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Special 2012 ASPE Convention Exposition Edition. Thousands of plumbing industry professionals gathered in Charlotte, North Carolina this week to experience the networking and professional development opportunities at the 2012 ASPE Convention Exposition. Following are just a few of the highlights of the event. Even more highlights and photos will be published in the December 2012 issue of essays, Plumbing Engineer magazine, and ASPE Pipeline will resume its regular format on do bad by myself, Thursday, November 15. Our thoughts and travelling essays, prayers go out to those members affected by Hurricane Sandy. Sbar Nursing Report Template. 2012–2014 ASPE board of directors elected. The new ASPE board of directors as elected by the chapter delegates at essays the 2012 ASPE Business Meeting is as follows: President William Hughes Jr., CPD, LEED AP, FASPE; Vice President, Technical Mitchell Clemente, CPD; Vice President, Legislative David DeBord, CPD, LEED AP, ARCSA AP; Vice President, Education Jeffrey Ingertson, CPD, FASPE; Vice President, Membership Scott Steindler, CPD, LEED AP, ARCSA AA; Vice President, Affiliate Vincent Scriboni; Treasurer Gary Mahoney, CPD, FASPE; Region 1 Director Rui Paul Silvestre; Region 2 Director Chris Graham, CPD; Region 3 Director James Zebrowski, PE, CPD, FASPE; Region 4 Director Chris Scott, CPD; Region 5 Director Kelvin Kennedy, CPD, CD. (Due to a bylaws amendment approved during the meeting, the non-voting position of secretary will be held by of Earthquakes in Oklahoma ASPE’s executive director.) On Tuesday, October 30, at the 2012 ASPE Banquet, the following individuals and essays, organizations received the Essay of Earthquakes Society’s top awards for their commitment to ASPE and the industry. ——George W. Travelling Essays. Runkle Award of Merit: Julius A. Ballanco, PE, CPD, FASPE. ——Distinguished Service Award: William M. Smith and b anthony, Norman Parks, CPD, CET. Essays. ——ASPE Chapter Humanitarian Award: Pittsburgh Chapter. ——Donald F. Dickerson Founder’s Award: Philip L. French, PE, FASPE. ——Peter E. Warshaw Service Award: Richard D. Hanson. Elections. ——Industry Award: Patterson Pump. ——ASPE Research Foundation Award for travelling essays, Scientific Achievement: Professor John Swaffield. ——ASPE Research Foundation Award of The Rise in Oklahoma, Distinction: IAPMO. New inductees join the Kenneth G. Wentink College of Fellows.

ASPE’s Kenneth G. Wentink College of Fellows recognizes those ASPE members who have made significant and exceptional contributions to the plumbing engineering profession, the Society, and the plumbing industry. Travelling. This year, the following members were inducted: Robert V. Benazi, PE, FASPE; James N. Polando, PE, CPD, FASPE; Lawrence G. Justin, PE, CPD, FASPE; John R. Nussbaum, IPP, FASPE; William Smith, FASPE; John M. Ancient Style. Mitsumori, PE, FASPE; and Peter Warshaw, FASPE. Membership awards presented during the 2012 ASPE Business Meeting. ASPE Award of Merit. The ASPE Award of travelling, Merit is presented to greece life style those individuals who have performed outstanding and meritorious service to travelling the Society and the profession. This year, it was presented to malaysia elections three members: ——David Anelli, for his commitment and service on essays, the ASPE board of directors and his leadership as Region 3 Director for the last 12 years. ——Curtis A. Ray Jr., CPD, for excellence and stewardship as a member of the ASPE Research Foundation and his promotion of ASPE and The Rise of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, the plumbing engineering profession. ——Michael Olson, CPD, FASPE, for dedication, commitment, and service to the Society as chair of the Long-Range Planning Committee for travelling, many years. Special Award of Achievement. The Special Award of Achievement is given for commitment to the Society and the advancement of the profession.

This year, the ASPE board chose four recipients: ——Stephen Ziga, CPD, SET, CFPS, for his commitment, service, and letter scaffold, stewardship as chair of the Technical Research Committee. ——Mark Allen, for his advancement of the profession by providing educational opportunities for ASPE members. ——Bryan Hutton, for his endless efforts to travelling advance and Essay about The Rise, promote the plumbing engineering profession. ——Frederick Neth, for being instrumental in the development of ASPE’s first student chapter. Special Certificate of travelling essays, Appreciation. An ASPE Special Certificate of Appreciation was presented to three individuals who have demonstrated their commitment and dedication to the growth and elections, prosperity of the Society. ——James Rodgers, CPD, for spearheading the development of the Evansville Satellite Chapter. ——Vivian Enriquez, CPD, for travelling, her commitment, dedication, and longstanding chapter contributions, which have benefitted the greece life Society and advanced the essays profession. ——Dan Murphy, PE, CPD, for b anthony, his service, commitment, and dedication to ASPE’s certification program. Certificate of essays, Appreciation. ASPE Certificates of Appreciation were presented to i can five individuals for their commitment and dedication to the Society and the advancement of the profession: Brian Henry, James Spinelli, Steve Kormanik, CPD, Thomas Ford, CPD, and Ferroz Bhamani, CPD. Chapter Membership Growth Award. Travelling. The following ASPE chapters were recognized with Membership Growth Awards for increasing their membership in the 2011–2012 fiscal year: Buffalo-Niagara, Charlotte, Columbia, Eastern Michigan, Greenville, Intermountain, Kansas City, Long Island, Omaha, Raleigh, Seattle, Southwestern Ohio, Washington, D.C., and about The Rise in Oklahoma, West Coast Florida. Chapter Membership Retention Award. The following chapters were recognized with Chapter Membership Retention Awards for retaining at least 90 percent of their membership from the previous year. ——Region 1: Baltimore, Boston, Capital Region New York, Connecticut, Long Island, Montreal, New York City, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C. ——Region 2: Buffalo-Niagara, Central Indiana, Cleveland, Eastern Michigan, Pittsburgh, Rochester, Southwestern Ohio, Western Michigan. ——Region 3: Atlanta, Central Florida, Charlotte, Columbia, Greenville, Memphis, Nashville, New Orleans, North Florida, Raleigh, West Coast Florida. ——Region 4: British Columbia, Denver, Intermountain, Los Angeles, Orange County, Phoenix, Portland, San Diego, Seattle. ——Region 5: Central Illinois, Central Texas, Chicago, Houston, Kansas City, Minnesota, Omaha, St.

Louis, Wisconsin. Annual Chapter Award of Merit. ASPE’s Annual Chapter Award of travelling, Merit is presented each year to recognize the extraordinary contribution made by the chapters on behalf of the Society. For 2011–2012, the award was presented to the following chapters. ——Region 1: Baltimore, Boston, Connecticut, Long Island, Montreal, New Jersey, New York City, Philadelphia, Richmond. ——Region 2: Central Ohio, Cleveland, Western Michigan. ——Region 3: Atlanta, Central Florida, Charlotte. ——Region 4: Los Angeles, Orange County, Phoenix, Seattle. ——Region 5: Central Texas, Chicago, Dallas/Ft. Worth, Kansas City, Omaha.

For each ASPE Convention, the Society’s region directors choose an outstanding chapter achievement to be recognized with the letter scaffold Director’s Award. Travelling Essays. This year, two chapters received the award: ——Boston Chapter, for being instrumental in helping develop ASPE’s first official student chapter at the Wentworth Institute of Technology. ——Central Florida Chapter, for their outstanding performance and continued support of the Society for organizing and hosting the 2011 Technical Symposium. Sbar Nursing Report Template. This e-mail was sent by American Society of Plumbing Engineers, located at 2980 River Rd, , Des Plaines, IL 60018 (United States). Travelling Essays. To receive no further e-mails, please click here or reply to this e-mail with unlist in the Subject line.

American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 6400 Shafer Ct., Suite 350 Rosemont, IL 60018-4914. © Copyright 2012 American Society of Plumbing Engineers. All Rights Reserved.

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Major Parts Of The Nervous System. The central nervous system (CNS) comprises of the brain and spinal cord. According to (Hull, 2011, p. 200) 'it has three functions: sensory, integrative and motor.' These functions are made possible through communication (sending and receiving messages) of the brain (mostly made up of interneurons) and spinal cord which sends information to the peripheral nervous system for distribution to the various parts of the body via motor neurons. Essays! The CNS senses and greece life, processes information, then responds to whatever message has been communicated. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of nerves (brain, cranial, spinal, afferent and efferent) running to travelling, and from the CNS. It comprises of the somatic (SNS) and autonomic (ANS) systems. The SNS controls voluntary activities of the body (skeletal muscle contractions or conscious reactions to sensory information processed by the body such as reaction to pain ' a single pathway of neurons responding to activation by excitatory impulses). The ANS controls all unconscious automatic or involuntary activities of the body such as heart beat to remain alive, crying when emotional or sweating when we get hot. This is a double pathway response whereby neurons are activated by inhibitory and excitatory impulses. The ANS is i can do bad by myself subdivided into two further systems; the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. These two systems work in opposition to each other in order to maintain homeostasis.

The sympathethic system reacts to travelling, changes in the environment by stimulating activity and therefore using energy (Hull, 2011, p. 204). For instance if a person is confronted with danger, their immediate reaction is survival. They become tense, heart rate goes up, breathing becomes heavy etc as they prepare to react. This is the 'fight or flight' response. The parasympathetic system will do the opposite to the sympathetic system by placing the person into a state of rest, calm and relaxation. TAQ 1 total word count: 326/300 words. DLCentre notes, 2008/2010/2012.

Human Biological Science 1: Coordination and i can do bad, Control. Hull, R., 2011. Anatomy Physiology for therapists and essays, healthcare professionals. Cambridge: The Write Idea Ltd. Tortora, G. and Derrickson, B. eds., 2011. Principles of Anatomy Physiology. Asia: John Wiley Sons. Figure 2 ' The three main types of neurons. Neurons are nerve cells that carry information in the form of tiny electrical signals.

They are categorised into malaysia elections three different types, each fulfilling a different function. Sensory/receptor neurons (afferent) carry signals from the external environment using sensory organs (nose, tongue, eyes or skin) to the CNS (spinal cord and brain). Motor/effector neurons (efferent) carry signals from the CNS (spinal cord and brain) to the effectors. Effectors are muscles or organs of the body that enact the messages that have been passed on by the essays, brain. For example you might sense an itch on your arm and sbar nursing, your brain sends a message to your muscles to move your hand over to scratch the itch with your fingers (a voluntary action).

Relay neurons (interneurons) are found within the CNS and travelling, carry messages from receptor neurons to effector neurons or from one relay neuron to another. They connect two neurons together (sensory and letter scaffold, motor neurons). BBC GCSE Bitesize, 2014. The nervous system. [online]. Available at: [Accessed 11 May 2014]. You Tube, n.d.

BioVid Episode 2: An introduction to neurons. [online]. Available at: [Accessed 12 May 2014]. HPP Biology 12, n.d. Neurons. [online]. Available at: [Accessed 12 May 2014]. Figure 4 ' Transmission of a nerve impulse: Resting and action potential. Neurons are covered by cell membranes just like all cells and essays, are semi-permeable (allow certain substances to pass (permeate) through them).

The outside of the cell contains excess sodium ions the inside of the cell contains excess potassium ions (K+). Ions are atoms of an element with a positive or negative charge (Dummies, 2014). Neurons use electrochemical impulses to communicate with each other. If they are not stimulated (without impulse to carry or transmit) their membrane is polarized. Being polarized means that the sbar template, electrical charge on the outside of the membrane is positive while the electrical charge on the inside of the membrane is negative (Dummies, 2014). Travelling Essays! Negatively charged protein and nucleic acid molecules also inhabit the cell; therefore, the inside is negative as compared to the outside (Dummies, 2014). The cell is at its resting potential (a value of -70 minivolts (mV), see Figure 4. This changes when an action potential with strong excitatory strength reaches the synapse and causes the ion channels to open and allow sodium ions to elections, cross the cell membrane. K+ and Na+ pumps on the membrane allow these chemicals to still move back through the membrane allowing the travelling, cell to The Rise in Oklahoma, repolarise The more sodium ions enter the cell, the travelling essays, electrical potential of the cell changes so quickly that depolarisation occurs, meaning that the cell becomes positive again. Chemical synapses transmit chemical signals from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron in one direction only. An electrical impulse or action potential's arrival in the presynaptic neuron, is malaysia elections reaching the axon terminal.

It cannot cross the travelling, fluid-filled synaptic cleft, but neurotransmitters or chemical messengers can carry the message forward. Ions (charged particles that allow change of electrical properties across the membrane) allow the sbar report template, messages to travelling essays, move on from one neuron to another or to letter scaffold, an effector. DLCentre notes 2008/2010/2012. Travelling! Human Biological Science 1: Coordination and Control. For Dummies, 2014. Understanding the transmission of nerve impulses. [online]. Available at: [Accessed 12 May 2014]. National Institute of letter scaffold, Health, n.d. The Brain: Understanding Neurobiology ' How neurotransmission works. [online]. Available at: [Accessed 12 May 2014]. A synapse is a gap between adjacent nerve cells where impulses must be able to cross.

It comprises a presynaptic neuron (messengers), synaptic cleft (neurotransmitters) and post-synaptic neuron (receptors). Neurotransmitters pass across the gap causing depolarisation of the surface membrane of the travelling essays, target cell to occur. Figure 4 - Structure of the Synapse. Different types of stimuli will cause the synapse to be either inhibitory or excitatory to the impulses depending on their composition. For instance, if excitatory, the synapse will cause the neurons to become active and fire up the impulse for the receptors to receive it. For example; sound causes some ear receptors to respond. If inhibitory the synapse might cause the impulse to diffuse or deactivate. However, regardless of malaysia, what stimuli, the permeability properties of the cell's plasma membrane change very briefly (Marieb, 2009, p. 237). It is possible for neurons to have several action potentials travelling along their axons (route by which all impulses travel) at the same time.

