracuse University. Nature Virtues In Our Society? One of the al-Din Bihzad Essay example founding members of the Nature Virtues Society Association des editeurs de periodiques culturels quebecoise, now the al-Din Bihzad example SODEP, besides his numerous works on chapter, Francophone and example, Latin-American literature, he has published five books of reformation, which Typo/Topo/ Poethique: sur Franketienne (2008). Bio-biliographie Filmographie annotees de Sembene Ousmane (1923-2007) [Notez les changements de frequences et de formes de production avant et apres les independances africaines (1960); avant et apres les premiers longs metrages (1966)]

1956, Le Docker noir [roman]. Bihzad? Paris, Debresse. Five Percenter Rap: God Hops Music, Message, and the great gatsby chapter, Black Muslim Mission. Al-Din Bihzad Example? By Felicia M. Response? Miyakawa. Kamad Bihzad Example? (Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 2005. Life Advantages? Pp. Al-Din Essay Example? 190, black/white photographs, appendix, glossary, notes, bibliography, discography, indexes, music credits, ISBN 0-253-21763-6) Lieux de lidentite : Quelques reflexions sur le devoir de porter temoignage face a limperatif de construire au present le lien social (Hommage a Aime Cesaire)

Par Bogumil Jewsiewicki. Jeunesse a risque. Stage? Rite et passage. Al-Din Bihzad? Par Denis Jeffrey, David Le Breton et Joseph Josy Levy. Aesthetic Response? (Saint-Nicolas, Presses de lUniversite Laval, 2005. Bihzad Essay Example? Pp. Response? 168, ISBN 2-7637-8202-7) Par Francesca Desilets. Vestiges de lindiscipline.

Environnements dart et anarchitectures . Kamad Essay Example? Par Valerie Rousseau. 1? (Gatineau, Musee canadien des civilisations, Collection Mercure, Etudes culturelles no 81, 2006, Pp. Al-Din Essay Example? 193, ISBN 9780660972329)

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5 Must-Dos For Outstanding Essay Writing. By Clare #038; Chris on February 21, 2011 45 Comments. Essay writing is so important, so here#039;s what you can do to help your child write great ones! Your teen needs to step up to the mark because school is getting harder. High school education continues to move away from tests with one word answers and towards students having to come up with paragraph or even full essay answers. And theres a good reason for this. The internet has become so widespread and so accessible, that having a library of singular facts stored in your head is no longer helpful. The average cell phone can now access Google or Wikipedia anywhere. Type in your question and Kamad al-Din Bihzad example, boom, there#8217;s your answer. Essays require more than just a memorization of aesthetic, facts. Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example! They require students to have an understanding of what theyre talking about.

They also require students to know how to led to the protestant, express themselves clearly and concisely in writing. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad! Being able to communicate well is an absolute must in the real world. It#8217;s also necessary in of development all subject courses at university, and definitely in any professional capacity. Kamad Al-Din Example! Essay writing is of development, definitely a learnable skill, but not necessarily a straight forward one for a lot of students. Because we want your teen to master essay writing as much as they can during their time at high school, here are 5 tips that will significantly increase your teens essay marks. 1. Every essay must have a proper structure. An essay must be broken into paragraphs to make it readable. Its horrible reading a full page of solid text. Breaking down an essay into different sections is what allows it to flow in a logical manner. At high school all essays should follow a simple formula. Al-Din Bihzad! Your teen needs to learn this formula off by heart!

Introduction: Tell #8217;em what youre gonna tell em. Introduce the topic and briefly outline the points youre going to cycle advantages and disadvantages, make in your essay in Bihzad Essay example the order you#8217;re going to write about them. If the aesthetic, essay is meant to argue a point, your teen should make it clear in the introduction what their argument/point of Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay, view is. Body Paragraphs: Tell em. At high school an essay will usually have 3-5 paragraphs. Each paragraph contains its own main point that contributes to the overall theme or argument of the essay. (These paragraphs follow their own structure see tip # 2) Conclusion: Tell em what you told em. Aesthetic! Sum up what the essay was about. Al-Din Essay Example! 2. Each body paragraph must have a proper structure. Not only does the aesthetic, essay as a whole need structure, each paragraph needs to meet certain requirements. S = Statement: This is the main point of the paragraph. What part of the film is being discussed and what did it mean to the film?

What was important about an historical event and how did it affect later events? Basically, whats the point youre about to discuss in this paragraph. E = Explanation: Explain what you said in al-Din Bihzad your statement. Tell the chapter 1, reader why your statement is true. Why did the setting reflect how the main character was feeling? In what way did the weather affect the al-Din Essay, outcome of the battle? This part should make up the bulk of the paragraph.

X = eXample Give an example! A quote, an the great gatsby example, a fact. Something concrete that gives evidence to Kamad Bihzad, your statement. I = Importance Why is the point youve made in vs. Nurture: this paragraph important? What does it mean to al-Din example, the story, or the film, or the event? Tell the reader why it matters. This one might not always be applicable, but if you can then go for it. 3. What Led To Reformation! Every essay needs an essay plan. You wouldnt go on a road trip without a map and Kamad al-Din Essay example, essays are just the same. Nature Virtues! Before your teen starts writing an essay they should make a quick plan of what theyre going to write about. Essay! An essay plan does not have to be a big thing.

Not at all. It only cycle advantages and disadvantages takes a few minutes but will save your teen SO much time overall. Kamad Al-Din Essay Example! Essay plans instantly give an essay structure, they prevent you from forgetting to include any important points, and they prevent you from losing your way as you write. An essay plan can be quickly scribbled in a margin, or the the protestant, first page of an Bihzad Essay exam book that isnt marked. Here is an example of the cycle costing and disadvantages, way I would do an essay plan before I started writing. (It#8217;s for the film The Matrix #8230;) Essay Plan Example. Each of the al-Din Bihzad Essay, three #8216;fingers#8217; coming off each paragraph make up #8216;SEXI#8217;. I haven#8217;t done the #8216;I#8217; part, but within each paragraph I would try and emphasize why this point was important to the setting of the film.

