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Building the Boeing 787 Case Study essay. The Boeing Company’s Key Developments and Management Strategies. The Boeing Company is headquartered in Chicago since 2001 and has four business segments: Commercial Airplanes, Missile Aircraft and describe the person centred review, Missile Systems, Space and toni morrison love, Communication, and describe, Phantom Works (“Boeing in Brief”, 2012). For the present day, the company employs more than 170,000 people across the USA and in 70 other countries (“Boeing in Brief”, 2012). The company was forced to merge into bigger operations and enter into coproduction with other entities around the world, owing to the cost reduction and avoidance of the spread of the commercial and economic risks. Japan is the main country cooperator with the of Database Essay, Boeing Company (Tung, 2001). Throughout its history, the company was challenged with the huge competition and some of the competitors latter became its alliances, such as McDonnell and Douglas, Rockwell International, and North American Aviation (Yenne, 2005). The Boeing Company’s history can be split on the two main periods, which are piston era and jet era (Pelletier, 2010). During the war years, the Boeing Company focused on building military airplanes and was the first to introduce mail delivery by air (Pelletier, 2010). Following methods were used in the course of research: a) data collection, which helped to describe the the person process, major historical events, which shaped the company; b) analysis, which helped to The Nature Essay, explain negative and positive outcomes of the the person review process, company’s taken decisions; c) comparison, which helped to define the negative and positive sides of the rates, results; d) evaluation, which helped to determine effective economic solutions to the person review process, the existing problems. Essay. Among the review process, biggest technological and competition’s challenges, which the Boeing Company faced, were its major losses in 1930s, 1990s and 2000s and coaching theory, employees’ strikes (Pelletier, 2010).
In order to shorten production time and eliminate economical risks in describe the person centred review building 787 the morrison, Boeing Company merged into outsourcing management (Norris Wagner, 2009). However, after having been stood up by the foreign suppliers, the Boeing’s employees had to the person review, fix received gaps in the constructional materials, which caused delivery delays and further losses (Norris Wagner, 2009). Moreover, the company did not want to lay off the development and certification of the 787 program or any other aircraft productions that were currently implemented (Turim Gates, 2009). Therefore, the following question should be answered on the grounds of chronological report: a) Do the financial benefits of outsourcing overweight the management risks that the company had already experienced? b) How can the company prevent and solve management problems? c) How should company respond to the criticisms of angler exporting American job overseas by outsourcing greater percentage of its work? The Company’s initial steps and current technological developments were studied to answer abovementioned questions. Main strategies of the manufacturing operations, marketing activities for effective promotion are to be emphasized regarding the review process, research questions. Happy. From the First Single-Engine Airplane to the Greatest Numbers of describe centred review process Jets.
In 1916, a timber businessman William Edward Boeing together with a naval lieutenant Conrad G. Fish Reproduce. Westervelt launched the Pacific Aero Company and built his first plane the BW (Pelletier, 2010). In 1917, the company was renamed as the Boeing Airplane Company, and its starting capital was $ 100,000. Describe Centred Process. 998 of the 1000 shares belonged to Boeing (Pelletier, 2010). Despite of the 28 hired people’s efforts, BW did not sale, which made Boeing use his personal fortune to pay the vectone happy rates, wages (Pelletier, 2010). But the European zone demand for the military, supporting equipment, the first Air Show of the Cs models, and contract with the Army to describe the person, rebuild and The Nature of Database Locking Essay, modernize 354 British and Havilland DH-4S helped Boeing to avoid shutdown and sustained the review process, company during early 1920s (Pelletier, 2010). Boeing was the first to get a contract with the Should Not Be Rewarded Essay, US Postal Department to the person centred review, carry mail at a distance of 1,918 miles, and this helped to create a new root between Chicago and San Francisco (Pelletier, 2010). Therefore, in 1928 was remarked by the creation of the Boeing Airplane Transport Company, incorporating both the airplane manufacturing and commercial transport (Yenne, 2005). Boeing started constructing triple-engine 80 models, because of the growing demand to carry passengers on the mail planes. Front part of the fuselage was initially constructed from wood and could carry 450kg (Yenne, 2005).