However there are several factors that affect the speed at which the travelling essays, impulse travels. For instance; impulses travel faster in myelinated (covered in myelin sheath) neurons; temperature affects the speed of conduction of impulses; and impulses are generally faster in an axon with a larger diameter ( The refractory period (rest period between signals) is also a speed determining factor. After the neurotransmitter has transmitted an impulse, it is b anthony poem released by the receptor and goes back into the synapse (Dummies, 2014). It is stored in the synaptic vesicles. Here the cell recycles the degraded neurotransmitter. The chemicals go back into the membrane so that during the next impulse (action potential), when the synaptic vesicles bind to travelling, the membrane, the complete neurotransmitter can again be released for another episode of report, impulse transmission (Dummies, 2014).

Biology Guide, n.d. Action potentials and synapses play a fundamental role in transmitting information through the nervous system. [online]. Available at: [Accessed 13 May 2014]. DLCentre, 2008/2010/2012. Human Biological Science 1: Coordination and Control. For Dummies, 2014. Understanding the transmission of nerve impulses. [online]. Available at: [Accessed 12 May 2014].

Marieb, E. N., 2009. Essentials of human anatomy physiology. 9th ed. London: Pearson International. Tortora, G, J. and Derrickson, B. eds., 2011.

Principles of Anatomy Physiology: volume 1 2. Essays! Asia: John Wiley Sons. Figure 6 ' Reflex Arc - Cross section of spinal cord showing a receptor's reaction to flame. Thain (2009) describes the reflex arc as 'the neural circuitry involved in a motor reflex, comprising a sensory neuron, a motor neuron and usually one or more interneurons (excitatory or inhibitory) interposed between these two'. It is a rapid protective behaviour involving taking voluntary action such as pulling a finger away from exposure to sbar nursing report, a flame as shown in Figure 6. Here, a pain receptor in the finger transmits signals via a sensory neuron to the spinal cord where the travelling essays, message is received by interneurons, which respond by sending signals back to the affected area via a motor neuron with information about what response to activate. In this case the response is to contract the elections, muscles and move the finger away from the flame. This is a voluntary action where the brain makes a note of what happened and retains the travelling essays, information should it be required for any such experiences in the future. Thain, M., 2009. Penguin Dictionary of Human Biology. London: Penguin Books.'

Name of endocrine gland Location Hormones released Function (s) of hormones released. Pituitary -divided into two parts: Base of brain beneath the hypothalamus. Growth hormone (GH) Stimulates growth of other tissues including bone, maintains nutrients and minerals, inform reproductive system to make sex hormones, control ovulation and menstrual cycle in malaysia elections women. Stimulates production of the thyroid hormone by travelling, the thyroid gland.

Stimulates production of milk in breastfeeding women. Stimulates production of specific hormones by malaysia, the adrenal gland. Controls balance of essays, water in the body. Triggers contractions of the malaysia, uterus during childbirth, production of milk by the mammary glands to produce milk. Thyroid Trachea, beneath the larynx Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) Increases rate of metabolic and chemical reactions in body tissues, activates CNS, vital for bone growth and brain development. Parathyroids Attached to the posterior of the thyroid Parathyroid hormone (parahormone) Increases calcium levels in blood released from bone tissue, allows re-absorption in the kidneys. Thymus Mid chest cavity Thymosins Produces and matures T lymphocytes. Adrenal cortex Inner area of abdomen, one on top of each kidney.

Outer area of travelling, abdomen Epinephrine (adrenalin) Increases blood pressure and heart rate during stress ('fight or flight' response) Constricts blood vessels and increases heart rate in an emergency response. Regulates salt and water balance in the body, manages response to stress, breakdown of protein, fat metabolism, sexual development and immunity. Maintains balance of glucose levels in elections the blood, stimulates glucose release from the liver. Regulates level of travelling, sugar glucose in the blood, essential for letter scaffold, cells to utilize glucose. In puberty, aids in development of female sex organs and function, growth spurt. Development of ovarian follicles, bones and muscle contractions of the essays, uterus, regulation of menstrual cycle and useful during pregnancy. Regulates menstrual cycle, generates secretions for the endometrium. Testis Pelvis Testosterone.

Aids in susan b anthony poem development of male sex organs and characteristics in essays puberty, produces sperm. BBC GCSE Bitesize, 2014. Hormones. [online]. Available at: [Accessed 13 May 2014]. DLCentre, 2008/2010/2012. Human Biological Science 1: Coordination and Control. InnerBody, 2013. Ancient Life! Endocrine System. [online]. Travelling! Available at: [Accessed 13 May 2014].

TeensHealth, 2014. Endocrine System. [online]. Available at: [Accessed 12 May 2014]. Tortora, G, J. and Derrickson, B. About Of Earthquakes! eds., 2011. Principles of travelling, Anatomy Physiology: volume 1 2. Asia: John Wiley Sons. Metabolism is a process whereby nutrients become involved in an incredible variety of biochemical reactions inside the life style, body cells (Marieb and Hoehn, 2010, p.918). This is necessary to maintain energy levels and all bodily functions.

Enzymes in the digestive system break down the food we eat and essays, convert it into malaysia this energy. Metabolism occurs to balance our current needs against future needs of travelling, energy, knowing when to store or replenish it. Template! This is achieved via two processes: anabolism (constructive metabolism) which involves the building up of complex chemical substances from essays, smaller, simpler components; and catabolism (destructive metabolism) which is the breaking down of complex chemical substances into simpler components (Tortora and Derrickson, 2011, p. Susan Poem! 5-6). Travelling Essays! For example proteins are broken down into ancient greece life style amino acids and rebuilt to make new structures like muscle and bone through the catabolism and anabolism processes (Tortora and Derrickson, 2011, p. 7). There are many different chemicals in travelling cells and all have an effect on metabolism. The endocrine system produces certain hormones which play a greater role in the regulation of do bad, metabolism. These hormones include: Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronin (T3), insulin and glucagon. T4 and travelling essays, T3 are thyroid hormones which mainly regulate our basal metabolic rate (BMR) ' the speed of metabolism and is involved in the amount of energy the body requires to maintain function and stay alive e.g. movement and heart-beat. Susan! BMR increases as the blood levels of thyroid hormones rise.

The response to these changing levels is slow and takes a few days to show (Tortora and Derrickson, 2011, p.1049). Insulin is released in travelling the pancreas responding to raised levels of glucose after a meal. This signals cells to increase their anabolic activities i.e. increase glucose to transport receptors to the cell membrane as in contracting muscles or may mean the liver has an increased concentration of greece, glucose therefore releasing glycogen as a short-term response into the blood. Also, in the adipose tissues, glucose and free fatty acids bind together and store lipids long term. Travelling! This decreases blood glucose (a negative feedback loop in the parasympathetic system). Amongst other hormones, insulin can increase the Essay about in Oklahoma, metabolic rate by 5 ' 15% (Tortora and Derrickson, 2011, p.1049). In starvation or stress conditions the body is very active, blood sugar levels drop, prompting alpha cells in the pancreas to release glucagon which helps stop glucose travelling around the body and focuses on providing energy for essays, the brain.

Glycogen breaks down into amino acids and sbar, glycerol in the liver produces new glucose by gluconeogenesis or lipolysis. Fatty acids are catabolised by combining acetyl coenzyme A (coA) and oxaloacetate forming ketone fuels. Blood glucose levels increase as a result which can cause hyperglycaemia (diabetes) and low blood glucose levels (too much insulin) can cause hypoglycaemia (hypos). DLCentre, 2008/2010/2012. Human Biological Science 1: Coordination and Control. Marieb, E. N., 2009. Essentials of human anatomy physiology. 9th ed.

London: Pearson International. Tortora, G, J. and Derrickson, B. eds., 2011. Principles of Anatomy Physiology: volume 1 2. Asia: John Wiley Sons. The ear allows us to hear a range of travelling essays, different sounds as well as maintain our balance through head movement and i can do bad by myself, position. Although the two organs serving these two senses are structurally interconnected within the ear, their receptors respond to different stimuli and are activated independently of travelling essays, one another (Marieb and i can do bad, Hoehn, 2011, p. 574). It is connected to the brain by the auditory nerve and is subdivided into three major parts: the external (outer) ear, middle ear and internal (inner) ear. The outer and middle ear components are involved with hearing only and are simply constructed whereas the outer ear is more complex and is involved with hearing and balance control (Marieb and Hoehn, 2011, p. 574). The outer ear comprises the auricle (pinna), elastic cartilage covered with thin skin and travelling, hair sometimes. The auricle picks up sound waves (vibrations), feeds them to the auditory canal (external acoustic meatus) to end up on the tympanic membrane (ear drum).

Sebaceous and sweat glands in susan the auditory canal secrete cerumen (ear wax) which captures foreign particles and repels insects (Marieb and Hoehn, 2011, p. 574). Hearing is activated by sound waves (measured in hertz), as they hit the tympanic membrane (eardrum) causing vibration and in turn transferring the sound energy to the tiny bones of the middle ear also making them vibrate (Marieb and Hoehn, 2011, p. 574). The middle ear is located in essays the skull's temporal bone. Sound waves transfer from the middle ear (tympanic cavity) amplifying the vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the first of the auditory osscicles (bones). Do Bad By Myself! The malleus (hammer) connected to travelling essays, the tympanic membrane, passes vibrations onto the incus (anvil), the stapes (stirrup) and onto the oval (vestibular) window. The middle ear is air-filled and can sometimes be consumed with pressure (when on a plane) which can be released via the pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube linking the b anthony, middle ear cavity with the pharynx (throat) and the mucosa of the travelling essays, middle ear that lines the letter scaffold, throat (Marieb and travelling essays, Hoehn, 2011, p. 574). Swallowing or yawning opens the malaysia, usually flattened auditory tube to balance the pressure in the middle ear with external air pressure, important for travelling, the eardrum to vibrate freely without distorted sound (Marieb and Hoehn, 2011, p. 574). The internal ear (labyrinth), situated in the temporal bone comprises the cochlea, vestibule and semi-circular canals. Vibrations come from the oval window into the cochlea then fibres transmit electrical impulses via the malaysia, ganglia to the organ of corti which translate that stimulation into travelling essays nerve cell excitation and neurotransmitters transmit back to the auditory cortex of the brain along the auditory nerve (DLCentre, 2008/2010/2012). Life Style! Perilymph and essays, endolymph fluids conduct the sound vibrations involved in hearing and respond to nursing, the mechanical forces occurring during changes in travelling essays body position and ancient, acceleration (Marieb and Hoehn, 2011, p. Travelling Essays! 576). The vestibule is posterior to the cochlea, anterior to the semicircular canals and flanks the middle ear medially (Marieb and Hoehn, 2011, p. Susan! 576).

It is responsible for balance and posture. The utriculus and travelling, semicircular canal within detect tilting movements in relation to gravity and help keep the body upright. Communication to the brain is via the vestibular nerve. The eye lets us see by detecting visible light (part of electromagnetic spectrum ' wave energy that radiates from the sun). Visible light projects colour depending on its wavelength which is measured in nanometers (Tortora and Derrickson, 2011, p. 642). The eye comprises accessory structures (eyelids, eyelashes, eyebrows, the lacrimal (tear producing) apparatus and extrinsic eye muscles) that protect and sbar report, move the eye and essays, eyeball structures. The eyeball is divided into the anterior and letter scaffold, posterior chambers.

Three most visible components of the anterior chamber are: the pupil (dark dot at centre of eye allowing light onto retina); the iris (covers the pupil, colour pigmented and essays, light regulator); and sclera (orb-like shaped white, elastic substance encasing the cornea, moistened and protected by elections, conjunctiva), The cornea, (transparent, dome-shaped, and protruding from the sclera) helps direct and focus light. The aqueous humour (transparent fluid at front of lens) allows uninterrupted projection of light and maintains eye pressure. Travelling Essays! Other components include the sphincter and dilator muscles which control the size of the pupil, the ciliary body, suspensory ligaments and ciliary smooth muscles which support the lens. The posterior chamber contains components that give focus to an image. These are: the vitreous humour (transparent jelly) for pressure; the retina (layers of photoreceptors cells with rods and cones). Up to 130 million rod cells allow us to see in black and Essay about The Rise of Earthquakes, white, in dim or low light and assist with perception of objects. Travelling! Up to The Rise in Oklahoma, 10 million cone cells allow us to see in colour (blue, green and travelling essays, red) and bright, higher intensity light waves (DLCentre, 2008/2010/2012).

Having no photoreceptors at the optic nerve site creates 'the blind spot' (optic disc), The visual cortex is the final destination for visual information. Three main types of neurons that make up the neural layer (photoreceptors, bipolar cells and ganglion cells) are involved in generating action potentials (Marieb and Hoehn, 2011, p. Essay About The Rise In Oklahoma! 552). Processed information is then transported to the brain from the essays, optic nerve fibres through the optic chiasm, collecting and reducing the impulses in letter scaffold the optic tract towards the thalamus then the occipital lobe before interpretation of incoming signals occurs in the visual cortex. DLCentre notes, 2008/2010/2012. Human Biological Science 1: Coordination and travelling essays, Control. Marieb, E. N., 2009.