Every time your teen writes an cycle costing essay, whether it#8217;s just for example, practise or in an exam, they need to jot down the points that are going to fill their SEXI for vs. Nurture: in our Society Essay, each paragraph. The detail that they list here means they dont have to worry about forgetting anything important while theyre writing. This depends on what situation the Kamad Bihzad, essay is being written in. If its being written for homework and your teen doesnt have the time pressure of an psychology exam, it can be a good idea to go and do something else for Essay example, a while once theyve finished writing. You know when you come back to look at something youve written and response, you see all the al-Din Essay example, little mistakes you didnt notice before? This is why. Your teen should check that the paragraphs are written in a logical order. Simply put does the essay make sense?

Does each paragraph follows SEXI? Get them to read their essay aloud (or in aeneid their head) so they can see how it flows (or doesnt as it may be). Kamad Bihzad Essay Example! If the essay is being written in an exam your teen won#8217;t have the luxury of time. So the number one rule here is: stay until the end! While it may seem like eternity to a high school student, exams arent actually that long. And a few minutes of life advantages and disadvantages, proof reading can often make the difference between one grade and another.

Its worth staying right to the end. Writing essays can be practised! Many students go through a whole year at school and only do one or two practice essays (that they were forced to do). They may know the Kamad Essay example, subject backwards, but if they dont know how to write a good essay then theyre screwed. What The Protestant Reformation! Make sure your teen includes practice essays as part of their exam preparation. Getting a hold of past exams and using them to practise is a great idea. If you can then have a read of their work yourself thats fantastic. They might need an adult eye to pick up something thats not quite right.

Even better, get your teen to ask their teacher to mark it. Most teachers would love an interested student to ask them to mark a practice essay! If you think your teen would benefit from exam tips, including how to write fantastic exam essays, it might be worth checking out our Exam Survival Package. You can read what other parents have said about it here. Was this helpful?

Similar articles: This is a great article! I love it for its succinctness and think it would make a great poster in Bihzad Essay example a high school classroom! I forwarded it to all three of my kids! i looooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooved this article. Aeneid Book! it really helped me making an essay in my 5th grade class and guess what I got a 4 by just remebering these tips! I am in fifth grade And I have to write an essay in an hour and a half tomorrow. This really helped me understand and I will post my grade when I am informed of it. Thank you so much for the tips and I will be sure yo use them on al-Din Essay, my essay. Dear Clare and what led to the protestant reformation, Chris: I#8217;m a Mexican teacher of English as a foreign language and Kamad al-Din Essay, I#8217;m constantly searching for guidance to improve my teaching. I teach a preparation course for the FCE by Cambridge. I truly appreciate your generosity to share these great guidelines.. I live in Merida, Yucatan. Psychology Stage Of Development! That is the Yucatan peninsula, just 3 hour drive from Cancun.

I#8217;d love to be of any help if you ever plan on travelling down here. This article has helped me a lot because I#8217;ve been trying to write a 1000 word essay due at school and hadn#8217;t started but I did an essay plan and that has helped me a lot. Thanks. tell em about Kamad Bihzad Essay sexi. Life Cycle Advantages! The Study Gurus says. Thanks so much for your feedback Lisa! The whole idea of this article is to al-Din Bihzad example, get students to reformation, realize there#8217;s a formula to essay writing they can apply every time. In a classroom is Bihzad, a great idea! We#8217;ll definitely be getting in touch with teachers we know about that one. Life Cycle Costing Advantages And Disadvantages! I have to Kamad example, agree with Lisa this is a great summary of how to write an essay.

And a great guide for parents wanting to help without getting caught up in cricising spelling or the whole thing. In an psychology of development exam, I also jotted down the relevant points I could think of, added a relevant example/quote/fact then sorted into al-Din Essay example order for life costing and disadvantages, the essay. It really was effective in clarifying what to write when you can#8217;t cut and Bihzad Essay example, paste your work! And saved a lot of life advantages and disadvantages, time as I had lots of Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay example, time for writing rather than getting the ideas tumbling over each other. sania benazza says. hello!could you please display some model essays as revision purpose for #8216;A#8217; level. Hi im taking a state test tomorrow and im having trouble with writing essays i hope this article will help. cool i also agree lisa.

Really useful and clearly explained, thank you. I will forward to my thirteen year old. Thanks Smidge I hope they find it useful! That#8217;s Clare for your valuable comments. i am a teen therteen year old teen and we do essys alot in school and the great 1, your stuff helped me alot. Thank you Salma! That#8217;s fantastic, but it#8217;s you doing the work and studying hard, so good for you! Best of luck with your study this year #128578; jimbob cutia says. same im working do hard on mid term report i have to write a 5 page essay this helps alot. I am a 13yr old in yr8 and were doing essays in English at Kamad al-Din the moment on the book #8216;Tomorrow When The War Began#8217;. this helped a lot with my essay writing #128578; I am going to recommend this website to people I know who are having trouble with writing essays. Life Costing Advantages And Disadvantages! Thank you KC that#8217;s fantastic you#8217;re finding our tips useful, but you#8217;re the Bihzad Essay, one who is putting them to use so well done you!! I loved the aeneid summaries, Tomorrow When the War Began series, I hope you#8217;re enjoying the Kamad Essay example, books too!

Keep up the gatsby chapter 1, good work awesome stuff! #128578; Love the Kamad al-Din, SEXI structure #128521; Wow! really this one is vs. Nurture: in our Essay, very useful. Tmr going to be my n level English examm#8230;gonna use this steps to al-Din Bihzad Essay example, use for my argumentative essay. .hope it help:) A brilliant and informative article. I really appreciate your effort in writing this. Good article #8230; SEXI. I loooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooved this it really helped me realize what an the great 1 essay is all about and i got a 4 on Kamad al-Din, writing my essay so thanks!

Well done Rachel that#8217;s fantastic!! Go you!! Israel Ryan says. This really helped. this is really helpful im gonna take the ela state test tomorrow my english teacher tells us tip but never really help us in writing. Paty Valdez says. You have saved me with this info! I was looking for something attractive and fun enough to help me introduce essay writing and this works well! Thank you!

Thank you for this article. Of Development! Its very useful to me. omg tysm for this! jasmeen sidhu says. Kamad! SEXI really helped my essay in grade 7. This article is aesthetic, really helpful! Thank you. Now i understand what SEXI means in al-Din Bihzad Essay essay writing. Thanks fr the what led to, wonderful information. This is fantastic. My children, 12 and 9, found this very useful as booster for their previous knowledge. Thanks for this good work. Please continue.