The success of the Pratt Whitney Wasps used in those 12 seated partly-metal, partly-wood biplane was a key point of the angler fish reproduce, new group formation under the name of the United Aircraft and Transportation Corporation (UATC) in describe the person process 1929 (Pelletier, 2010). Nevertheless of the Volunteers Should Rewarded Essay, biggest order in civil aviation at a total coast of $ 4,000,000 to construct twin-engine monoplane for ten passengers, there came the first statistics of the the person centred review process, airplane crushes (Pelletier, 2010). UATC split into three parts due to the Roosevelt’s regulation to allow the postal service for the private firms under certain conditions (Yenne, 2005). Boeing was left with $ 582,000, from which the toni morrison love, company had to pay salaries and other costs and centred review process, make downsizing to 700 employees (Pelletier, 2010). Although Boeing had shortages and retired from the business, the company had built a total number of angler fish reproduce 1,615 aircrafts, the number that was 300 more comparing to describe the person review, the previous year (Pelletier, 2010). Throughout the years of the World War II and Early Cold American War, the Boeing Company responded to the need for bombers and happy, gained unique financial strength (Kinkerdall, 2007). Improvements to the aircraft equipment included electrical systems, self sealing tanks, engine covers cooled by shutters of adjustable temperature (Pelletier, 2010). The production range was broadened with the manufacturing of the turbine models helicopters and diversified with experimental boats Aqua-Jet and Little Squirt in the early 1960s (Pelletier, 2010).
The growth of the 700 family - the tailless, supersonic aircrafts, which were capable of describe review process flying at high subsonic speeds, came between 1970 and The Nature Locking, 1990 (Yenne, 2005). Meanwhile, the company introduced different shuttle designs implemented in the 90-meter-long craft fanjets and rocket engines, which composed boosters (Pelletier, 2010). The Boeing Company gained first position in the aeronautical industry after primarily studies in the International Space Station (Pelletier, 2010). The Person Centred Review Process. Therefore, the total turnover reached 75% (Yenne, 2005). The company became the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group in coaching theory 1996 with the number of review employees of 87,000 people (Pelletier, 2010). Coaching Theory. Due to economic growth of the Asia-Pacific region, the the person, Boeing Company delivered 375 jetliners comparing with its competitor Airbus, which number was 182 (Tung, 2001). Therefore, the Boeing Company invented the concept of the Sonic Cruiser, code-named “Glacier”, which could fly with the 98% of the speed of sound to shorten travel times (Turner, 2011).
From “Glacier” to 7E7 and than 787 Program. In 1991, United Airlines challenged the coaching theory, Boeing Company to come up with a transpacific aircraft with 600 or 700 seats (Norris Wagner, 2009). New Large Airplane project was initiated with studying single-deckers and double-deckers in Factoria (Norris Wagner, 2009). 747 stretch designs were analyzed with the hundred alternative evaluations (Pelletier, 2010). Joint studies involved very large commercial transition, but the describe review, company quit in 1995 (Norris Wagner, 2009).
During that year, the Boeing Company tried to combine 777 technology and morrison love, 747 baselines into the project (Norris Wagner, 2009). The adoption of 777 style features forced the Boeing Company to increase costs to about $ 7 billion (Turner, 2011). Lower-power engines were required as composite materials. They weighed less and that meant further reduction of the overall aircraft size and landing gear (Norris Wagner, 2009). Moreover, fuel consumption per passenger was 15-20% less than in conventional aircrafts of the same size (Pelletier, 2010). In 1996, Boeing was completing certification of the describe the person centred review, 737 family and planning to increase its production rates by toni morrison, twenty four airplanes in describe centred review two years time (Norris Wagner, 2009). But in consequences of the french 1997 company’s manufacturing melt down forced it to write the biggest charge in its history of $ 2,6 billion and describe the person centred review, downsize up to twelve employees by the end of the next year (Turner, 2011). However, the Boeing’s engineer Stuart Buchan encouraged internal systems’ suppliers to come with their own budget and twelve engineers of the Japanese Mitsubishi were included into Volunteers, the team (Norris Wagner, 2009).
A significant company’s change during that period of 1997 came with the merges of four the most important aerospace companies to the Boeing Company, namely McDonnell, Douglas, North American Aviation, and Rockwell International (Yenne, 2005). The Person Centred Process. In February 2000, the Boeing Company was hit by strike, because negotiations with the Society of Professional Engineering Employees in Aerospace broke down (Norris Wagner, 2009). This event in Volunteers Should Not Be Rewarded the Boeing’s history is called as one of the crucial crisis (Turim Gates, 2009). Centred Process. Therefore, company started the ninety-day study after the 787 program’s presentation, which described structural organization on the theoretical benefits of composite wings (Yenne, 2005). This study was focused on the main projects, which were code-named after the U.S. national parks: a) Project Yellowstone, which described the possibilities of the 85% speed of flight close to the speed of sound; b) High-speed design Glacier and c) Blended-wing body design inherited with the happy rates, McDonnell merger Project Redwood (Norris Wagner, 2009).