Essentials of human anatomy physiology. 9th ed. I Can Do Bad By Myself! London: Pearson International. Tortora, G, J. and Derrickson, B. Travelling Essays! eds., 2011. Principles of Anatomy Physiology: volume 1 2. Asia: John Wiley Sons. British Medical Association, 2013. Illustrated Medical Dictionary. 3rd ed. London: Dorling Kindersley. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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Tip Sheet: An Admissions Dean Offers Advice on Writing a College Essay. Periodically, in a feature called “Tip Sheet,” The Choice will post short items by admissions officers, guidance counselors and others to help applicants and their families better understand aspects of the admissions process. As an travelling essays inaugural post in this series, Martha C. Merrill, the dean of admission and financial aid of Connecticut College, and a graduate of the class of susan b anthony poem, 1984, encourages incoming high school seniors to begin contemplating their college essays this summer. She also offers perspective on what she looks for travelling, in an report applicant’s essay. Prospective students will often ask me if a good essay will really get them accepted. The truth is that while no essay will make an unqualified student acceptable, a good essay can help a qualified applicant stand out from the travelling essays, competition. Letter Scaffold? A good essay just might be what turns a “maybe” into essays a “yes.” The college application process takes time, preparation and creativity, which is a lot for any active senior to Essay about handle. Summer, however, typically offers about 10 weeks free of essays, classes and homework and many of the other stresses that come with high school. The pressure of the looming college application deadline is still months away, which allows students the freedom to play around with different ideas, test different angles and solicit feedback from friends and family. Another reason to focus your summer energy on crafting a quality essay: at this point in the admission process, it is one of the few things you can still control.

This is your chance to show us what you are capable of when you have time to think, prepare, rewrite and polish. While there is no magic formula for the perfect admission essay, there are a few things prospective college students should know. Here are my Top Ten tips: Write about yourself . A great history paper on the Civil War might be very well written, but it doesn’t tell me anything about the writer. Regardless of the topic, make sure you shine through your essay. Use your own voice . I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and a high school senior. Malaysia Elections? Focus on one aspect of yourself . If you try to essays cover too many topics in your essay, you’ll end up with a resume of letter scaffold, activities and attributes that doesn’t tell me as much about you as an in-depth look at one project or passion.

Be genuine . Don’t try to impress me, because I’ve heard it all. Just tell me what is important to travelling essays you. Consider a mundane topic . Sometimes it’s the nursing report template, simple things in life that make the essays, best essays. Sbar Template? Some of my favorites have included essays that reflect on the daily subway ride to school, or what the family goldfish observed from the fishbowl perched on the family kitchen table. It doesn’t have to be a life-changing event to be interesting and informative. Don’t rely on “how to” books . Use them to get your creative juices flowing, but don’t adhere too rigidly to travelling their formulas, and definitely don’t use their example topics. While there are always exceptions, the “what my room says about me” essay is way overdone.

Share your opinions, but avoid anything too risky or controversial . Your essay will be read by a diverse group of individuals from a wide range of backgrounds, so try to appeal to the broadest audience possible. Malaysia? Tell a good story . Essays? Show me why you are compassionate; don’t tell me you are. Show me that you have overcome great difficulty; don’t start your essay with “I have overcome great difficulties.” Don’t repeat what is already in your application . If you go to a performing arts school and all of your extracurricular activities and awards relate to dance, don’t write about how much you love dancing. Tell me something I couldn’t know just from reading the other parts of your application. Finally, don’t forget about the supplements . Susan? The supplement questions are very important – you should plan to spend as much time on them as you do on your essay. A well-written essay won’t help if your supplement answers are sloppy and uninformative. If you’ve been through this process before — either as a practitioner, student or parent — and would like to add, or respond, to travelling Ms.

Merrill’s list, use the comment box below. If you’d like to propose a future subject for malaysia, “Tip Sheet” — one you’d want to travelling read, or perhaps even propose writing — please send a short email message to us at Comments are no longer being accepted. Another piece of advice is to have someone proofread your essay, but DO NOT have multiple people give you advice about the essay. It is b anthony poem, easy to spot the student essays that have been “finished” or “edited” by travelling essays friends and family. And the worst essays are the ones that have been edited to meet the comments of multiple readers. As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, the malaysia elections, application essay is a hint at that student’s future approach to writing assignments. I think you could do your readers a big favor by compiling a list of travelling, states that offer an early path to college. Here in Texas, it’s called the Texas Academy of letter scaffold, Mathematics and Science (TAMS).

It’s a two-year program at the Univ. of North Texas in Denton for high school juniors #038; seniors; it has about 400 students total. Basically, the students take their first two years of college, and get credit for their last two years of high school. My wife and essays I have two children, both graduated from TAMS. Best thing is, the state covers tuition, fees, and books; only cost to us was room #038; board and report a program fee. check it out by googling “tams”.

I have some PDFs I could email you, too, if you’re interested. Dripping Springs, TX. All nicely said but if all this was true there would have been the huge numbers of travelling essays, essay coaches or books we have out about The Rise of Earthquakes today. Ask the entrants to travelling essays any Ivy league school about whether they used coaches or guides and report you will get a different answer. it would be good to start thinking about this college application essay… (still a year away) Ms. Merrill’s Top Ten tips are an excellent guideline for travelling essays, the college admissions essay.

I’m currently a college sophmore and vividly recall going through this process. One additional tip I would add is nursing, keep it lite. I think college admissions panels are tired of essays, reading about how you spent your summer wielding a hammer for Habitat for Humanity or ladling soup in a homeless shelter. Forget the essay – play a sport and be really, really good at it. If you are also a decent student that will be your ticket. Letter Scaffold? Trust me — athletes have a huge competitive advantage in the college admissions game. Travelling Essays? The admissions people won’t come right out and say it, they’ll say things like “We try for balance in every class”, but if Amherst doesn’t beat Williams, Yale doesn’t beat Harvard, etc. etc., they will get a lot of greece style, pressure. Travelling? If the violin section is a little off one night, or the lead in the play is a bit weak, it won’t really matter. I’m not cynical, just realistic.

I would avoid grammatical errors such as Martha’s “I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and a high school senior” and greece style Mary’s (reader 1) double error: “As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, the travelling essays, application essay is a hint at that student’s future approach to writing assignments.” I’m certain that Martha meant “I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and i can that of a high school senior,” and essays that Mary meant “As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on susan, class assignments, I note that the travelling, application essay is a hint at students’ future approaches to writing assignments.” the best thing you can do is try out i can do bad a lot of ideas. Essays? my english teacher senior year made us write a different personal essay every day for poem, the first month of school. i never would have thought of my ultimately successful topic if i hadnt been for being forced to do so much writing. if you really feel you must start over the summer, try out travelling lots of ideas and dont commit. ask an english teacher or recent ivy grad for advice, your parents may not have the Essay The Rise of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, best sense of a relevant and not trite topic. once you have your topic, draft and fine tune. i went through at least 40 full drafts. luckily my topic answered every essay question i came across. finally, i think the mundane topics advice is risky. Travelling? true, you can have a very good essay on a mundane topic, but you also run the risk of sounding like everyone else and being trite. Report? if you are writing about your subway ride as a metaphor for your dreams in life, it had better be a really sparkling, innovative essay.

These tips, while a good guide, are confusing. If some of the best essays she’s read include what your life is travelling, like from the POV of a goldfish on susan b anthony poem, the kitchen table, then what’s wrong with a creative essay on what my room says about me? That story can be equally as creative. As a 60-year-old graduate student who has also been a journalist for 11 years and recently published a book about travelling my life, I believe in the power of personal story. Not all teens have found their “voices” yet, and so they try on others for size, so of course that will come through the essay. The Rise? But your voice is travelling essays, unique.

It’s you. Don’t try to be anybody else. So… Keep it simple, be honest, use more verbs than nouns and avoid adjectives and adverbs as much as possible. Of Earthquakes? Tell how an travelling experience you had made you feel and what you learned from it. Describe what sets your heart on fire.

As the parent of two college-aged sons, I could not agree with this advice more. I Can By Myself? One wrote about a challenge that he overcame and the other about being compassionate. Both essays were about events that happened in their everyday school lives. Both were written in active voice and were little windows into their characters. Neither used the words challenge or compassionate. I am convinced that it was the strength and sincerity of their essays that opened the doors at the top schools that said “Yes” to my sons. The essays were the travelling essays, differentiating factor in all the numbers that are part of an application. I encourage other parents to suggest that their kids just be themselves in their essays – small is letter scaffold, good, generalities are boring, tell about essays something that makes you you. Oh, and read The Gatekeepers – – it offers the best insights into the college admissions process of any of the dozens of nursing, books I read on the topic.

I wonder if, at the most competitive colleges/universities, anything makes a difference beyond sociology: My daughter is a National Merit Finalist (actually won a National Merit Scholarship at travelling essays a school she chose not to sbar nursing report template attend), had an “unweighted” GPA over 3.9 at essays a magnet International Baccalaureate program, had an SAT score of nursing report, 2290 with an 800 in critical reading (only took it once), had three “5” scores on AP exams before her senior year and every SAT II over 700. She was accepted at every small college she applied. Rejected at Harvard, Yale, wait-listed at Columbia (and then told there is no place) and at Duke….but then, 25 of 26 applicants from her (public) school were rejected from essays, Yale…the one acceptance: a superb musician, triple-legacy, Presidential Scholar. She IS an athlete, but not good enough to play at i can do bad by myself the schools that rejected her (and plans to at the essays, small college she will attend). Oh…she’s upper middle class white (and competing in letter scaffold a major metropolitan area against many white legacy kids at these top schools). “been through it” might think himself realistic for advising that everyone get ‘really really good’ at a sport, but being a non-sports person with a non-sports kid, our (IMO rather more sure-fire) resolution to this particular problem is travelling essays, – – apply only to technical colleges; they do not require essays. Tongue only b anthony, partly in travelling essays cheek… Not all Ivy League admits use coaches or guides- I didn’t.

I took a risk in writing my application three years ago- I wrote a genuinely personal essay. It was frightening for of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, me to essays do bec it revealed things about malaysia elections my background that I wasn’t sure Harvard could handle. Travelling? But it was a risk that paid off. So, my perspective is- take a risk, expose yourself, share why admission truly matters to i can you. Thank you, Ms.

Merrill. As a parent whose daughter is at the very very beginning of this process, I’d love to travelling see more advice on the admissions process from you — please keep it coming! And thank you NYT for greece life, passing along practical, applicable information. Most college admission officers agree that a student’s character is the most difficult thing to travelling measure on the application. College essays are the place for b anthony poem, students to reveal their personal stories in an authentic, engaging and sincere way . In addition to what has already been mentioned, it’s important to travelling read the essay prompts carefully and understand the intent of the question. Jeannie Borin, M.Ed. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to ancient greece life style many: 1 – Don’t try to sound too “intellectual,” if that means stuffing the essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in an ordinary conversation. If you sound like you’re trying to impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are – negatively. 2 – If you were sweating and stewing with your essay, try another draft version in a “devil may care” frame of mind. That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into travelling essays your head (on the topic) without caring if the essay is good and bad.

Then let a trusted person compare the versions. Sometimes the latter turns out to have the better “flow,” and you can improve on malaysia elections, that in the editing process. It’s a little cynical to suggest that all Ivy League admits use coaches and guides. A friend currently at Yale was told by a college counselor that her essay was terrible (it read too much like a “story” and didn’t have a “message”), and she sent it anyway. I wrote my essay on my own and got into essays a school famous for its English program. Probably the do bad by myself, best advice is to stay far away from travelling, “moral of the story” lines.

I’ve seen plenty of letter scaffold, books that praise essays about the writers’ overcoming of obstacles, blah blah blah, with all their lines about travelling “through my experience, I learned…” I would get pretty darn bored of that if I were an admissions officer. Neither of b anthony poem, my children used a coach or had special classes. We checked the grammar and spelling on their essays and let them focus on their interests in and out of school. One is at an Ivy one is at a small, tier one school. I expect the one going to the small school will get the travelling essays, better education. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to malaysia elections many:

1 – Don’t try to travelling sound too “intellectual,” if that means stuffing the essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in an ordinary conversation. If you sound like you’re trying to letter scaffold impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are – negatively. 2 – If you were sweating and essays stewing with your essay, try another draft version in letter scaffold a “devil may care” frame of travelling, mind. That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into your head (on the topic) without caring if the essay is good and bad. Then let a trusted person compare the versions.

Sometimes the latter turns out to greece style have the better “flow,” and travelling you can improve on that in the editing process. P.S. – Sorry, forgot to tell you great post! Barbara’s #2 is a great solution to any time one gets ‘writer’s block’. Greece Life? From Thank You notes to funding proposals, it works. Also, the ‘trusted person’ who reads and edits the outcome of the “devil may care” effort can be oneself – but not until the next day. Read the essay to someone else. Read it as if you are telling a story. Travelling? You will hear what sounds clumsy, and i can you will see if it captures attention. I suggest that a good deal of time and money would be saved if admissions officers would simply put all those applicants who seem to travelling essays meet standards for a college education into a lottery.

That random choice is fair and is better than officers playing God as to who is fit to adorn their insitution, My College Admissions Essays: 1. Report Template? What work of art, music, science, mathematics or literature has surprised, unsettled or challenged you? : A 64-slice CT scanner that the local hospital that I volunteered at travelling essays had just gotten. 2. What’s your favorite word and why?: Determination (Probably not the sbar template, “best” choice but it really is and I think I showed it was genuine) 3. Choose any topic of your choice: I wrote a descriptive essay of my trip to the Eiffel Tower and how I was blown away by the beauty and grandeur of the structure. And this was also an essay that I had used in travelling an English class for a writing contest and b anthony poem my teacher had rated the paper as an A+ so hey, it was probably my best writing. Currently at the University of Virginia as a 3rd year student. Admissions does sometimes seem like a lottery… And Doc? Does your daughter’s school mascot happen to be a rocket? I think I go to the same school, based on the information you gave.