But you do not get enough time to make a structure plan in the exam#8230;. Is there any alternative for that#8230;?? I would be waiting for an example. Hi there, we hope that this article has given a few simple tips on Kamad Essay example, how your son should do about writing a good essay. You can check out all of led to reformation, our posts on essay writing here. Our Exam Survival Package also has a great video on writing essays in exams. Plus there are hundreds of other tips all centered around getting fantastic exam results in the videos too! Check it out here. This is a great resource very informative and accessible! A small grammar gripe you misuse practice (noun)/practise (verb) throughout and the title doesn#8217;t need an apostrophe.

Writing essays should be practised! Actually, the apostrophe is okay. Thank you for this outline. Hi Erin, thanks for your comments! Yes thank you for pointing out the Kamad Bihzad, practice/practise error. Summaries! This article is a few years old now and I#8217;ve since been schooled on al-Din Bihzad Essay, the difference between the two, but I don#8217;t believe they distinguish between the two in the US, so someone is always going to think that I am wrong #128578; [#8230;] While a school essay is not the the great chapter, same as writing for a business or website, I wanted to recommend this great blog post I just read about writing school essays. [#8230;] [#8230;] You can help your teen make their writing simpler and more like a straight-A students by Bihzad Essay, helping them plan their essays. Life Cycle Costing Advantages! [#8230;] [#8230;] may not understand how to apply what they have learnt in class to the essay format, or how to Kamad Bihzad Essay, structure an essay, or how to structure paragraphs or sentences, or how to convey what they understand about the topic to the reader in a clear and concise [#8230;] Also get our free 2-week email course and study articles sent to your inbox.

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essay on morphemes This is the Kamad example, first of a sequence of life cycle advantages lectures discussing various levels of linguistic analysis. Words are the most accessible (and maybe the most important) aspect of Kamad Bihzad Essay human language, and so we'll start with morphology , which deals with morphemes (the minimal units of linguistic form and vs. Nurture: Virtues Essay, meaning), and how they make up words. We'll then head towards the physical embodiment of words, and discuss phonology , which deals with phonemes (the meaningless elements that spell out the sound of morphemes), and phonetics , which studies the way language is embodied in al-Din Bihzad Essay example the activity of speaking, the resulting physical sounds, and the process of speech perception.. Then we'll head in the other direction, towards meaning and the great, communication, starting with syntax , which deals with the way that words are combined into phrases and Bihzad example, sentences. Finally, we'll take up two aspects of meaning, namely semantics , which deals with how sentences are connected with things in the world outside of what reformation language, and pragmatics , which deals with how people use all the levels of language to communicate. The peculiar nature of Kamad Bihzad Essay example morphology. From a logical point of view, morphology is the oddest of the levels of linguistic analysis. The Protestant Reformation? Whenever I give this lecture to an introductory class, I'm always reminded of al-Din example what the particle physicist Isidor Rabi said when he learned about the discovery of the muon: Who ordered that ? Here's a version of the story from a NYT review of a book The Hunting of the Quark : In the fifth century B.C., that prescient Greek philosopher started humanity on its search for the universe's ultimate building blocks when he suggested that all matter was made of infinitesimally small particles called atoms. What Reformation? In 1897, the British physicist J. Al-Din Essay? J. Thomson complicated the life cycle costing advantages and disadvantages, issue when he discovered the first subatomic particle, the electron.

Later, others recognized the proton and neutron. Kamad Al-Din Example? As atom smashers grew in the next few decades, myriads of ephemeral particles appeared in the debris, a veritable Greek alphabet soup of aesthetic lambdas, sigmas and pions. ''Who ordered that?'' exclaimed the theorist Isidor I. Rabi when the muon was identified. Given the basic design of Bihzad human spoken language, the levels of phonology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics are arguably unavoidable. They needn't look exactly the chapter 1, way that they do, perhaps, but there has to be something to do the work of each of these levels. But morphology is basically gratuitous, as well as complex and irregular: anything that a language does with morphology, it usually can also do more straightforwardly with syntax; and Kamad Bihzad Essay, there is always some other language that does the same thing with syntax. For instance, English morphology inflects nouns to specify plurality: thus dogs means more than one dog. This inflection lets us be specific, in a compact way, about the distinction between one and more-than-one. Of course, we could always say the same thing in chapter 1 a more elaborated way, using the resources of al-Din Bihzad syntax rather than morphology: more than one dog . Nature Virtues Society? If we want to be vague, we have to be long winded: one or more dogs ; a number of dogs greater than one ; etc. Modern Standard Chinese (also known as Mandarin or Putonghua) makes exactly the opposite choice: there is no morphological marking for Kamad al-Din Bihzad example plurality, so we can be succinctly vague about whether we mean one or more of something, while we need to be more long-winded if we want to be specific.

Thus (in Pinyin orthography with tone numbers after each syllable): As an example of another kind of morphological packaging, English can make iconify from icon and -ify , meaning make into an icon. Perhaps it's nice to cycle costing have a single word for it, but we could always have said make into an icon. And many languages lack any general way to turn a noun X into a verb meaning to make into (an) X, and so must use the longer-winded mode of Kamad Essay expression. Indeed, the process in English is rather erratic: we say vaporize not *vaporify , and led to reformation, emulsify not *emulsionify , and so on. In fact, one of the ways that morphology typically differs from syntax is its combinatoric irregularity. Words are mostly combined logically and Kamad al-Din, systematically. Cycle Costing Advantages And Disadvantages? So when you exchange money for Kamad something you can be said to buy it or to purchase it -- we'd be surprised if (say) groceries, telephones and timepieces could only be purchased, while clothing, automobiles and pencils could only be bought, and things denoted by cycle costing advantages, words of one syllable could only Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay example, be acquired in exchange for and disadvantages money. Yet irrational combinatoric nonsense of this type happens all the time in morphology. Consider the adjectival forms of the names of countries or regions in English.

There are at least a half a dozen different endings, and also many variations in how much of the name of the country is Bihzad Essay retained before the ending is added: And you can't mix 'n match stems and endings here: * Taiwanian , * Egyptese , and so on life cycle costing and disadvantages just don't work. To make it worse, the word for citizen of X and the general adjectival form meaning associated with locality X are usually but not always the same. Exceptions include Pole/Polish , Swede/Swedish , Scot/Scottish , Greenlander/Greenlandic . And there are some oddities about pluralization: we talk about the French and al-Din Bihzad Essay example, the Chinese but the Greeks and the Canadians. The plural forms the Frenches and the Chineses are not even possible, and the singular forms the Greek and the Canadian mean something entirely different.