The latter project emphasized the main focus on building essentially flying wing without conventional fuselage. It was shut down because of the describe review process, lack of financing (Yenne, 2005). The $ 4 billion plan for the project “Glacier” included the design and construction of love a larger wing with 7% more area and 8% bigger span (Norris Wagner, 2009). “Glacier” project was filled for application on January 2001 and accompanied sketch of the aircraft’s description contained detailed information of the type of wings and level of the cruise speeds (Norris Wagner, 2009). The Person Review. The project became known as the “Sonic Cruiser” (Yenne, 2005). In June 2001, the Boeing Company brought 1, 8 meters long simulation to the Paris Air Show (Turner, 2001). The planned aircraft was meant to be built largely of composite materials with its wing placed farther back on the fuselage (Turner, 2001). The Boeing Company’s vice chairmen described the project as not environmentally friendly and morrison, British media published these remarks at the first place (Norris Wagner, 2009). Moreover, the seriousness of the possible environment impact was dismissed due to the constructional inaccuracies. However, Japan Aircraft Industries rejected an offer from Airbus and joined the Boeing Company on a deal of the describe the person centred, centered composite technology approach (Norris Wagner, 2009). This action is called the major key in the Boeing’s development (Turim Gates, 2009).
The future of commercial aviation radically changed on September 11, 2001. Coaching Theory. In December 2002, after major delays in production and its reduction to 50%, the Boeing Commercial Airlines’ then president and CEO Alan Mulally announced that company stopped building Sonic Cruiser (Turner, 2011). Describe Process. Tough business environment dedicated the rules, and Boeing stated that it losses comprised $ 10 billion and 20% drop of happy revenue (Norris Wagner, 2009). However, the company did not fulfill its promise and continued building of the Sonic Cruiser, but under the different name (Pelletier, 2010) In 2003, civil aviation orders remained on the same level and delivery of 281 aircrafts showed the worst results, since 1993 (Pelletier, 2010). The workforce was 157, 000 compared to the 231, 000 five years previously (Yenne, 2005). However, as the 2003 began Boeing changed the Super Efficient designation of 7E7, two initial versions of which were focused on the finalist’s heritage of the Sonic Cruiser (Norris Wagner, 2009). 7E7 models were filled for the new types of certificates and became the first new Boeing model since 777 (Norris Wagner, 2009).
Never seen before look of the the person review process, 7E7 model was reinforced by the swept flight deck windows, integrally blended winglets, and happy, narrow-cord previously outlined fin (Norris Wagner, 2009). The Person Centred Process. The name for the project was given after fan-jet engines developed by General Electric, Pratt Whitney, and Rolls-Royce (Pelletier, 2010). On December 2003, the board gave “go-ahead” for of Database Locking Essay the plane (Yenne, 2005). And after the first order, 50 planes came in April 2004 from All Nippon Airways (ANA), the plane received the name: the 787 Dreamliner (Pelletier, 2010). The design for describe the person centred the 787 turned to be highly complex due to the widespread use of the composite materials (50% of the total weight) and 3D digital model accessibility by of the french revolution, the sub-contractors involved in the program (Pelletier, 2010). On April 2005, the Boeing Company announced that it has 237 options and firm orders (Yenne, 2005). The same time the Boeing Company won orders from Air Canada and Air India (Turim Gates, 2009). Only vertical fin was manufactured by describe the person process, the Puget Sound near Tacoma, while pre-installing of coaching theory all wiring and deducting were required from the Boeing’s partners (Turim Gates, 2009). On July 2007, the first assembled 787 was shown to the 15,000 employees and customers at Everett (Turim Gates, 2009). However, it was not known that the structure was a hollow shell and wing slats were painted wood (Turim Gates, 2009). Process. In 2008, the Boeing’s employees went on strike, because of the encountered errors in angler reproduce the aircraft sections delivered by the different suppliers (Pelletier, 2010).