As someone who was admitted to some Ivy Leagues and travelling essays waitlisted at some Ivy Leagues, and letter scaffold who played a sport but was not recruited, I must say that the essay was probably the travelling essays, key in helping me stand out from the thousands of middle-class, white, suburban applicants. The essay is really one of the only aspects of the application in which you can show who you really are. Resumes are nice, but they show what you do–which is meaningless unless this provides insight into who you are and how your character’s been shaped by what you do. I’m sure many people would probably make blanket statements that are hard to understand…”don’t write about susan poem something too grandiose” “don’t write about something too mundane” “don’t make it too intellectual-sounding” “don’t make it sound like intellectualism is not a part of your life”–but the travelling, best advice I can give is figure out a writing style that works for do bad, you, and essays run with it. If you look hard enough, you will find people in your life who know you well enough to give you tips on i can, your writing style while staying true to yourself and making it genuine. Take this advice with a grain of salt.

Consider it carefully and remember…colleges are not looking to accept your neighbor, or your English teacher, or your friend’s mom who works at a newspaper. Travelling Essays? They are looking for true insight into your character, and you should seize this opportunity to reveal what it is that makes you who you are.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place.

Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Essays! Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the susan poem perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to essays, highlight only the accomplishments and b anthony, skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Travelling! Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. Malaysia Elections! But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in travelling essays, and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include.

Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of elections cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Essays! Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to nursing template, what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in travelling, the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of malaysia elections a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on essays the top third of your resume. Nursing Report! This top section is what the travelling hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on The Rise of Earthquakes in Oklahoma reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the travelling only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for Essay The Rise of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, you —or just nix it altogether to save space and travelling, focus on sbar nursing report template making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet.

Unless it’s absolutely necessary in travelling essays, your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is The Rise, a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the travelling information here to be concise, and nursing template, making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to essays, force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to malaysia elections, showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. Essays! But if you can tell the letter scaffold same story in travelling, less space? Do.

If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Report Template! Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of travelling trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the by myself most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about travelling, getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of elections good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Travelling! Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by i can do bad, using a font size between 10 and 12 and travelling essays, leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page.

You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on greece style readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to travelling, the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to Essay about of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10.

Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to essays, make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and susan, Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for essays, prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in sbar nursing report template, as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the essays most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.

Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the greece style most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on essays your resume according to importance. Sbar Template! If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into travelling more detail about malaysia, your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and travelling, then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of poem why you’re ideal for essays, the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section.

No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out ancient style these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an travelling essays assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done!

As you look at do bad, your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into travelling accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to i can do bad by myself, sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an travelling essays “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about elections, how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the essays result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Essay About Of Earthquakes! There’s no law that says you can only travelling put full-time or paid work on malaysia elections your resume. Travelling Essays! So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged?

Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. Elections! If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to essays, mix it up ! Use keywords in do bad by myself, your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and travelling essays, make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the nursing report template job description into travelling a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include?

Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to report template, describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and travelling essays, relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college.

25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates.

The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the letter scaffold degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at travelling essays, your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light.

Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to sbar nursing, get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to essays, add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. B Anthony! Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to travelling essays, a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and ancient style, detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to essays, include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Letter Scaffold! Are you a guitar player with your eye on travelling essays a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for nursing, a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for essays, your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns.

Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the do bad cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to travelling essays, include them or not. Do include awards and sbar nursing report template, accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Travelling! Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to letter scaffold, include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and travelling, end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at poem, your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for travelling essays, leaving next to Essay The Rise of Earthquakes, each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to travelling, new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue.

Re-entering the susan poem workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Travelling! Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Nursing Report! See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on travelling your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of by myself laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them.

There’s no need to travelling essays, address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and i can do bad, clear of travelling typos. Susan B Anthony Poem! And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to essays, always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. Sbar Report! To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to travelling essays, pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on ancient greece style new responsibilities?

Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on travelling a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of of Earthquakes writing on the web.

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DEES Graduate Student Dissertation Topic List. Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee: Gaherty, Shillington, Ekstrom. Investigation of the travelling essays, Role of Segmentation and Magmatism in Continental Rifting Exploiting Diverse Seismic Datasets from the East African Rift System. For many years it has been accepted that continental breakup occurs by extension and ultimately rupture of the lithosphere. However, the emergence and early evolution of two fundamental characteristics of Essay about divergent plate boundaries, segmentation and magmatism, are not well understood because most studies focus on mature or successfully rifted margins. Additionally, there are few existing datasets that can be integrated to provide 3D constraints on rift architecture throughout the lithosphere, which are required to address these questions. My research focuses on investigations of the travelling essays, crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath two unique end-member study locations within the by myself, East African Rift System (EARS). The first component of essays my dissertation concerns the mature Main Ethiopian Rift and i can by myself, Afar Depression.

I used earthquake and continuous data from travelling, 100+ temporary seismic stations located in the region to investigate the shear velocity and radially anisotropic structure of the uppermost mantle. This investigation produced estimates of mantle temperature and melt content within the rift and also highlighted the potential location of report melt segregation along a steeply dipping lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The second component of my dissertation focuses on the relatively immature Malawi Rift located at the southernmost tip of the EARS. For this study I am using the travelling, recently acquired SEGMeNT active and passive source seismic dataset that comprises a 3D array of ancient life on-land and lake-bottom broadband and short period seismometers. Travelling Essays? With this data I plan to investigate the shear velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath the region using teleseismic and about The Rise, ambient noise seismic processing. The 3D active source dataset acquired by short period lake-bottom seismometers within Lake Malawi will provide high-resolution images of travelling shallow crustal velocity structure. Together these diverse datasets will yield novel constraints on the state of the Malawi Rift and the role of segmentation and magmatism in an immature continental rift setting. Date Orals Passed: 4/13.

Advisory Committee: Hemming, Christie-Blick, Broecker. My dissertation work is malaysia focused on constraining a Last Glacial Maximum and essays, deglacial record of hydroclimate change from the Mono Basin, California. The emphasis of my work is on sedimentary and stratigraphic observations that I use to b anthony poem, interpret lake level fluctuations--a proxy for changes in the basin's precipitation minus evaporation balance. Travelling Essays? I hope that this, along with a chronology based on sbar uranium series and radiocarbon data, can yield an accurate and precise record, which can be used by climate modelers to understand the hydrosphere's dynamics. In addition, models can then use this data to towards understanding how this region's hydroclimate will be affected with projected future climate change. Date Orals Passed : 5/14. Advisory Committee : A. Juhl, B. Anderson, H. Ducklow. Impacts of travelling regional climate change on i can by myself planktonic microorganisms in travelling essays, marine ecosystems. My graduate research at the interface of marine biology and chemical oceanography addresses the impacts of regional climate change on The Rise microorganisms in essays, coastal marine ecosystems. Much of do bad my research focuses on essays the effects of multiple stressors on the growth and physiology of planktonic microorganisms, which form the base of the marine food web and serve as some of the template, first bioindicators of travelling essays change in marine ecosystems. Although the effects of style ocean acidification are known for some marine plankton, the interactive effects of ocean acidification and other chemical stressors (e.g., hypoxia, toxic trace metals delivered from suspended sediments, antibiotics) are not well understood.

Using integrated laboratory experiments and field studies, I examine the interactive impacts of ocean acidification with other chemical stressors on harmful algal bloom (HAB) phytoplankton species including Cochlodinium polykrikoides and travelling essays, Amphidinium carterae , as well as shelled molluscs including Limacina helicina . About In Oklahoma? In addition, some of my research focuses on essays the supply of dust – a major source of iron for phytoplankton – in surface waters of the susan, Indian Ocean. Using trace metal clean laboratory techniques, I measure thorium isotopes in seawater and surface sediment samples to determine the essays, total atmospheric dust flux to the Indian Ocean. These interdisciplinary studies address the coupled biological and chemical changes in marine ecosystems as a result of increased anthropogenic climate change. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Tolstoy, Goldberg, Malinverno. Cycles and malaysia, layering beneath the seafloor from marine and travelling essays, borehole geophysical data. In my first chapter, I examine the ancient greece life style, effect of travelling essays short-term tidal cycles in the ocean. Specifically, I assess triggering of seismic activity related to the true fortnightly and fortnightly modulations of diurnal and semidiurnal tides at the East Pacific Rise through a dataset from an sbar nursing template Ocean Bottom Seismometer array that was deployed from October 2003 to January 2007. Travelling Essays? The study is particularly focused on seismicity before and after a well-documented submarine eruption at this site, which culminated in a seismic crisis on January 22 nd , 2006. This study enables us to observe the fundamental change in the state of stress along a mid ocean ridge through a plate spreading event.

For my second and malaysia, third chapter, I am looking at the morphology, origin and travelling, evolution of Pleistocene submarine canyons at the New Jersey margin. For this purpose, I am using the 2D seismic reflection profiles collected on R/V Oceanus cruise 270 in 1995. Mapping the submarine canyons allows me to i can, study their progression in morphology through space and time. For a greater understanding of the effects of sea level change on a stratigraphic column, a 3D seismic volume was just acquired on the New Jersey continental shelf, aboard R/V Langseth in the summer of 2015. I participated in the cruise and awaiting the delivery of the essays, processed dataset early next year. I am planning to look at the evolution of Miocene clinoform fronts at sbar report template, this margin. In my last chapter, I am going to evaluate the ocean crustal sites at Reykjanes ridge, offshore Iceland for essays carbon dioxide sequestration in layers of deep-sea basalt. This work aims to look for greece style an offshore extension of the onshore CarbFix project launched in 2007.

My work would include a geographical reconnaissance of the area, reservoir assessment to estimate carbon dioxide storage volume and lastly a thermal assessment for optimum temperature and pressure conditions to support the injected phase of carbon dioxide.?? Advisory Committee : Winckler, Goldstein, Kaplan. The provenance of mineral dust in West Antarctica: Insights into past atmospheric circulation and continental aridity. Mineral dust lofted up into the atmosphere has both a direct and travelling, an indirect effect on the climate system. My research focuses on understanding the sbar report, ways that dust influences the climate system today, and how that influence has changed in the past. In particular, we can use dust as a tracer of past atmospheric circulation patterns: by travelling essays, comparing the radiogenic isotopic “fingerprint” of places where the dust might have come from with the signal we see in some climate archive, we know that storm systems transported that dust from that known source to our location of interest. Then, we can see how the source areas may have changed over time. My samples come from several ice cores in West Antarctica (WAIS), and we use Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes to malaysia elections, identify the changing dust sources to WAIS on glacial-interglacial and millennial timescales, as well as during even shorter-term events such as volcanic eruptions. Date Orals Passed: 4/15.

Advisory Committee: Linsley, deMenocal, B. Anderson. Paleoceanographic-Proxy Development in Scleractinia (Stony Corals) Throughout the Pacific Ocean: Exploring the Variable Utility of Stable Isotopes and Trace Metals in Oceanographic Reconstructions. The geochemical signature in the aragonite skeleton of a coral can be used to travelling essays, decipher past climate. In particular, stable isotopes and The Rise in Oklahoma, trace metals are used to elucidate changes in sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), or coastal river discharge. My dissertation research is a compilation of projects aimed at essays, fine-tuning and exploring the bounds of coral paleoceanographic proxies. Using stable oxygen isotopes from letter scaffold, corals off the Pacific coast of travelling essays Panama I am reconstructing decadal precipitation patterns to better understand low frequency variability in the Pacific Basin. In conjunction with the susan poem, precipitation record, I am studying the viability of coral Ba/Ca as a terrestrial run off proxy in the same region to better understand the impacts of oscillating precipitation in travelling essays, the Eastern Tropical Pacific.

In addition I am developing Sr/Ca- and oxygen isotope-SST calibrations for susan poem corals in the Great Barrier Reef. This calibration will be applied to fossil corals dating back to the Last Glacial Maximum to help us understand SST change in the Great Barrier reef during the most recent glacial to interglacial transition. Ultimately, my research explores the various types of coral paleo-proxies and essays, how their applicability can vary in different oceanographic settings. My findings will underscore the need to consider the location of interest when choosing the most appropriate proxy to interrogate past climate change. Date Orals Passed: 4/13. Advisory Committee: Zappa, Gordon, Sobel. My research focuses on air-sea interaction. In particular, I use IR imagery to study micro breaking, momentum, heat and gas exchange at the air-sea interface.

IR imagery not only provides a measure of skin temperature, but can also be used to infer surface currents. Structures and variations in the skin temperature arise from disruption of the thermal boundary layer (TBL) as a result of wind forcing at the air-water interface and/or due to turbulent eddies generated within the water column. The TBL makes up top few micro meters of the about of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, water column and the key intermediate between the ocean and atmosphere, which plays a crucial role in heat and gas exchanges. My studies aim to travelling essays, infer subsurface and bulk water column characteristics such as turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, and water depth from non-intrusive surface measurements of the susan b anthony poem, thermal boundary layer. I am currently investigating how sea ice modulates local physics, turbulence production, and essays, gas transfer in the interplay of ice-water shear, convection waves and wind. Date Orals Passed : 10/13. Advisory Committee : Gordon, Thurnherr, Abernathey.

Understanding the global freshwater cycle is letter scaffold of tremendous importance in order to understand and travelling, adapt to poem, future climate change. The ocean is inherently linked to the global freshwater cycle. Positive net evaporation (evaporation - precipitation) constantly remove freshwater from the travelling, surface in the subtropics creating a local maximum in sea surface salinity while the tropics are freshened by excess rainfall. To balance the loss in freshwater in the subtropics, ocean processes need to b anthony poem, mix in surrounding waters laterally and vertically. The mainly wind driven shallow overturning circulation, defined by poleward Ekman drift at the surface, subduction in the subtropics and upwelling in the equatorial regions carries the salty surface signature beneath the surface creating a subsurface salinity maximum. Recent advances in remote salinity observations and a comprehensive field campaign (NASA-SPURS) enable us to study the influence of mesoscale eddies for the surface salinity maximum as well as the subsurface salinity maximum in the North Atlantic. My dissertation aims to quantify the essays, importance of mesoscale turbulence to the surface salinity maximum in the North Atlantic and identify links to large scale climate variables using a mix of observational data and simplified model experiments. Further more I aim to identify key processes that influence the subsurface salinity maximum once isolated from the nursing report, surface forcing, hence influence the travelling essays, heat/salt transports through the The Rise of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, shallow overturning circulation. Specifically the role of double diffusive processes for travelling essays the salinity core layer and associated transports will be evaluated. Finally these results will be compared to the shallow overturning circulation and salinity maxima in other ocean basins and evaluated whether they can explain regional differences and account for The Rise inter annual variability. Date Orals Passed: 4/11.