It's worse in book summaries some ways than having to memorize a completely different word in every case (like The Netherlands and (the) Dutch), because there are just enough partial regularities to be confusing. This brings up former president George W. Bush. For years, there was a web feature at Kamad al-Din example, Slate magazine devoted to Nature Essay Bushisms, many if not most of them arising from his individual approach to English morphology. Some of the Kamad Essay example, early and life advantages and disadvantages, famous examples, from the 1999 presidential campaign, focus on Kamad example the particular case under discussion here: If the East Timorians decide to revolt, I'm sure I'll have a statement.

Quoted by Maureen Dowd in the New YorkTimes, June 16, 1999. Keep good relations with the Grecians. Quoted in gatsby 1 the Economist, June 12, 1999. Kosovians can move back in. Essay Example? CNN Inside Politics, April 9, 1999. President Bush, if these quotes are accurate, quite sensibly decided that -ian should be the default ending, after deletion of the great chapter a final vowel if present. This follows the common model of Brazil :: Brazilians and Canada::Canadians , and gives Bush's East Timor::East Timorians , Greece::Grecians and Kosovo::Kosovians , instead of the correct (but unpredictable) forms East Timorese , Greeks and Kosovars . And why not? The President's method is more logical than the way the English language handles it. Bihzad Example? (Though if you follow his example, people will mock you for being ignorant, because memorizing these arbitrary patterns is an important form of cultural capital.)

Despite these derivational anfractuosities, English morphology is simple and regular compared to the morphological systems of many other languages. One question we need to ask ourselves is: why do languages inflict morphology on their users -- and their politicians? We've started talking blithely about words and morphemes as if it were obvious that these categories exist and that we know them when we see them. This assumption comes naturally to vs. Nurture: Virtues literate speakers of English, because we've learned through reading and writing where white space goes, which defines word boundaries for Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay example us; and aesthetic, we soon see many cases where English words have internal parts with separate meanings or grammatical functions, which must be morphemes. In some languages, the application of al-Din Bihzad these terms is even clearer. Gatsby 1? In languages like Latin, for example, words can usually be scrambled into nearly any order in a phrase. As Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar says, In connected discourse the al-Din Bihzad Essay, word most prominent in what led to the protestant reformation the speaker's mind comes first, and so on in order of prominence. Thus the simple two-word sentence facis amice you act kindly also occurs as amice facis with essentially the same meaning, but some difference in Kamad Bihzad example emphasis. However, the morphemes that make up each of these two words must occur in a fixed order and without anything inserted between them.

The word amice combines the stem /amic-/ loving, friendly, kind and response, the adverbial ending /-e/; we can't change the order of these, or put another word in between them. Likewise the verb stem /fac-/ do, make, act and the inflectional ending /-is/ (second person singular present tense active) are fixed in their relationship in the word facis , and can't be reordered or separated. Among many others, the modern Slavic languages such as Czech and Russian show a similar contrast between words freely circulating within phrases, and morphemes rigidly arranged within words. In such languages, the basic concepts of word and Kamad Bihzad example, morpheme are natural and inevitable analytic categories. In a language like English, where word order is much less free, we can still find evidence of a similar kind for the distinction between morphemes and words. For example, between two words we can usually insert some other words (without changing the basic meaning and relationship of the originals), while between two morphemes we usually can't. Thus in life costing and disadvantages the phrase she has arrived, we treat she and has as separate words, while the /-ed/ ending of arrived is Essay treated as part of a larger word. In accordance with this, we can introduce other material into the white space between the life costing and disadvantages, words: she apparently has already arrived. But there is no way to put anything at all in between /arrive/ and /-ed/.

And there are other forms of the example, sentence in which the word order is different -- has she arrived?; arrived, has she? -- but no form in which the morphemes in arrived are re-ordered. Tests of this kind don't entirely agree with the conventions of English writing. For example, we can't really stick other words in the middle of life cycle costing and disadvantages compound words like swim team and picture frame , at least not while maintaining the Kamad al-Din Bihzad example, meanings and relationships of the words we started with. In this sense they are not very different from the morphemes in complex words like re+calibrate or consumer+ism , which we write solid, i.e. Led To The Protestant? without spaces. A recent (and controversial) official spelling reform of German make changes in both directions splitting some compounds orthographically while merging others: old radfahren became new Rad fahren , but old Samstag morgen became new Samstagmorgen . As this change emphasizes, the question of whether a morpheme sequence is written solid is largely a matter of orthographic convention, and in any case may be variable even in Kamad Bihzad Essay a particular writing system. English speakers feel that many noun-noun compounds are words, even though they clearly contain other words, and may often be written with a space or a hyphen between them: sparkplug, shot glass. These are common combinations with a meaning that is not entirely predictable from the meanings of aeneid book summaries their parts, and therefore they can be found as entries in most English dictionaries.

But where should we draw the line? are all noun compounds to be considered words , including those where compounds are compounded? What about (say) government tobacco price support program ? In ordinary usage, we'd be more inclined to call this a phrase, though it is technically correct to Bihzad call it a compound noun and response, thus in some sense a single -- though complex -- word. Of course, in German, similarly complex compounds might be written solid, making their wordhood plainer -- at the cost of making them harder to read. The champion of German compound-word length used to Kamad al-Din example be. . at least until the stage of development, regulation in question was withdrawn in 2013. (And note that some of these words are made up of smaller pieces, like etikettierung labelling, which contains the pieces etikett-ier-ung , analogous to English label-ize-ing . There are a number of interesting theories out there about al-Din Bihzad why morphology exists, and why it has the properties that it does. If these theories turn out to be correct, then maybe linguistics will be as lucky with the complexities of morphology as physics was with Greek alphabet soup of elementary particles discovered in the fifties and sixties, which turned out to be complex composites of psychology stage of development quarks and leptons, composed according to the elegant laws of quantum chromodynamics. Universality of the concepts word and morpheme Do the concepts of word and morpheme then apply in all languages? The answer is Kamad al-Din Essay example (probably) yes . Certainly the concept of stage morpheme -- the minimal unit of form and Kamad al-Din example, meaning -- arises naturally in the analysis of led to the protestant every language. The concept of word is trickier. There are at least two troublesome issues: making the distinction between words and phrases, and the status of certain grammatical formatives known as clitics . Since words can be made up of Kamad Bihzad several morphemes, and may include several other words, it is psychology stage easy to Bihzad Essay find cases where a particular sequence of elements might arguably be considered either a word or a phrase.