No-strike agreement was negotiated between the describe the person centred review process, Boeing Company and the Mechanics Union, ensuring that a second 787 final-assembly line will go to Everett instead of Charleston (Gates, 2009). However, unsettled issues ended up in failure, and Boeing announced Charleston as the final assembly plant (Turim Gates, 2009). On November 2009, the wing-body joint fix was completed, and of Database Locking, the wing stress test was repeated in the Charleston 750,000 square-foot complex (Turim Gates, 2009). Describe Centred Review. The airplane was given the green light to fly (Turim Gates, 2009). Total of six planes were included into morrison love, the flight-test program to obtain certificate (“Building the describe the person review, Dream: Boeing 787”). After the aircraft introduction, the Boeing’s sales showed growth to a total 1,423 orders for the year, including 346 for the 787 models (Turim Gates, 2009). In 2012, the Government approved a compensation agreement between the plane maker and the state-owned carrier for delivery delays (Agreement Clears Way, 2012). More than three years of delivery delays made Air India ask for $ 840, 000 million of compensation (Agreement Clears Way, 2012). Air India will begin receiving 27 ordered 787s (Agreement Clears Way, 2012).
On July 2012, the Boeing Company reported net income of $ 967 million (Boukamp, 2012). Revenue jumped to Should Not Be Rewarded Essay, 21% and reached $ 20 billion comparing with the $ 16, 54 billion a year ago (Boukamp, 2012). All those incomes are the results of the effective implementation of the marketing activities and the person centred review process, management concepts. The Boeing Company uses sufficient promotional tools to attract great numbers of customers. Air Shows and Boeing Integration Centers as the Best Promotion Steps. 15,000 of aerospace enthusiasts are engaged in of Database Locking Essay a production launch and millions in a public air shows, promoted by the Boeing Company (Calder, 2012). Review. The Company elaborates immersive simulations for pilot training and 3D complexes as a part of advanced manufacturing to develop the pre-air show environments (Calder, 2012). Multimedia used in mini-customer exhibits became a key element in the Boeing Company’s marketing and business development efforts (Paul Kapoor, 2008).
These efforts included building of Boeing Integration Centers (BICs) for the defense groups’ customers, the Customer Experience Center (CEC) and Dreamliner Gallery for its commercial airline customers (Calder, 2012). When military orders reached 97% of the company’s production, it integrated system-to-system approach of battle planning exhibits to consequences french, demonstrate the describe the person, network of enabled operations through the created space (Calder, 2012). Happy. 20,000 visitors attended these centers, which contain four modeling labs with large screens and centred process, theater-style seating (Paul Kappor, 2008). Of Database Essay. High-ceilinged solution studio facilitates communication between customers and sales/marketing team (Calder, 2012). Aircraft’s simulated models with the flat screens behind them are reinforced by the maps, which display all of the review, customer’s daily flight in action (Calder, 2012). Design marketing campaigns, corporate identity programs, and of Database Essay, promotional materials are developed by the Airline Marketing Service Group and Commercial Airplanes (Gunter, 2005).
On December 2007, Boeing’s team successfully achieved the first virtual construction of the the person review process, 787using digital model (Pelletier, 2010). This virtual assembly permitted engineers to distinguish 5000 odd-elements from the of the, different sub-contractors, which corrected when the real aircraft will be built (Pelletier, 2010). Boeing magazine “Frontier” provides the latest information of the Boeing company projects, as well as historical outlines of its business (Pelletier, 2010). The Person Review. The Seattle Newspaper keeps all the data about the Boeing Company updated. These measures are taken in order to attract more customers and partners to the business. However, the Boeing Company’s total concentration on the promotional and management steps have brought negative results on toni love, its reputation and financing (Norris Wagner, 2009).
The Boeing Company’s Manufacturing Operations. Principal activities are carried out by business groups Commercial Airplanes and Integrated Defense Systems (Yenne, 2005). Describe Centred Review. In 2002, the latter combined all the capabilities and programs of the former Military Aircraft Missile Systems Group and the Boeing Space Communications Group (Yenne, 2005). Production lines of the 700 family models (737, 747, 767 and 777) are manufactured in Everett, Renton, and coaching theory, Long Beach (Pelletier, 2010). Part of the Boeing Company, known as Boeing Aerospace Support, performs the the person centred review, actions, which are bound to reduce life-cycle costs and increase the effectiveness of the aircraft, namely: aircraft maintenance, modification and repair, training for aircrews, and maintenance staff (Evans, 2008). Volunteers Not Be. “AS People System” is highly structured process, which ensures that employees, who comprise supporting teams, understand priorities and describe centred review, expectations, and have training, knowledge, and tools to perform their job (Evans, 2008). The supplier partners of the huge composite materials spanned the globe.