Advisory Committee: Cane, Ting, D. Chen. Integrated evolution of the atmosphere-ocean coupled modes. El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are a few significant modes of climate variation from interannual to multidecadal time scales identified from sea surface temperature (SST). It is travelling well known that ENSO dynamics involves tropical atmosphere-ocean (AO) coupling. As to the PDO and AMO, they are also viewed as the outcome of coupling, yet there is no well-accepted theory about the mechanism involved. Thus, one aim of this thesis is to explain this low frequency AO coupling and how it leads to susan, the observed climate variation.

Based on the heat budget equation, the essays, temperature variation or tendency is determined by the horizontal heat advection (by ocean gyre circulation), vertical heat advection (by upwelling or downwelling), and dissipation (interior ocean mixing) as well as the AO interface heat flux. In order to look into the ocean’s role, estimation of the b anthony, relative significance of travelling each term will be done using the output from coupled climate models. The time variation of each term will also be investigated using time series analysis tools and other statistical methods (linear inverse model) to assist the explaining of the mechanism. The basic assumption in this work is that the coupling is not a local phenomena but on a basin wide or global scale, which is fulfilled through the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. By studying this topic, we attempt to style, understand the fundamental question of how heat is transported through AO coupling within the climate system. Further question to be addressed will be how the modes of coupling will change under the global warming condition. Date Orals Passed: 4/12.

Advisory Committee: Norell, Meng, Flynn. Fossils, Morphology, Molecules: combined analyses of salamander phylogeny. Urodela (salamanders) are a major group of modern amphibians (Lissamphibia), with a long evolutionary history that can be traced back to the Mezozoic dinosaur time. Phylogenetic studies of salamander evolution have revealed sharp conflict between the hypotheses based on morphological data and/or molecular data. The proposed research intends to travelling essays, conduct combined analyses incorporating phylogenetically significant early fossil taxa, all available morphological and molecular data; a method herein termed “Fossils-Morphology-Molecular Approach” (FMM approach). Such an approach has the advantage in resolving or relaxing the morphology/molecular conflicts, and obviously the advantage in obtaining phylogenetic hypotheses with the ultimate power of scientific explanation. Nursing Report? Fossil discoveries from the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous beds in northern China have provided the key material for understanding the travelling essays, origins and early evolution of modern salamander clades. The fossil material found includes the earliest known fossil record of Essay two major salamander clades (Cryptobranchoidea and Salamandroidea), and essays, the basal taxa of several modern salamander clades. These fossils, together with other Mesozoic fossils worldwide, not only increase the taxon sampling for the phylogenetic analysis to be conducted, but also represent new combinations of anatomical characters, many of which are ancestral to susan b anthony, salamander evolution. Morphological data used will include characters of salamander osteology, soft anatomy and ontogenetic development from various sources.

Characters are drawn both from careful examination of real specimens and from published literature. Molecular data from GenBank will include more than 20000 base pairs coming from complete mitochondrial genomes, ribosomal RNA and various nuclear DNA. Essays? These data will be analyzed both separately and combined. Analyses of smaller dataset (morphological dataset with/without fossils) will be performed using PAUP, whereas analyses of morphology/molecular combined dataset (with/without fossil taxa) will be performed using more powerful tools, including MrBayes and POY. Phylogenetic results of parsimony analysis will be compared with that of malaysia Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analysis. Cladograms will be calibrated using geological time scale and the first occurrence datum of fossils (FOD). By doing this, both the travelling, relationships and the tempo of letter scaffold salamander evolution can be better understood.

Date Orals Passed: 3/13. Advisory Committee: Bell, Buck, Nettles. My research interests are focused on the interaction between glacial water flow (subglacial and supraglacial) and ice dynamics. Subglacial hydrology is one of the main controlling factors in the spatial and temporal evolution of ice flow: how the water drains underneath an ice sheet has important implications for the basal sliding condition. However, subglacial water drainage is essays dynamic in space and time and varies in a complicated manner coupled to surface hydrology. Despite recent conceptual advances, relatively little is nursing report template known about how the surface hydrology interacts with the subglacial drainage system and how it affects effective pressure and ice flow. Currently, I am working on building a 2D numerical model of subglacial drainage to investigate the coupling between drainage of surface melt water and glacier motion.

A synthetic glacier geometry is used to obtain the steady-state solutions for water pressure and subglacial conduit sizes. The water pressure solution is applied to a sliding law to calculate ice flow speed. The goal is to apply this model to essays, a real outlet glacier in West Greenland and understand how glacial hydrology affects ice motion on a catchment scale. Date Orals Passed: 4/13. Advisory Committee: Ebel, Walker, Plank.

Constraining Chemical Environment and Processes in do bad by myself, the Protoplanetary Disk: Perspective from Populations of Calcium- and Aluminum-rich Inclusions and Metal-rich Chondrules in Carbonaceous Ornans-type and Renazzo-type Chondrites Respectively? On Earth, petrologic and geochemical analyses provide insight into the Earth’s bulk composition as well as the interior and essays, exterior processes that have been operating throughout Earth’s history as a planet. To understand the origin of the Earth and other terrestrial bodies, the chemical construct and dynamic processes operating in the solar nebula, a cloud of cooling gas and dust existing after sun formation, need to be constrained. The history of the early solar system is preserved in the various components in chondritic meteorites. Chondrites have never experienced the significant planetary process of differentiation, which separates metals from silicates, and remixes chemical components. Thus, they can be considered aggregates of objects formed in the dynamic, cooling solar nebula. Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) are some of the highest temperature solids formed and preserved in chondrites.

Chondrules are varied in letter scaffold, mineralogy but those containing discrete metal layers record unique conditions relating to the heating and deformation history of the chondrules with which they are associated. The chemistries , textures, and mineral crystal orientations of CAIs and chondrules directly reflect the conditions and processes in their formation in the nebula. While many previous studies have chosen to travelling essays, focus on a few objects in detail, my study aims to examine many inclusions to better understand chemical, mineralogical, and textural variations and correlations. ? A majority of my research focuses on poem high resolution, x-ray element map analysis of individual CAIs and other objects in carbonaceous Ornans-like (CO) chondrites using custom-made image analysis software. But, to obtain a more complete understanding of complementarity, or the concept that bulk CO chondrite has a solar composition while individual components do not, I am analyzing the rare-earth element (REE) ratios in individual components. Determining the relationship between object mineralogy, texture, and REE ratio will yield insight into the occurrences of various components and their relative proportions that must combine to essays, maintain solar composition within the bulk chondrite. Greece Life? This broad survey of CAIs and other objects in CO chondrites will help constrain astrophysical models, refine the order in which minerals condense from the solar nebula, and essays, further improve the formation criterion necessary to produce the observed variation. ? Chondrule formation hypotheses are many but poorly constrained. The chondrules in carbonaceous Renazzo-type (CR) chondrites have associated metal in elections, both the chondrule core and near the rim. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) permits determination of metal crystal orientation. Determining the relationships between the travelling, crystal orientation and chemistry of metal nodules within and among the nursing, chondrules could yield insight into chondrule formation and travelling, deformation. Altogether, the results of this thesis work will contribute to our understanding of our solar system as solids began to form and ancient life, the journey these solids took before becoming asteroids or planets. Date Orals Passed: 4/12.

Advisory Committee: Class, Goldstein, Hemming. Melt depletion and essays, geochemical evolution of the susan, subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the West Antarctic Rift System. The subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) undergoes compositional changes during tectonic events such as continental rifting, subduction, and orogeny, with each event leaving behind a geochemical imprint. Geochemical mapping of the travelling, lithosphere allows us to gain a better understanding of how the continents are structured, and enables us to piece together the tectonic evolution of the continents. Here we look at the Western Ross Sea area of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) as a case study. My thesis focuses on using these geochemical imprints to unravel the geochemical and tectonic evolution of the SCLM in the WARS: Os isotope ratios can be used to date the melt depletion events in the asthenosphere that are considered to be equivalent to the stabilization age of the lithospheric mantle.

In this study, mantle xenoliths entrained in susan, Cenozoic basanites were collected in a transection from the rift shoulder and into the rift basin in the western margin of the WARS. Analyses of these samples provide a recent snapshot of the lithospheric mantle after major episodes of rifting. If we can trace the age of the lithospheric mantle across this margin, we can begin to understand its behavior in essays, response to rifting and subsequent structure. We repeatedly observe. 1.7 Ga depletion events across the rifted margin, indicating the i can by myself, widespread Paleoproterozoic stabilization of the travelling, lithosphere and report, dynamic thinning of lithosphere across the western margin of the WARS. Trace elements provide another means to access the depletion history of the SCLM, however the mobility and travelling, fractionation of these elements can obscure ancient depletion signatures. Nevertheless, we can exploit the behavior of these trace elements. For example, melt depletion is characterized by light rare earth element (LREE) depletions, however we observe LREE enrichments in our 1.7 Ga xenoliths. Metasomatism, the chemical alteration of a rock via melt and/or fluid, can overprint the trace element composition of a rock, leaving behind diagnostic signatures of the metasomatizing agent (e.g. LREE re-enrichment by a carbonatitic melt).

Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes can be used to constrain the role of the SCLM in the formation of letter scaffold WARS volcanism. It has been proposed that Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in the Northern Victoria Land (NVL) region of East Antarctica originated from a SCLM source that had been metasomatized during an essays extensional event in by myself, the WARS during the Late Cretaceous. Additional studies demonstrate that Nd and Sr isotope ratios plot near the HIMU field, yet Pb and Hf isotope ratios plot between HIMU and DMM. This can be accounted for by varying proportions of lithospheric mantle source that has experienced Paleozoic to Mesozoic modification due to subduction related fluids and flux melting which can incorporate fluid mobile elements such as Pb from the mantle wedge. By measuring these same isotope systems on essays mantle xenoliths, we can begin to address whether SCLM is a source for the widespread Cenozoic volcanism in the WARS. Date Orals Passed : 4/14.

Advisory Committee : T. Shaw, Seager, Ting. Recent observational and modeling studies have shown that wintertime variability of the stratospheric circulation is dynamically coupled to anomalous weather regimes in the troposphere. The fundamental source of the coupling is planetary-scale waves which are primarily generated in the troposphere and couple vertically with the stratosphere when the zonal-mean winds are westerly. My research focuses on understanding the elections, dynamics of extreme stratospheric planetary-scale wave events and travelling essays, their coupling to the stratospheric and tropospheric circulations. My results show that the lifecycle of i can do bad upward wave propagation/downward wave reflection events are associated with vertically deep planetary wave structures that exhibit largely equal but opposite-signed time integrated impacts: a net deceleration/acceleration of the stratospheric polar vortex and an equatorward/poleward shift of the North Atlantic tropospheric jet. Downward wave reflection events are found to travelling, play a key role in the formation of strong vortex events showing that they both represent true dynamical events with strong wave-mean flow interaction. Together with the connection between upward wave propagation and weak vortex events, the results illustrate a clear dualism in stratospheric wave-mean flow interaction. Planetary wave events are focused in high-latitudes and produce large amplitude tropospheric impacts and hence represent a key dynamical pathway through which Arctic variability can impact the midlatitude circulation. My current research aims to address the question of why stratospheric planetary wave events become extreme in high-latitudes. Several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature such as stationary-transient wave interactions, instability and resonance.

A better understanding of the dynamical mechanisms responsible for ancient life planetary wave events is the subject of current research using idealized modeling. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: Ekstrom, Gaherty, Nettles. Investigations of the anisotropic velocity structure of the Pacific upper mantle. Seismic anisotropy, the variation of seismic velocity with the essays, propagation or polarization direction of a wave, is an important observable for investigating the elections, dynamics of the travelling essays, interior of the of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, Earth. Models of seismic anisotropy in oceanic regions provide information about the geometry of strain and flow in the mantle, the travelling essays, specific nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and sbar nursing template, the possible presence of partial melt in essays, the asthenosphere.

In order to i can do bad, investigate these and other questions, my research is focused on developing a three-dimensional model of the travelling essays, anisotropy velocity structure of the Pacific upper mantle. Using measurements of fundamental mode surface waves, we invert for variations in seismic velocity laterally and with depth in the upper mantle of the Pacific basin. In addition to variations in isotropic velocities, we include in do bad by myself, the inversion the elastic parameters describing both radial and azimuthal anisotropy. Essays? The resulting model will improve constraints on olivine fabrics and strain geometries in the oceanic upper mantle. Date Orals Passed: 3/13. Advisory Committee: Abers, Gaherty, Buck? My first major research project focused on the Woodlark Rift in southeastern Papua New Guinea.

This is one of the youngest and most rapidly extending continental rifts in susan b anthony, the world, and is an intriguing locality for investigating how continents break apart. The D'Entrecasteaux Islands, at the heart of this rift, comprise metamorphic core complexes that contain the world's youngest ultra-high pressure coesite eclogite, exhumed from 100 km depth in essays, just 5 Ma. B Anthony? I have applied a variety of travelling seismological techniques to investigate this region, using data from a temporary array of broadband seismometers installed by members of the LDEO seismology dept. that ran from 2010-2011.? My analysis of shear-wave splitting, using core-traversing teleseisms, shows strong anisotropy beneath this rift, attributed to crystallographic fabric in the shallow mantle caused by susan b anthony, the rate and extent of continental rifting. I have related anisotropy and travelling, shear strain in the shallow convecting mantle to predict shear-wave splitting times that are very close to the splitting times I observe, bolstering our hypothesis that the anisotropy arises from mantle fabric related to rifting. These findings shed light on how mantle flow transitions as a rift matures from letter scaffold, a small-scale extensional regime to a large-scale divergent boundary.? We conducted a body-wave tomography study in the same region, using teleseismic P- and S- wave arrivals, and essays, taking a finite-frequency approach to relate differential travel times to sbar, 3D velocity heterogeneities. The isotropic velocity model reveals a localised rift structure evident to travelling, ?180 km depth, as well as an apparent slab remnant that contains the first intermediate depth seismicity observed in this region, discovered last year by members of our research group.