We've already looked at the great gatsby 1, the case of compounds in English. In some languages, this boundary is even harder to draw. In the case of Chinese, the eminent linguist Y.R. Chao wrote (1968), 'Not every language has a kind of al-Din Bihzad Essay example unit which behaves in most (not to speak all) respects as does the vs. Nurture: Virtues in our Society, unit called word . Al-Din? It is therefore a matter of Nature vs. Nurture: Virtues in our Society fiat and not a question of fact whether to apply the word word to a type of subunit in the Chinese sentence.' On the other hand, other linguists have argued that the Kamad Essay, distinction between words and phrases is both definable and useful in Chinese grammar. The Chinese writing system has no tradition of led to the protestant reformation using spaces or other delimiters to mark word boundaries; and in fact the whole issue of how (and whether) to define words in Chinese does not seem to have arisen until 1907, although the Kamad al-Din Essay example, Chinese grammatical tradition goes back a couple of millennia. In most languages, there is the great 1 a set of elements whose status as separate words seems ambiguous. Essay Example? Examples in English include the 'd (reduced form of the great gatsby 1 would), the infinitival to , and the article a , in I'd like to buy a dog . Kamad Essay Example? These forms certainly can't stand alone as a complete utterance, as some definitions of word would have it. The sound pattern of these little words is aeneid summaries also usually extremely reduced, in a way that makes them act like part of the words adjacent to them.

There isn't any difference in pronunciation between the noun phrase a tack and the verb attack . However, these forms are like separate words in Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay some other ways, especially in terms of how they combine with other words. Members of this class of little words are known as clitics . Their peculiar properties can be explained by assuming that they are independent elements at the syntactic level of aesthetic analysis, but become part of adjacent words at the phonological level. That is, they both are and are not words. Some languages write clitics as separate words, while others write them together with their adjacent host words. English writes most clitics separate, but uses the special apostrophe separator for example some clitics, such as the what, reduced forms of is , have and would ( 's 've 'd ), and Kamad al-Din Essay, possessive 's . The possessive 's in Nature vs. Nurture: Virtues English is an instructive example, because we can contrast its behavior with that of the Kamad Bihzad, plural s . Aeneid Book? These two morphemes are pronounced in Kamad example exactly the chapter, same variable way, dependent on the sounds that precede them:

And neither the plural nor the al-Din Essay, possessive can be used by itself. In Our Society Essay? So from this point of view, the possessive acts like a part of the al-Din example, noun, just as the plural does. However, the plural and possessive behave very differently in some other ways: If we add a following modifier to a noun, the possessive follows the modifier, but the plural sticks with the head noun: In other words, the plural continues like part of the psychology stage of development, noun, but the Kamad al-Din example, possessive acts like a separate word, which follows the whole phrase containing the psychology stage of development, noun (even though it is merged in terms of sound with the Kamad al-Din example, last word of psychology stage of development that noun phrase). There are lots of nouns with irregular plurals, but none with irregular possessives: Actually, English does have few irregular possessives: his, her , my , your , their . But these exceptions prove the Kamad al-Din Bihzad, rule: these pronominal possessives act like inflections, so that the possessor is always the referent of the pronoun itself, not of some larger phrase that it happens to be at the end of. So the possessive 's in English is like a word in some ways, and what led to the protestant, like an inflectional morpheme in some others. This kind of al-Din Bihzad Essay mixed status is commonly found with words that express grammatical functions. It is one of the ways that morphology develops historically.

As a historical matter, a clitic is life costing advantages likely to start out Bihzad, as a fully separate word, and then weaken so as to merge phonologically with its hosts. In many cases, inflectional affixes may have been clitics at in our, an earlier historical stage, and then lost their syntactic independence. [A book that used to be the course text for al-Din LING001 lists the English possessive 's as an inflectional affix, and earlier versions of these lecture notes followed the text in this regard. This is an life cycle costing advantages, easy mistake to make: in Kamad Bihzad example most languages with possessive morphemes, they behave like inflections, and it's natural to think of 's as analogous to (say) the Latin genitive case. Nevertheless, it's clear that English possessive 's is a clitic and response, not an inflectional affix.]

Important distinctions are often difficult to define for cases near the boundary. This is among the reasons that we have lawyers and courts. Al-Din? The relative difficulty of making a distinction is not a strong argument, one way or the response, other, for the value of that distinction: it's not always easy, for example, to distinguish homicide from other (and less serious) kinds of involvement in Kamad Bihzad Essay example someone's death. Despite the difficulties of distinguishing word from phrase on one side and gatsby chapter 1, from morpheme on the other, most linguists find the concept of word useful and Kamad, even essential in analyzing most languages. In the end, we wind up with two definitions of cycle advantages word : the ordinary usage, where that exists (as it does for English or Spanish, and does not for Chinese); and Bihzad Essay example, a technical definition, emerging from a particular theory about language structure as applied to a specific language. Relationship between words and morphemes.

What is the what led to, relationship between words and morphemes? It's a hierarchical one: a word is made up of one or more morphemes. Most commonly, these morphemes are strung together, or concatenated, in al-Din Essay example a line. However, it is life cycle advantages not uncommon to find non-concatenative morphemes . Thus the Arabic root /ktb/ write has (among many other forms) The three consonants of the root are not simply concatenated with other morphemes meaning things like imperfective or passive, but rather are shuffled among the vowels and syllable positions that define the various forms. Kamad Essay? Still, a given word is still made up of a set of morphemes, it's just that the set is not combined by simple concatenation in all cases. Simpler examples of non-concatenative morphology include infixes , like the insertion of emphatic words in English cases like un-frigging-believable, or Tagalog. Categories and subcategories of words and morphemes. The different types of words are variously called parts of speech , word classes , or lexical categories . The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language gives this list of 8 for English: noun. This set might be further subdivided: here is a list of 36 part-of-speech tags used in led to reformation the Penn TreeBank project.

Most of the increase (from 8 to 36) is by subdivision (e.g. noun divided into singular common noun, plural common noun, singular proper noun, plural proper noun, etc., but there are a few extra odds and ends, such as cardinal number. Other descriptions of English have used slightly different ways of Kamad al-Din Essay example dividing the Virtues Society, pie, but it is generally easy to see how one scheme translates into another. Looking across languages, we can see somewhat greater differences. For instance, some languages don't really distinguish between verbs and adjectives. Kamad Bihzad Example? In such languages, we can think of adjectives as a kind of vs. Nurture: Virtues verb: the Kamad Bihzad example, grass greens, rather than the stage of development, grass is green. Other differences reflect different structural choices. For instance, English words like in , on , under , with are called prepositions , and this name makes sense given that they precede the noun phrase they introduce: with a stick . In many languages, the words that correspond to English prepositions follow their noun phrase rather than preceding it, and are thus more properly called postpositions , as in the following Hindi example: Ram cari-se kutte-ko mara. Ram stick-with dog hit. Ram hit the dog with an Kamad, stick.

Bound Morphemes : cannot occur on the great gatsby their own, e.g. de- in detoxify , -tion in creation , -s in dogs , cran- in cranberry . Free Morphemes : can occur as separate words, e.g. car, yes. In a morphologically complex word -- a word composed of more than one morpheme -- one constituent may be considered as the Kamad Essay, basic one, the core of the form, with the others treated as being added on. Aesthetic Response? The basic or core morpheme in such cases is referred to as the stem, root, or base , while the add-ons are affixes. Affixes that precede the stem are of course prefixes , while those that follow the al-Din Bihzad, stem are suffixes . Aesthetic? Thus in rearranged , re- is a prefix, arrange is a stem, and -d is a suffix. Morphemes can also be infixes , which are inserted within another form. English doesn't really have any infixes, except perhaps for certain expletives in expressions like un-effing-believable or Kalama-effing-zoo . Prefixes and suffixes are almost always bound, but what about the stems? Are they always free?

In English, some stems that occur with negative prefixes are not free, giving us problematic unpairs like as -kempt and -sheveled. Kamad Example? Bad jokes about some of these missing bound morphemes have become so frequent that they may re-enter common usage. Morphemes can also be divided into 1, the two categories of al-Din Bihzad Essay content and function morphemes, a distinction that is conceptually distinct from the free-bound distinction but that partially overlaps with it in practice. The idea behind this distinction is what that some morphemes express some general sort of referential or informational content , in a way that is as independent as possible of the grammatical system of a particular language -- while other morphemes are heavily tied to a grammatical function , expressing syntactic relationships between units in a sentence, or obligatorily-marked categories such as number or tense. Thus (the stems of) nouns, verbs, adjectives are typically content morphemes: throw, green, Kim, and sand are all English content morphemes. Content morphemes are also often called open-class morphemes, because they belong to categories that are open to Kamad al-Din Essay example the invention of the great gatsby chapter arbitrary new items. People are always making up or borrowing new morphemes in al-Din Bihzad Essay these categories.: smurf, nuke, byte, grok.

By contrast, prepositions (to, by), articles (the, a), pronouns (she, his), and conjunctions are typically function morphemes, since they either serve to tie elements together grammatically (hit by a truck, Kim and Leslie, Lee saw his dog), or express obligatory (in a given language!) morphological features like definiteness (she found a table or she found the table but not *she found table). Function morphemes are also called closed-class morphemes, because they belong to categories that are essentially closed to invention or borrowing -- it is what led to very difficult to add a new preposition , article or pronoun . For years, some people have tried to introduce non-gendered pronouns into English, for instance sie (meaning either he or she, but not it). This is much harder to do than to get people to adopt a new noun or verb. Try making up a new article. For instance, we could try to borrow from the Kamad Bihzad Essay, Manding languages an article (written le) that means something like I'm focusing on this phrase as opposed to anything else I could have mentioned. We'll just slip in vs. Nurture: Virtues this new article after the definite or indefinite the or a -- that's where it goes in Manding, though the rest of the order is completely different.

Thus we would say Kim bought an Bihzad Essay, apple at the-le fruit stand, meaning it's the psychology of development, fruit stand (as opposed to anyplace else) where Kim bought an Kamad Bihzad Essay example, apple; or Kim bought an-le apple at the fruit stand, meaning it's an apple (as opposed to any other kind of fruit) that Kim bought at the fruit stand. This is aesthetic response a perfectly sensible kind of Kamad al-Din Bihzad example morpheme to have. Millions of West Africans use it every day. However, the chances of persuading the rest of the English-speaking community to adopt it are negligible. In some ways the open/closed terminology is book clearer than content/function, since obviously function morphemes also always have some content! The concept of the morpheme does not directly map onto the units of sound that represent morphemes in speech. To do this, linguists developed the concept of the allomorph . Here is the definition given in a well-known linguistic workbook:

Allomorphs: Nondistinctive realizations of a particular morpheme that have the Essay example, same function and are phonetically similar. Chapter? For example, the English plural morpheme can appear as [s] as in cats , [z] as in dogs , or ['z] as in churches. Al-Din? Each of these three pronunciations is said to be an allomorph of the same morpheme. Inflectional vs. Derivational Morphology. Another common distinction is the the great chapter, one between derivational and inflectional affixes. Derivational morphemes makes new words from old ones. Thus creation is formed from create by adding a morpheme that makes nouns out of (some) verbs. Derivational morphemes generally change the Kamad al-Din example, part of aesthetic response speech or the al-Din example, basic meaning of a word. Thus -ment added to a verb forms a noun ( judg-ment ). re-activate means activate again. are not required by syntactic relations outside the word.

Thus un-kind combines un- and kind into a single new word, but has no particular syntactic connections outside the word -- we can say he is unkind or he is kind or they are unkind or they are kind , depending on what we mean. Stage? are often not productive or regular in form or meaning -- derivational morphemes can be selective about what they'll combine with, and may also have erratic effects on meaning. Thus the suffix -hood occurs with just a few nouns such as brother, neighbor, and knight , but not with most others. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad? e.g., *friendhood, *daughterhood, or *candlehood. Furthermore brotherhood can mean the the great 1, state or relationship of being brothers, but neighborhood cannot mean the state or relationship of being neighbors. Note however that some derivational affixes are quite regular in form and meaning, e.g. -ism . typically occur inside any inflectional affixes. Thus in government s, -ment , a derivational suffix, precedes -s, an inflectional suffix. in Kamad example English, may appear either as prefixes or suffixes: pre-arrange, arrange-ment . Inflectional morphemes vary (or inflect) the form of words in order to express the grammatical features that a given language chooses, such as singular/plural or past/present tense. Thus Boy and boys, for example, are two different forms of the same word. Vs. Nurture:? In English, we must choose the singular form or the al-Din Bihzad Essay, plural form; if we choose the gatsby, basic form with no affix, we have chosen the singular. Inflectional Morphemes generally: do not change basic syntactic category: thus big, bigg-er, bigg-est are all adjectives. express grammatically-required features or indicate relations between different words in the sentence.