Building upon this work, I developed a new method to jointly invert for anisotropy and velocity variations in this rift by simplifying the geometry of the anisotropic fabric based on the rift geometry and susan, the SK(K)S splitting results. Travelling Essays? This work revealed that the rift axis contains anisotropic material with spreading-parallel fast axis, that is breaking upwards through lithosphere that has spreading-perpendicular fast axis (aligned with the trend of recent orogenies). This exciting result demonstrated that we can actually image lithospheric breakup from the anisotropy signal. ? My next project will entail a change in direction: we are using OBS and on-land seismic data from the Cascadia Initiative’s Amphibious Array to study attenuation of the susan b anthony, Juan de Fuca plate from ridge to trench to arc. Using differential t* measurements we can investigate the variation of essays attenuation associated with plate ageing to answer questions about the nursing, plate’s thermal structure, the travelling essays, distribution of melt/volatiles, and the fate of the b anthony, asthenosphere upon subduction. Travelling Essays? This work complements previous studies using surface waves and will contribute to our developing understanding of anelastic controls on seismic parameters by probing the Earth in malaysia, a different frequency range. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Honisch, McManus, deMenocal. Quaternary carbon cycling in the Atlantic Ocean: Insights from boron and radiocarbon proxies. Ice core records of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) support a tight linkage between CO2 concentrations and climate over Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. On millennial timescales, atmospheric CO2 concentrations are driven by the deep ocean, which holds the largest reservoir of exchangeable carbon.

The nature and travelling essays, phasing of relationships between deep ocean circulation, the ancient, oceanic carbon cycle, atmospheric CO2 and climate remain enigmatic, and essays, are all the more important considering recent anthropogenic perturbation of the global carbon cycle. My research addresses the above questions through the creation of do bad new paleoproxy records to travelling essays, constrain deep-ocean carbon cycling. Malaysia? To date, I have measured the boron isotope and radiocarbon composition of deep-sea bamboo corals, and travelling essays, assessed their ability to i can by myself, record changing pH and radiocarbon activity in the North Atlantic Ocean. Travelling Essays? Going forward, I aim to combine radiocarbon records from modern deep-sea corals to elucidate the transfer of radiocarbon produced by nuclear weapons testing to the deep North Atlantic Ocean. Additionally, I will set up a high-throughput procedure for boron isotope analyses via multicollector ICP-MS at nursing report, Lamont. With this procedure, I aim to reconstruct changes in pH in the deep Atlantic Ocean across the “thermohaline crisis” during the travelling, mid-Pleistocene Transition. Date Orals Passed: 5/15.

Advisory Committee: Shillington, Tolstoy, Carbotte. Controls on nursing surface processes, fluid flow, sedimentation, and faulting on active and passive. margins from multi-beam sonar and multi-channel seismic reflection data. My thesis will include at least three chapters: The first chapter is travelling focused toward gaining an understanding of surface processes, fluid flow, faulting/compaction, and sediment physical properties outboard of the deformation front at susan poem, the Cascadia Subduction Zone.

To obtain this goal, I am using 2D multi-channel seismic (MCS) and multi-beam sonar (MB) data collected offshore Oregon and Washington during the Cascadia Ridge to Trench survey in 2012. I first performed detailed p-wave velocity analysis to achieve. sub-surface perspective on seafloor surface related fluid flow features (e.g. pockmarks). Travelling Essays? I then used the derived velocities to both depth-convert the MCS data in order to measure fault offset/dip within the sediment section and provide porosity information, which I then use to decompact the sedimentary units in order to uncover the embedded tectonic signal i.e. intra-plate faulting. As an additional project, I mapped large-scale scour marks on the distal Astoria Fan and. then inverted for the source process azimuth. The azimuths all point toward the by myself, Astoria canyon, which is the essays, extension of the sbar template, Columbia River, and therefore, may be indicators of travelling essays seafloor erosion due to late Pleistocene outburst flooding events. The second chapter involves mapping amplitude variations along with specific surface seismic attributes across sub-surface paleo-channels and related rift-block bound basin unconformities within the Galicia 3D MCS dataset collected offshore Spain in the summer of 2013. The 3D volume is. 20km x 67km and has been processed to pre-stack time migration. I am then relating the amplitude variations/surface seismic attributes to current seafloor reflectivity derived from the poem, MB backscatter data in order to better constrain channel morphology and abyssal plain sand distribution as it relates to tectonic and climatic forcing processes from the travelling, Miocene to present.

Furthermore, I plan to use the drilling results/check-shots to ancient greece life style, generate synthetics in order to travelling, better constrain the time-depth relationship indicated by the reflectivity series. The third chapter will involve 2D MCS and MB data collected offshore the letter scaffold, US East coast during both the ENAM USGS/NOAA surveys in 2013-2015. I will develop a 1D inversion algorithm to constrain the p-wave velocities and use them to travelling essays, study the physical properties of susan discrete Holocene submarine slope failures. Furthermore, I will perform amplitude vs offset analysis along the basal slide surface of the slope failures in order to quantify the change in travelling essays, physical properties. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Broecker, deMenocal, Polissar. Variation in the intensity of the do bad by myself, East Asian Summer Monsoon as recorded by elevated shorelines and dD leafwax. - dD leafwax in soils. - Water isotopes in the E. Mediterranean and essays, the Levant. - Production rates of meteoric cosmogenic nuclides during the last deglaciation.

Date Orals Passed: 4/12. Advisory Committee: McManus, Hemming, Anderson. Abrupt climate change has been shown to occur synchronously with changes in the vigor of the oceans’ circulation. As oceans redistribute massive quantities of heat across the letter scaffold, Earth’s surface, changes in their circulation are often invoked as playing an important or perhaps driving role in these past climate changes. Many high-resolution climate records, generated over the past two decades, have provided glimpses into these past climate events; however, the equivalent, detailed record for changes in the oceans overturning circulation remains elusive. My thesis research focuses on refining, Pa/Th, a proxy that will help us generate a more detailed understanding of the relationship between climate and changes in ocean overturning. Protactinium and essays, thorium are two elements produced through the radioactive decay of ancient greece style uranium in seawater. As the concentration of uranium is well known and relatively homogenous in the ocean, the disparate chemical properties of these two elements help us to understand the strength of the travelling, oceans’ circulation regime, elucidating the role of the oceans in global climate change.

Abrupt shifts in letter scaffold, the Atlantic’s circulation regime have been inferred from carbon isotopes within benthic foraminfera, geostrophic gradient shifts captured in oxygen isotope data from benthic foraminifera, and the change in essays, burial rate of 231Pa/230Th in bulk sediment. Drift deposits are often selected for 231Pa/230Th paleoceanographic reconstructions because the i can do bad, sedimentation rates far exceed those of the mean ocean average, thus allowing for resolution of transient climate events not preserved in other seafloor sediment cores. The fine sediment (20um) that makes up the majority by mass of these deposits is travelling essays chiefly carried from non-proximal localities. Previous work suggests that the fine fraction of the sediment carries a disporportionatly high concentration of authigenic thorium, 230Th , and extra-terrestrial helium, 3He, two nuclides frequently employed as constant-flux proxies in the aid of climate reconstructions from sediments. Date Orals Passed : 4/14. Advisory Committee : Ekstrom, Nettles, Webb. My research focuses on surface wave observations. Currently I am working to improve methods of earthquake relocations using surface waves by assessing and correcting source effects for recordings of teleseismic earthquakes which have previously been unaccounted for. In the future, I intend to analyze surface wave recordings to analyze the relationship between explosive sources and tectonic release in the context of underground nuclear test monitoring.

Date Orals Passed: 10/14. Advisory Committee : McManus, Anderson and Winckler. The position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is hypothesized to play an important role in tropical circulation, in linking the climate of the northern and southern hemispheres and in predicating important changes in ocean overturning, particularly on deglacial timescales. Malaysia? My dissertation will present reconstructions of the paleo-position of the ITCZ through the quantification of travelling 230 Th xs,0 -normalized 232 Th fluxes in letter scaffold, marine sediments which serve as a proxy for travelling dust flux. Because the ITCZ is an efficient scavenger of atmospheric particulates, changes in the latitude of maximum dust flux provide a constraint on variations in ITCZ position. Specifically, my current research focuses on reconstructing high-resolution (sub-millennial) records of dust flux from by myself, 0-350 ka BP at several sites in the central equatorial Pacific (Cruise ML1208). Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee : Gaherty, Spiegelman and Abers. The Cascadia subduction zone, where the travelling essays, Juan de Fuca plate subducts beneath the North American plate, has historically produced large, approximately M9, megathrust earthquakes. Improved knowledge of the structure of the subducting crust and mantle can help us better understand the processes that control subduction, including those related to megathrust earthquakes. In Oklahoma? We use three seismic datasets to image different properties of the essays, region at different scales. (1) Wide angle ship-to-shore reflection data from the 2012 Ridge-to-Trench and COAST cruises record variations in the reflection character of the subduction interface offshore central Washington.

An approximately 35 km long region of high amplitude reflections has been observed perpendicular to letter scaffold, strike spanning the essays, coastline. These may be explained by differences in physical properties, ray geometry or a combination thereof. (2) Receiver functions calculated from the Cascadia Initiative (CI) dataset image thickness and shear wave velocities of the crust. Thus far results have imaged a low velocity zone offshore central Washington, which may indicate a weak thrust zone. (3) Surface waves (also from the CI) are used to susan, calculate the phase velocities down to upper mantle depths across the entire Juan de Fuca plate and essays, along the coast of the overriding North American plate. This will be used to look for velocity anomalies potentially associated with hydration of the mantle, segmentation of the plate along strike, or other heterogeneities. These data are complimentary to the receiver function images of the crust and will be used in a joint inversion to determine both the crust and mantle structure. In addition, many of elections these data are from instruments deployed in travelling, an offshore environment. In particular, receiver functions have been challenging to calculate at ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in the past due to interference from the water column. Part of this research has involved characterizing the susan b anthony, noise spectra of these instruments deployed at different depths to understand the frequency dependence of different noise sources. Since studying subduction zones requires both onshore and offshore observations, this improved understanding of using OBS data is instrumental in future studies of subduction zones.

Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee: Ducklow, Martinson, Goes. My dissertation research focuses on biogeochemical coupling with climate dynamics and essays, physical oceanography in Antarctica. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has experienced the most rapid response to climate change than any other place on the planet; teleconnections with climate variability such as ENSO and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) are well reported. Using Palmer LTER time series data, my research investigates how the large scale climate/atmospheric forcing impacts ecology and biogeochemistry in the system, through examples via phytoplankton, heterotrophic bacterial dynamics, and biogeochemical standing stocks.

Based on b anthony interdecadal observational data and statistical models, I have addressed intraseasonal to interannual covariability of phytoplankton, bacteria, and biogeochemical standing stocks; I established physical and essays, climate forcing mechanisms predicting the variability, which includes interactions between SAM and ENSO, sea ice dynamics, and nursing, water column stability parameters. My future plans include further investigations on the impacts of pure physical processes (e.g. mixing) on the observed variability in the biogeochemistry. I also plan to incorporate the observed patterns to essays, conceptual NPZD models. Date Orals Passed: 5/13. Advisory Committee: Shillington, Webb, Savage. Current seismic behavior and variation of seismic reflectivity signature for sbar nursing template megathrust in the Alaska/Aleutian Subduction zone.

Great earthquakes occur in the seismogenic portion of subduction zone megathrusts. Although most subduction zones show small to moderate interplate thrust earthquakes during the intervals between great earthquakes, a few show only seismicity within the downgoing slab, not on the plate interface, even at megathrust depths. The different patterns of seismic behavior could reflect different levels of material heterogeneity on travelling essays megathrust. Letter Scaffold? Downdip of the seismogenic zone, the megathrust changes from stick-slip behavior to stable sliding. Competing models suggest that the transition is controlled by temperature or the essays, intersection of the megathrust with the susan, serpentinized forearc mantle wedge.

In some subduction zones, changes in behavior appear to be accompanied by changes in seismic reflection signature. The Alaska/Aleutian subduction zone is one of the best places to study the relation between megathrust property and seismic hazard. During the 20th century, virtually the entire Alaska-Aleutian subduction interface has ruptured in large to travelling, great earthquakes. The 1964 Mw 9.2 Earthquake ruptured some onshore area, allowing us to deploy a broadband seismic network (MOOS array) to study the poem, details of the current seismic behavior. Further west, the rupture zone of 1938 Mw 8.2 Earthquake lies completely offshore and essays, is fully accessible to marine profiling. Susan? The megathrust of the Alaska/Aleution subdction zone also exhibits large variations from locking to freely sliding along strike from recent GPS study. My thesis focuses on the seismic behavior and travelling essays, reflectivity of the megathrust in the Alaska/Aleutian subduction zone and do bad, consists of: 1. A detailed study of travelling essays seismicity recorded by the MOOS array. Letter Scaffold? We generated a seismic catalog with 8,308 earthquakes down to magnitude 1.0 with high precision and calculated 117 focal mechanisms from the data recorded by MOOS array. Travelling? Most microearthquakes are showing normal faulting mechanisms, and the direction of the T axes generally follows the dipping direction of the b anthony, slab, indicating that they lie inside the subducting slab under down-dip extension or result from plate bending.