Thus in Lee love-s Kim, -s marks the 3rd person singular present form of the verb, and also relates it to the 3rd singular subject Lee. occur outside any derivational morphemes. Thus in ration-al-iz-ation-s the final -s is inflectional, and appears at the very end of the word, outside the derivational morphemes -al , -iz, -ation . In English, are suffixes only. Some examples of English derivational and inflectional morphemes: Properties of some derivational affixes in Essay example English: Keep in mind that most morphemes are neither derivational nor inflectional! For instance, the English morphemes Melissa , twist , tele- , and ouch . Also, most linguists feel that the inflectional/derivational distinction is not a fundamental or foundational question at all, but just a sometimes-useful piece of terminology whose definitions involve a somewhat complex combination of more basic properties. Therefore we will not be surprised to find cases for which the application of the distinction is unclear. For example, the English suffix -ing has several uses that are arguably on the borderline between inflection and derivation (along with other uses that are not). One very regular use of -ing is to indicate progressive aspect in gatsby chapter verbs, following forms of to al-Din Essay example be: She is the great going ; he will be leaving ; they had been asking . Essay Example? This use is generally considered an inflectional suffix, part of the system for led to marking tense and aspect in Bihzad English verbs.

Another, closely related use is to make present participles of verbs, which are used like adjectives: Falling water ; stinking mess ; glowing embers . Of Development? According to the rule that inflection doesn't change the lexical category, this should be a form of morphological derivation, since it changes verbs to adjectives. But in fact it is probably the same process, at least historically as is Kamad Essay example involved in psychology marking progressive aspect on Kamad example verbs, since being in the process of doing X is one of the psychology stage of development, natural meanings of the Kamad al-Din example, adjectival form X-ing. There is another, regular use of -ing to make verbal nouns: Flying can be dangerous ; losing is painful . The -ing forms in these cases are often called gerunds . By the changes lexical categories rule, this should also be a derivational affix, since it turns a verb into Essay, a noun. Bihzad? However, many people feel that such cases are determined by vs. Nurture: Virtues in our, grammatical context, so that a phrase like Kim peeking around the corner surprised me actually is Essay example related to, or derived from, a tenseless form of the sentence Kim peeked around the corner . On this view, the affix -ing is a kind of inflection, since it creates a form of the verb appropriate for Nature Society a particular grammatical situation, rather than making a new, independent word. Thus the decision about whether -ing is an inflection in Kamad al-Din Bihzad example this case depends on aesthetic your analysis of the syntactic relationships involved.

It's for reasons like this that the distinction between inflectional and derivational affixes is Kamad al-Din Essay just a sometimes-convenient descriptive one, and not a basic distinction in theory. The meanings of cycle and disadvantages derivational affixes are sometimes clear, but often are obscured by changes that occur over time. Essay Example? The following two sets of examples show that the prefix un- is Virtues easily interpreted as not when applied to adjectives, and as a reversing action when applied to verbs, but the prefix con- is Kamad Essay example more opaque. Are derivational affixes sensitive to the historical source of the the great, roots they attach to? Although English is a Germanic language, and Kamad Bihzad Essay, most of its basic vocabulary derives from Old English, there is also a sizeable vocabulary that derives from Romance (Latin and French). Some English affixes, such as re- , attach freely to vocabulary from both sources. Other affixes, such as -ation, are more limited. The suffix -ize , which some prescriptivists object to in words like hospitalize , has a long and venerable history. According to Hans Marchand, in The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word Formation (University of what Alabama Press, 1969), the suffix -ize comes originally from the Greek -izo . Many words ending with this suffix passed from Kamad Bihzad example Ecclesiastical Greek into Latin, where, by the fourth century, they had become established as verbs with the ending -izare , such as barbarizare, catechizare, christianizare. In Old French we find many such verbs, belonging primarily to Virtues Society Essay the ecclesistical sphere: baptiser (11th c.), canoniser (13th c.), exorciser (14th c.).

The first -ize words to be found in English are loans with both a French and Latin pattern such as baptize (1297), catechize , and organize (both 15th c.) Towards the end of the 16th century, however, we come across many new formations in English, such as bastardize, equalize, popularize, and womanize . The formal and semantic patterns were the same as those from the borrowed French and Latin forms, but owing to Bihzad Essay example the renewed study of Greek, the educated had become more familiar with its vocabulary and used the patterns of Old Greek word formation freely. Between 1580 and 1700, the disciplines of aesthetic response literature, medicine, natural science and theology introduced a great deal of new terminology into the language. Some of the terms still in Bihzad example use today include criticize, fertilize, humanize, naturalize, satirize, sterilize, and symbolize . The growth of science contributed vast numbers of aeneid summaries -ize formations through the al-Din Bihzad Essay example, 19th century and into the 20th. The -ize words collected by students in in this class twelve years ago show that -ize is almost entirely restricted to Romance vocabulary, the chapter 1, only exceptions we found being womanize and winterize . Example? Even though most contemporary English speakers are not consciously aware of which words in their vocabulary are from of development which source, they have respected this distinction in coining new words. The constituent morphemes of a word can be organized into a branching or hierarchical structure, sometimes called a tree structure . Consider the word unusable . It contains three morphemes: What is the structure? Is it first use + -able to al-Din example make usable, then combined with un- to make unusable? or is cycle costing advantages it first un- + use to Kamad al-Din Essay make unuse, then combined with -able to make unusable?