Interplate thrust events are absent on the megathrust within the travelling essays, 1964 great earthquake rupture area. 2. Letter Scaffold? Study the variations in seismic reflection signature of the megathrust from MCS data. We trace the reflections of the plate interface from the travelling essays, trench to place 140km landward on the dip profile across the rupture zone of the about The Rise of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, 1938 Mw 8.2 earthquake. Large variations in the reflection response are observed with depth. The plate interface is marked by a single, simple reflection within the rupture zone. Travelling Essays? Farther landward, 120 km from the trench, the megathrust reflection changes to a brighter and wider ( 12 s twtt) zone of reflectivity, where more abundant intraslab seismicity as well as episodic tremor and slip occur.

The change in susan poem, the megathrust reflection response appears to occur where it intersects a shallower band of reflectivity, which we tentatively interpret as the continental Moho. Date Orals Passed 4/15. Advisory Committee: Previdi, Fiore, Ting. Impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on U.S. Essays? climate: extreme events, stagnation, and the warming hole. Anthropogenic aerosols remain one of the largest sources of Essay about in Oklahoma uncertainty in our understanding of and ability to project present and future climate. I examine the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate in the United States, with a focus on extreme events and the southeast U.S. “warming hole”. I examine changes in travelling, frequency, magnitude, and duration of extreme temperature, precipitation and letter scaffold, stagnation events. Extreme atmospheric stagnation events, characterized by persistent weak winds and lack of precipitation, are of travelling particular concern for air quality and human health. The lack of letter scaffold ventilation and travelling, scavenging by letter scaffold, precipitation allows pollutants to build up to dangerous levels in the boundary layer. This creates a potential feedback between air pollutants (atmospheric aerosols) and essays, the meteorological conditions that contribute to extreme pollution events. Using the GFDL-CM3 chemistry-climate model, I find that aerosols have reduced the sbar nursing, frequency and magnitude of travelling essays high temperature extremes over the U.S. between 1860 and 2005, while decreasing the frequency and magnitude of letter scaffold extreme precipitation, particularly in the eastern U.S.

As a result, aerosols have largely cancelled out the travelling essays, effects of greenhouse gases over the historical period. However, emissions of anthropogenic aerosols are projected to decrease in elections, the future, unmasking the essays, impacts of greenhouse gases during the next few decades.? The modeled spatial response pattern of extreme temperatures to nursing template, both aerosols and greenhouse gases is characterized by a strong response in the western U.S., moderate responses in the central and northeast U.S., and essays, a weak or absent response in the southeast U.S., collocated with the observed “warming hole”, one of the few regions across the globe which has not warmed significantly over the twentieth century. Ancient Greece Life Style? I find that the weak temperature response in travelling essays, this region is tied to changes in the moisture budget, driven by changes in regional circulation patterns and the westward extent of the Essay of Earthquakes, Bermuda High. I will use results from multiple global climate models to evaluate how the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial extent of U.S. stagnation events change in response to forcing from anthropogenic aerosols. Essays? I will use observations of U.S. air stagnation from greece, NCDC in conjunction with GFDL-CM3 to examine specific large-scale stagnation events (such as summer 2012) and identify key atmospheric drivers (such as changes in the Bermuda High). I can then examine how these drivers change in essays, response to forcing by atmospheric aerosols, providing a mechanistic explanation for nursing report template changes in essays, stagnation.

Finally, I will use a series of sensitivity simulations performed by several chemistry-climate models to ancient life, examine the impacts of aerosols from different source regions and from individual aerosol chemical components on U.S. stagnation events. Ultimately, this work will help us understand the impacts anthropogenic aerosols on past and present U.S. climate, which will in turn improve our ability to project the effects of their removal over the next few decades. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: Martinson, Gordon, Yuan. The west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is bordered by the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC), which flows adjacent to the continental shelf.

Below the permanent pycnocline, the ACC advects upper circumpolar deep water (UCDW), characterized by temperature and nutrient maxima. Understanding the transport of UCDW onto the WAP shelf is important for travelling essays two main reasons. Essay About The Rise Of Earthquakes In Oklahoma? Firstly, the available heat of circumpolar deep water is believed to be partly responsible for recent increased melt of marine glaciers. Secondly, as a nutrient-maximum (macro, but more importantly, micro), the transport of UCDW onto the WAP shelf influences the local ecosystem. One of the essays, primary goals of my research is to understand the processes of letter scaffold shelf-slope exchange along the WAP margins. To date, I have identified that intrusions of UCDW to the WAP shelf are episodic with a frequency of about 3-4 per travelling, month and a size on the order of the first baroclinic Rossby radius. Nursing Report Template? There is a mesoscale structure to the UCDW boluses which is travelling shown to originate in the baroclinic instability of the shelf-break current upstream. The advective component of the intruding current is susan poem coherent with the along-slope wind stress in the weather-band and intrusion sites are tied to travelling, bathymetry at the shelf break (both cross-cutting canyons and seaward-veering isobaths). Malaysia Elections? I am now testing the hypothesis that nonlinearity of the weakly stratified flow induced by wind bursts facilitates the crossing of linear potential-vorticity conserving contours and allows episodic penetration at these topographically-determined sites.

The hope is to isolate essential dynamics so as to travelling essays, extend these findings to regions of similar shelf-break and current configuration around the Antarctic continent. Topographically-independent exchange of a yet-unquantified amount may occur as well via interleaving. A parallel goal of my research is to quantify the modification (by vertical and lateral mixing) of the susan poem, intruding water mass. Since there are no microstructure observations on the WAP shelf, this largely involves parameterizations (Richardson number-based and internal wave shear/strain-based) and inversion methods applied to budgets of travelling conserved properties. The work utilizes a combination of theoretical models and analysis of an extensive, multi-platform observational database (moored current meters, shipboard CTD/ADCP observations, and i can by myself, autonomous underwater vehicles). Date Orals passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Class, Shillington, Hemming. Magmatism at the southern end of the East African Rift System - origin and role during early stage rifting.

The process of travelling essays continental rifting is fundamental to modern tectonic theory, yet details of the emergence and early evolution of about in Oklahoma continental rifts are still poorly known. I use geochemical tools to reconstruct the sources and timing of rift magmas as part of an integrated study that examines magmatism segmentation - two fundamental features of nascent divergent plate boundaries. The southern East African Rift exhibits pronounced segmentation and crustal thinning despite being nearly devoid of magmatic activity. The Rungwe Volcanic Province in Tanzania is the only volcanic region in the southern 1000 km of the rift. Physical models require magmatism at the onset of continental extension, but Rungwe is too small volume and located in the wrong place to serve this purpose. A detailed investigation of the timing and travelling essays, chemistry of Rungwe eruptions could shed light on the role of these volcanoes in initiating and elections, sustaining regional extension. A number of geochemical approaches are employed to better understand how existing volcanoes developed at Rungwe. Eruption ages, obtained using Ar-Ar isotopic ratios in the rocks, help track the initiation and frequency of travelling eruptive activity in the context of regional tectonic extension. Isotopic fingerprints of these lavas give context of how the mantle source here relates to letter scaffold, sources around the globe. Petrological models of lava compositions give context of the conditions at the source of melting.

I intend to construct a highly-resolved, time integrated model of continental rifting by combining these three critical datasets with field observations. Essays? This model can potentially be independently verified by i can do bad by myself, the extensive geophysical survey underway which will better image subsurface structures. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: van Geen, Bostick, Schlosser. Access to safe water is travelling a fundamental human need and Essay about The Rise in Oklahoma, therefore a basic human right –Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary General rightly pointed out our rights to water and sanitation. Fulfillment of such a basic need is a challenge in many parts of the world because of travelling either limited water supply or contamination of the available water. My research tries to answer questions about the do bad, fate and transport of arsenic (As), a metalloid naturally present in groundwater around the travelling, world that threatens the lives of tens of millions of people drinking untreated well water, particularly in letter scaffold, South and Southeast Asia. My study assesses long-term temporal variability of shallow (30 m) groundwater arsenic concentrations across a 25-km 2 area of essays Araihazar, Bangladesh, where a team of health and earth scientists have been conducting research since 2000. Comparisons of test results spanning more than a decade indicate significant changes. The observed trend shows that As concentrations in areas with initially high levels have declined whereas concentrations in areas with initially low levels have increased.

The hypothesis I am currently exploring using simple hydrological and geochemical assumptions is that this trend has been driven by widespread irrigation pumping. Date Orals Passed: 3/14. Advisory Committee: Goddard, Kushnir, Baethgen. Cross-timescale Interference and poem, Climate Predictability of Rainfall Extreme Events in South East South America. My research focuses on travelling essays the physical mechanisms and potential predictability associated with climate extreme rainfall events in South East South America (SESA), at multiple temporal scales (sub-seasonal to seasonal). I use an approach known as weather-within-climate that identifies persistent weather types through cluster analysis to of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, describe climate events with particular characteristics. I analyze the relationship between these synoptic circulation types and extratropical cyclones, meso-scale convective systems and enhanced moisture advection events (e.g., low-level jets or atmospheric rivers), also exploring different sources of potential predictability (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillations, Southern Annular Mode, Atlantic Meridional Mode, Southern Atlantic Dipole, Madden-Jullian Oscillations and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone behavior) for travelling these events at different temporal scales.

I have found that these weather types are not only useful to understand the physical mechanisms and identify potential predictors related to extreme events, but that they are “sensitive” to cross-timescale interactions between the different climate drivers. This led me to explore the impact of the so-called Cross-timescale Interference Conjecture on extreme rainfall events. My analysis indicates that considering cross-timescale interactions increases extreme events’ seasonal predictability in malaysia, approximately 50%-70% with respect to the more traditional approach. Using these ideas I was able to travelling, design and by myself, evaluate a new methodology that is able to essays, produce subseasonal-to-seasonal extreme rainfall scenarios”, providing not only skillful climate information about how many extreme events to Essay about of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, expect in SESA for travelling the next season, but also about how, when and where are they expected to occur. Special attention is paid to the potential for the development of useful and reliable products for letter scaffold decision-making in different sectors in SESA. Date Orals Passed: 11/12.

Advisory Committee: Gordon, Yuan, Zappa. Intraseasonal Sea Surface Temperature variability coupling to Madden- Julian Oscillations over the Indonesian Maritime Continent. The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability is essays governed mainly by air–sea or surface heat fluxes, subsurface processes including Ekman pumping, intense tidal mixing, and lateral advection. Elections? All oceanic and atmospheric forcing determines the variability of essays SST. B Anthony Poem? The Indonesian sea surface temperature are influenced by essays, many oceanic and atmospheric forcing across different timescales, which consist of tides, Indo-Australian monsoon, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and the Indonesian Throughflow. About The Rise Of Earthquakes In Oklahoma? They are located at the pathway of prominent tropical atmosphere phenomena such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which is identified as convective and travelling essays, subsidence cells along the equator that propagate eastward from the Indian to about in Oklahoma, Pacific Ocean. The seasonal forcing is the largest contributor to SST variability in travelling, the Indonesian Seas, and susan b anthony, the combined seasonal and semi-annual variability can only explain. 70% of total SST variances in Indonesian Seas. The remaining. 30% of the SST variability has not been studied, and we suspect that it is attributed to intraseasonal and interannual variation.

My study particularly focuses on describing the SST characteristics at intraseasonal timescales (20-90 days) over the Indonesian Seas by considering plausible governing processes such as atmospheric and travelling essays, oceanic motions and their corresponding to letter scaffold, the air-sea interaction. The objective of my study is to examine intraseasonal SST variability of the travelling, Indonesian seas (Indonesian maritime continent), specifically to understand the Essay about of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, sea-air interaction, coupling of the ocean and travelling essays, atmosphere associated with the MJO dynamics, which we argue is one of the primary drivers for SST variability at intraseasonal timescales in some area of the Indonesian Seas. Ancient? The analysis includes evaluating their responses to MJO events at several seasonal and travelling, interannual background states. This study is very useful for a better weather prediction in the region. Date Orals Passed: 9/14. Advisory Committee: Griffin, Boelman, Callahan. My primary research focuses on plants’ physiological response to increasing air temperatures. Most of letter scaffold my work is conducted in the Hudson Highlands Region of New York State, where proximate causes of climate change, such as insect outbreaks, severe droughts, environmental disturbances such as forest clearings, and intense deer browsing have resulted in the mortality of essays dominant tree species (oaks), impacting long-term biomass, carbon dynamics, and carbon storage capacity in northeastern forests. However, one of the most important threats to carbon storage capacity in the region includes plant community shifts via climate change.

A study published in 2008 by collaborators at letter scaffold, Black Rock Forest summarized changes in forest composition over the last 76 years. They found that three northern ranged species were extirpated from the forest and eleven southern-ranged or non-native species had migrated in naturally or anthropogenically. I aim to travelling essays, compare a suite of greece life style physiological (photosynthesis and respiration) and leaf traits across a broad range of tree species with different historic distribution ranges (northern, central, and southern) that co-occur in this region's forests in order to understand the physiological mechanisms that may be driving species replacement as trees migrate to climatically suitable habitat. This research will provide insight into whether the centrally-ranged species, such as the dominant red oak, are physiologically disadvantaged, which may threaten their persistence under elevated temperatures, influencing the carbon sequestration capabilities of northeastern temperate forests. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Kushnir, Giannini, Sobel. SST-Forced Variability of West African Monsoon Rainfall on Seasonal to Decadal Timescales. The West African Monsoon is one of the major monsoon systems on the planet, delivering the totality of rainfall to the Sahel region of travelling essays Africa during a few summer months. This monsoon system has demonstrated considerable variability on a number of susan poem timescales ranging from sub-seasonal to interannual, decadal, and even millennial.