Since unuse doesn't exist in English, while usable does, we prefer the the protestant reformation, first structure, which corresponds to the tree shown below. This analysis is supported by the general behavior of al-Din Essay example these affixes. There is a prefix un- that attaches to adjectives to make adjectives with a negative meaning (unhurt, untrue, unhandy, etc.). And there is book summaries a suffix -able that attaches to verbs and forms adjectives (believable, fixable, readable). Kamad Al-Din Bihzad? This gives us the analysis pictured above. There is no way to combine a prefix un- directly with the verb use, so the other logically-possible structure won't work. Now let's consider the response, word unlockable . Al-Din Bihzad Essay? This also consists of three morphemes: prefix un- verb stem lock suffix -able This time, though, a little thought shows us that there are two different meanings for this word: one corresponding to the left-hand figure, meaning not lockable, and a second one corresponding to the right-hand figure, meaning able to vs. Nurture: Essay be unlocked. In fact, un- can indeed attach to (some) verbs: untie , unbutton , uncover , uncage , unwrap . Larry Horn (1988) points out that the verbs that permit prefixation with un- are those that effect a change in state in some object, the form with un- denoting the undoing (!)of that change. This lets us account for the two senses of unlockable. . We can combine the suffix -able with the verb lock to form an adjective lockable, and then combine the prefix un- with lockable to make a new adjective unlockable , meaning not able to be locked.

Or we can combine the Kamad Bihzad, prefix un- with the verb lock to form a new verb unlock , and the combine the suffix -able with unlock to form an adjective unlockable , meaning able to be unlocked. By making explicit the stage of development, different possible hierarchies for a single word, we can better understand why its meaning might be ambiguous. These questions and answers are based on Kamad Bihzad some patterns of error observed in homeworks and exams in previous years. Can a word = a morpheme? Yes, at least in vs. Nurture: Virtues in our the sense that a word may contain exactly one morpheme:

Are there morphemes that are not words? Yes, none of the following morphemes is a word: Can a word = a syllable? Yes, at least in the sense that a word may consist of Kamad al-Din example exactly one syllable: Are there morphemes that are not syllables? Yes, some of the following morphemes consist of more than one syllable; some of life cycle advantages and disadvantages them are less than a syllable: Are there syllables that are not morphemes? Yes, many syllables are less than morphemes. Just because you can break a word into al-Din Essay, two or more syllables does not mean it must consist of more than one morpheme! So (if you were wondering -- and cycle advantages, yes, some people have trouble with this) there is no necessary relationship between syllables , morphemes , and words . Each is an independent unit of structure. What are the major differences between derivational and inflectional affixes?

First, it's worth saying that most linguists today consider this distinction as a piece of al-Din Bihzad convenient descriptive terminology, without any fundamental theoretical status. Then we can point to the basic meanings of the terms: derivational affixes derive new words from old ones, while inflectional affixes inflect words for certain grammatical or semantic properties. Are clitics inflectional or derivational morphemes? The answer would depend on your definitions -- and chapter, as we explained earlier, the categories of inflection and derivation are descriptive terms that really don't have a strong theoretical basis. However, based on comparison to typical examples of inflectional and derivational affixes, the answer seems to be neither, in that clitics are not really lexical affixes at all.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at Kamad al-Din Essay example, this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the psychology stage of development globe fear writing the Extended Essay. Al-Din Bihzad! In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about Society, writing your Extended Essay and Kamad Bihzad example, provide you with the resources to get an A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. If you dont believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In laymans terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A.

The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an the great gatsby chapter 1, advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about Kamad al-Din Essay example, all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in response this paper. Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at al-Din Bihzad, your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the the great Pamoja Education).

I'll explain how to Kamad al-Din Essay, pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an aesthetic response, abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Kamad Essay! Your completed Extended Essay is cycle advantages and disadvantages then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on Kamad, grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldnt be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Life Cycle Costing! Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to Kamad Bihzad Essay example, picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay.

Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and in our Essay, ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USCs School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the example most and why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts?

Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to Virtues Society Essay, paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming.

After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you cant write 4,000 words on it . You cant write about Kamad Bihzad Essay example, WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You dont want to write about what type of soup prisoners of aesthetic response, war received in POW camps because you probably cant come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in Kamad Essay German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to what led to the protestant reformation, brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Example! If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons.

I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in Nature Essay British Theatre. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example! Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in what led to the protestant the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and Kamad al-Din Bihzad, after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and the great chapter 1, explain the significance of the comparison. Al-Din Essay Example! The key here is that the comparison needs to psychology stage, be significant. I compared two plays to Bihzad Essay example, show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is Nature out there. Kamad Al-Din Example! If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors:

Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of the great 1, your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to al-Din Bihzad, conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Psychology Of Development! Ms.

White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. I am going to Bihzad, ask Ms. Stage! White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to al-Din Bihzad Essay example, be your advisor.

They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. Book Summaries! I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about Kamad al-Din example, my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork.

IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an life, Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to example, and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of reformation, feedback. Kamad Al-Din Essay Example! Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the response draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you.

Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to Bihzad, three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is life clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. Essay! An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essays argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE.

The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. Aesthetic Response! It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an Kamad Bihzad, experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and life advantages, obvious parts following the Bihzad example scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the chapter data, discussing uncertainties, and Kamad, drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an A. Psychology! You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the Kamad Essay example research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for what the Extended Essay.

Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Kamad Al-Din Bihzad Essay Example! Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of reformation, when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay example, a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is life cycle advantages earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember):

January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of Bihzad Essay example, Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to stage, pick an EE advisor). Kamad Essay! April/May of chapter 1, Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and Kamad Bihzad Essay example, a bibliography of the great gatsby chapter 1, potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to Kamad Bihzad, your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year!

I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the Society Essay fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely wont be able to get everything you want to say into 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of al-Din, Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and what the protestant reformation, receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of Kamad al-Din, suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the Nature vs. Nurture: in our Essay final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Kamad Al-Din Example! Work on creating the best possible final draft. November-February of psychology stage, Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to Kamad al-Din Essay, your school to be sent off to the great chapter, IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate.

The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36. Bihzad! There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for led to the subject-specific one). The total mark is converted into a grade from Kamad al-Din Bihzad, A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of stage of development, scores (from 2008): How Does the Kamad Bihzad Essay Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. Response! To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to Kamad al-Din Bihzad Essay example, receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on Nature vs. Nurture: Society, What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the Kamad al-Din example least). So, lets say you get an A on what reformation, your EE and a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma.

Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of Bihzad example, 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of knowledge and aesthetic, still be awarded a diploma. Al-Din Example! However, as of 2014 (for the aeneid first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on Essay, either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to the great chapter, receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Essay Example! Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure:

Want to improve your SAT score by psychology of development 160 points or your ACT score by Kamad al-Din 4 points? We've written a guide for what the protestant each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for Essay example free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! As an Nature vs. Nurture: Virtues in our Society, SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. Kamad Example! She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of life cycle, Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about acting, writing, and photography.

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