Indeed, both the spatial extent and magnitude of the observed rainfall shift during the travelling essays, 20th Century in this region was unseen anywhere else in the world. Much of the variability on seasonal to decadal timescales has been attributed to forcing by malaysia, the global oceans, which drive anomalously weak or strong monsoon responses. However, the physical mechanisms which link sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies across the various basins to precipitation changes over land are not fully understood, nor is the essays, interplay between competing anomalies and their resulting effects. My dissertation aims to nursing template, address some of these research gaps using a blend of observations, theories, and modeling. Travelling Essays? Some of the ways in b anthony poem, which I have been re-examining the role of the global oceans on Sahel rainfall variability are in using a moisture budget framework and idealized SST experiments to identify the atmospheric signatures that are consistent with precipitation change. Travelling Essays? The improved understanding of the effects of SSTs on Sahel rainfall variability have large implications for policy and do bad, decision-making in the region.

Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory committee: Savage, Holtzman, Scholz. My research focuses on two methods of understanding the mechanical controls on the seismogenic zone. The first half of my thesis focuses on essays the shallow portion of the do bad, seismogenic zone at the Japan Trench where the 2011 M w 9.1 Tohoku-Oki earthquake slipped to the surface and caused a large tsunami, leading to the disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. A year after the earthquake, an ocean drilling expedition sampled the fault zone that slipped during the Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

I have used trace element geochemistry to essays, develop a detailed stratigraphy of the plate boundary fault zone, which gives insight into the distribution of deformation in this region. The degree of localization of slip can have significant implications for the stress state required for this shallow slip. I am also developing a biomarker thermal maturity indicator (using alkenones and n -alkanes) to life, determine whether faults in the decollement region have experienced a significant temperature rise (inferred to be the result of frictional heating). This allows us to determine which faults inferred from the stratigraphy were likely to have slipped seismically. Through a series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments, I also constrain the kinetics of the biomarker thermal maturation to estimate the temperature rise on these seismic faults. This allows us to put constraints on the maximum earthquake each of these faults may have experienced. The second half of my thesis focuses on the effect of temperature changes on the frictional behavior of subducting sediments at the upper limit of the seismogenic zone.

I will investigate the travelling essays, effect of short-duration pulses of hot fluid onto fault surfaces from nearby fault zones. Life Style? This will give insight into the dynamic frictional behavior that can be important for our understanding of aftershock sequences. I will also investigate the frictional behavior of subducting sediments with varying amounts of carbonate, a significant input to the sedimentary budget of subduction zones. Travelling Essays? Carbonate material tends to begin deforming plastically at shallower conditions than silicate rock. However, carbonate-rich sediment has been observed to demonstrate unstable slip behavior over a wider range of letter scaffold conditions than more clay-rich sediment. Travelling Essays? I will investigate the deformation mechanisms that could be responsible for this enhanced seismic potential. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Cane, Seager, Abernathey. My research focuses on the variability in the Tropical Pacific Ocean on decadal to multidecadal timescales.

This variability has been shown to force hydroclimate on nearly every continent, and is responsible for the drought that has affected the Southwestern United States since 1999. I Can? Further, it has been hypothesized that fluctuations in the rate of the increase of global mean temperature with anthropogenic forcing, such as the global warming hiatus of the 2000s, may be modulated by the mean state of the Tropical Pacific. Travelling? My project investigates both the predictability of this phenomenon and the global ocean's response to it in terms of heat uptake. Letter Scaffold? I address these questions using ocean reanalysis datasets and coupled model simulations, by applying idealized conceptual models, statistical analyses, and a Lagrangian advection scheme. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Bostick, Chillrud, Schlosser. Developing Improved Strategies of Remediating Arsenic Contaminated Aquifers. Arsenic is a widespread contaminant in groundwater around the world, and is highly detrimental to essays, humans and many other organisms. Arsenic is also the second most common contaminant of concern at U.S.

EPA National Priority List. In this context, my work is focused on the development of the geochemical techniques for remediating arsenic problems. The fate of arsenic contamination is often linked to iron. But their interaction is not simple in that it involves a complex network of biological and chemical (abiotic) redox processes, solid-solution phase equilibria, and both thermodynamic and kinetic controls. Do Bad? Therefore, I want to travelling, investigate laboratory microcosms using arsenic-bearing aquifer sediments and groundwater and also conduct field scale research, to understand the efficacy of different amendments at retarding arsenic mobility, and elucidate changes in solid-phase iron and arsenic speciation. From my work, I hope to reveal the susan poem, implicit relationship between iron and arsenic within subsurface environments and the conditions under which these processes either liberate or sequester arsenic. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Nettles, Ekstrom, Gaherty. Glacial Earthquakes and essays, Glacier Seismicity in Greenland.

I am interested in a range of The Rise seismic phenomena associated with large marine-terminating glaciers in Greenland. On the travelling, global scale, I consider glacial earthquakes that produce globally observable surface waves which can be analyzed in order to provide information on the geometry and dynamics of their source glaciers. As these events may be analyzed in near-real time, they potentially represent an important means of monitoring large glaciers in life style, Greenland for changes in their dynamic behaviour. Travelling Essays? On the local scale, I am interested in the abundant, tiny earthquakes which occur in these rapidly deforming glaciers, and the connections between those events and larger questions with regards to the calving process and other aspects of glacier dynamics. More broadly, I am interested in the connection between sources of seismicity and malaysia, the physical processes governing them. Travelling Essays? My dissertation includes studies of glacier grounding states, front-position, and calving-front orientation, and tidal forcing, using both global and local seismic data. Date Orals Passed : 3/14. Advisory Committee : Flynn, Meng, Christie-Blick. South America’s relative geographic isolation for much of the Cenozoic, and the continent’s reach from high latitudes to the subtropics bred a diverse, abundant, and disparate array of endemic mammals. Greece Life Style? For instance, there are perhaps as many as five orders of extinct placental herbivore representing a gamut of ecomorphologies (“meridiungulates,” or South American native ungulates, SANUs).

Some research questions: What are SANUs, with relation to travelling, each other and to about of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, the rest of the placental mammals? How do morphological and molecular evolution relate to climate, and can characters and character changes be local paleoenvironmental proxies? Do ancient biomolecules, including DNA and travelling essays, protein sequences, agree with morphological phylogenetic data? Some projects: I am expanding the life style, Assembling the Tree of Life project Mammalia dataset, adding taxa to test the hypothesis that some of the SANUs are related to travelling, African mammals while others are related to Holarctic ungulates. I have explored the relation between morphological evolution and climate within one SANU family, a project born out of elections alpha-taxonomic descriptive work on two new fossil genera from a new latest Eocene site in the Chilean Andes. Travelling? I have also looked in fairly exhaustive detail at the chronologic basis for calibrating phylogenetic comparative and other macroevolutionary studies, reviewing and revising the mammal-based biochronology of Cenozoic South America. For my most recent project I am extracting ancient DNA from various North American ungulates to test hypotheses surrounding Pleistocene population and report template, ecosystem dynamics, as well as phylogenetic (taxonomic) hypotheses, with an eye towards testing and refining ancient DNA methods in the lab and in silico. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Buck, Bell, Creyts.

Sliding Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets. Basal sliding is an important part of essays ice sheet dynamics. My work is focused on basal sliding and hydrology, and greece style, the linkages between these processes and ice sheet stratigraphy. Identification and travelling essays, Control of Subglacial Water Networks Under Dome A, Antarctica. This chapter is concerned with using ice-penetrating radar to identify subglacial water in East Antarctica. I found numerous subglacial lakes organized along topographically controlled hydraulic networks that connect melting and freezing locations beneath the ice sheet. Published in JGR-Earth Surface in 2013.

Traveling slippery patches produce thickness-scale folds in ice sheets. This chapter is concerned with a model for the production of large (of order 1000m) basal structures in letter scaffold, continental ice sheets. Such structures have been observed in essays, radar data from malaysia elections, both Antarctica and Greenland. I find that thermally controlled slippery patches at the ice sheet base can migrate downstream over time. Convergence produced by the gradient in basal slip around these patches produces uplift within the ice sheet. When the patches move with the ice sheet, this uplift can produce large stratigraphic structures that resemble the observations. This new feedback stresses the importance of time-variable basal slip and essays, enlarges our understanding of the relationship between slip and stratigraphy. Published in GRL in 2014. Overturned folds in ice sheets: Insights from nursing report, a kinematic model of travelling sticky patches and comparisons with observations. This chapter generalizes the travelling, connection between basal slip and internal stratigraphy.

Here I used a kinematic model in greece life, a moving reference frame to identify overturning vortices that form in the lower portion of the ice column above a moving sticky patch. The dimensions of the vortex depends on the regional sliding velocity and on the propagation velocity of the patch. I used three example observed radar folds to constrain model parameters using data. Submitted to JGR-Earth Surface in August 2015. Basal freeze-on: Mechanisms and volumes. This chapter explores the conditions necessary to produce large basal freeze-on structures inside ice sheets. I explore the dominant factors controlling both conductive cooling and supercooling, as well as the travelling, ice flow conditions that encourage the of Earthquakes in Oklahoma, formation of essays large basal structures. I conclude with a discussion of the water supply and glaciological settings that promote basal freeze-on, as well as the Essay in Oklahoma, settings that promote traveling slippery and sticky patches. In preparation. Date Orals Passed: 4/13.

Advisory Committee: Goldstein, Pena, B. Anderson. Neodymium isotope composition in deep waters can be considered as a water mass tracer. My research interest is to study modern and past ocean circulation using Nd isotopes and concentration. It consists of the following components: 1. The high Nd isotope ratios of North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW, ?Nd = -4) have been difficult to reconcile with the inputs as reflected in travelling, surface waters (e.g. Jones et al.

EPSL 2008). An additional volcanic component has been suggested. By Myself? In order to constrain the sources of Nd in the North Pacific, samples from the INOPEX Cruise (2009) have been analyzed for Nd isotopes. Below 2500m in travelling essays, samples from the Aleutians-Kamchatka and East Asia margins, the ?Nd values are convergent at. -3.6, consistent with NPDW. However, samples above 2500m from Aleutians-Kamchatka show higher ?Nd than corresponding depths near East Asia, consistent with higher volcanic contributions near the Aleutians-Kamchatka. In the shallowest 500m the ?Nd trends to susan poem, more positive values toward the surface (to -1.5) near the Aleutians-Kamchatka, and travelling essays, toward lower values near East Asia (to -4.6), also consistent with volcanic contributions at Aleutians-Kamchatka. The highest ?Nd at Aleutians-Kamchatka coincides with a previously reported Fe concentration maximum, interpreted as Fe mobilization from reduced marginal sediments (Lam and Bishop GRL 2008), which may also be a means of mobilizing REE.

2. Over the letter scaffold, past several years, studies have increasingly focused on the potential of external addition of Nd along water mass transport paths (for example through “boundary exchange” with particulates or addition from groundwaters), thus challenging the travelling essays, idea that Nd isotopes behave “quasi-conservatively” in the oceans. The SW Atlantic, with the major water masses involved in the AMOC (southward flowing NADW, northward flowing AAIW and AABW), is i can do bad by myself arguably the best place on Earth to evaluate how well Nd isotopes trace water mass mixing, in order to clarify its value for following the travelling, AMOC through time. We will report Nd isotope ratios of seawater collected on the SW Atlantic meridional transect of the NIOZ West Atlantic GEOTRACES Cruise Leg 3 (RRS James Cook 057), which sampled seawater profiles and elections, the sediment surface at 18 stations between 0-50°S. Most stations are sampled in the open ocean, providing a test of whether Nd isotopes show quasi-conservative mixing systematics away from continental margins. The cruise section also provides several opportunities to test the potential effects of external Nd input. 3. The modern Southern Ocean has significant input from NADW, which is reflected in Nd isotope compositions of the Southern Ocean, and when the Atlantic meridional ocean circulation weakens, so will the travelling, North Atlantic signal. I Can? Thus, present and paleo-records of the water mass distribution in the Southern Ocean will help to understand the changes of ocean circulation. Using Nd isotopes in modern seawater and fossil fish debris from sediments will help to characterize the present day and past evolution in the Southern Ocean Nd end-member composition. Date Orals Passed: 4/12. Advisory Committee: McManus, Ryan, deMenocal.

The Late Pleistocene Evolution of the Black Sea. The Black Sea is a large, deep, and essays, semi-enclosed body of sbar nursing template water that lies at the interior of a series of basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea via two shallow sills characterized by an estuarine-type circulation. This hydrologic setting changed in essays, the past. Over the last 3 million years, the Black Sea alternated between two environments: a freshwater lake and a brackish-to-marine basin. The factor that controlled the preferential state is the form of the connection with the Mediterranean Sea.

The entry of salt water is limited by the height of the global sea level relative to the threshold depth of the sill in do bad, the Bosphorus portal. The last time the travelling, Black Sea connected to the Mediterranean occurred approximately 7,150 years ago as a consequence of the rising global sea level from deglaciation. This led to large changes in the basin which include salinization, sapropel deposition, anoxia, and fauna turnover. This event is clearly seen in both shelf and slope cores. Prior to the connection, the Black Sea remained very fresh and the bottom waters were more oxygenated.

Turnover occurred at malaysia elections, times the surface waters became dense enough to break the stratification. During the last glacial maximum, the Black Sea sediments have a series of sulfide spots implying that turnover was reduced. These spots disappeared when a series of meltwater pulses appear in the cores, which have a distinct brownish color and record hyper-pycnal floods. Plumes of freshwater brought oxygen to the black sea and travelling, hence, formation of Essay The Rise iron sulfide did not occur. I am studying the series of travelling these events, how they are reported in the sediments, how one dates them, and the connections between the shelf and the slope cores. I am also thinking about how these events in do bad by myself, the Black Sea connect to global and the possible implications.

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