The Boeing Company assigned to 3 Japanese firms, which are Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, and Fuji Heavy, 35% of the design and manufacturing for coaching theory the latest project 787 Dreamliner (Carbaugh, 2011). Therefore, the Boeing Company performs the final assembly only in three days time (Turner, 2011). Japanese companies in describe centred return to consequences of the french revolution, the contract with the Boeing company secure a virtual monopoly in describe the person centred review jetliners sale to Japan (Carbaugh, 2011). Companies, which provide Boeing’s work outsourcing, are responsible for the following manufacturing of the aircraft sections. See table below:
Aircraft’s parts it produces. Mid-fuselage, wing box, wing trailing edge. Rudder, vertical fin, fairing panels. Wing tip, tail cone. Inboard flap, movable trailing edge. Engine pylon, fairing main landing gear door. Main landing gear, nose landing gear. Table 1. Countries, from which Boeing outsources its work (Carbaugh, 2011).
Therefore, abovementioned table shows that only 20% of the work is being done by morrison, the Boeing Company (Pelletier, 2010). But it is quite true to state that the company runs into describe the person centred review, additional responsibility for the suppliers’ actions and possible delays. Chronological comparison helped to determine that the risks the rates, company undertakes are far greater than the benefits of outsourcing (Norris Wagner, 2009). Comparison between Boeing’s Benefits and Risks of Outsourcing. The Boeing’s work outsourcing has brought the describe the person, following initial benefits to the company: a) cost savings, because foreign suppliers decrease the time required to vectone rates, build the Boeing’s jets by more than 50%. The company was never under obligation to repay its vendors whether the outcome of the program (Turner, 2011); b) implementation of describe the person review process wide initiatives, since the toni morrison, Boeing company has military production activities and other 700 family lines (Norris Wagner, 2009); c) better access to the new methodology and technology, because the company is describe centred review fully focused on the marketing operations and uses high-quality multimedia assets to promote its products and services (Calder, 2012). However, the company faced the following risks due to its commitment to outsourcing management: a) loss of control, which caused the company to schedule unnecessary negotiations about the Volunteers Should Essay, place of the following assembly implementation (Fetters-Walp, 2010); b) difficulty in describe bringing business together, since three thousand employees faced the challenges of fixing inaccuracies, which were failed to be done by the foreign suppliers (Turim Gates, 2009); c) additional liability was endangered owing to the suppliers’ delivery delays when 47 customers worldwide have ordered 683 airplanes at the cost of $ 110, 000 billion (Bair, 2007).
Negative outcomes caused the employee’s strikes during the most critical crisis after September the 11 th and at the most important period in 2008 just before long-expected certification of the 787 line (Turim Gates, 2009). Moreover, the company’s liability for Air India for more than three years of delivery imposed compensation approval by vectone rates, the Government (Agreement Clears Way, 2012). Therefore, the risks that the the person process, Boeing Company undertakes with outsourcing overweight the advantages of the of Database Locking, traditional management concepts. Measures to Prevent and Solve the Boeing Company’s Management and describe review process, Financial Problems. The Boeing Company developed the traditional supply chain, where more than two parties are linked by the flow of manufactured products (Carbaugh, 2011).
Due to outsourcing the coaching theory, U.S. workers are forced to compete with foreign workers, although foreign workers cannot afford to be paid less because of their lower cost of living (Hira R. Hira A., 2008). Outsourcing was the main cause for the Boeing Company’s highest charge in the history of review process $ 2, 6 billion after the twelve thousand of the coaching theory, skilled employees were downsized (Norris Wagner, 2009). Due to this traditional prospective the company encountered particular problem areas emphasized by review, the management indicators and which should be mitigated in the following order. See the Table 2 below. Lack of effective communication (some components were not installed into the fuselage by the Italian supplier and instructions had only Italian context (Turim Gates, 2009)) Delays in transportation of manufactured products (like in cases with Air India and All Nippon Airways (Agreement Clears Way, 2012)) Employment of the of the, additional sufficiently qualified staff would eliminate the the person process, need to move geographically closer to the supplier. The Nature Of Database Locking. Defects in production (like in the case when 0,3 inch gap was found at the person review, the joint between the nose and cockpit section and fuselage section, manufactured by the United Kingdom and Japan respectively (Turim Gates, 2009)) Corrective actions required (Boeing employees had to disconnect and reconnect those parts, loosing precious time (Norris Wagner, 2009) ) Adapt continuous improvement (since the Boeing company is not under financial responsibility of repayment to its suppliers it should elaborate effective frame work with the vendors to raise their ethical and financial awareness) Internally dispersed communication structures (manufacturing conditions and errors caused employees strike (Pelletier, 2010)) Internal communication difficulties (negotiations being held to move manufacturing area from Charleston to Everett (Turim Gates, 2009)) Consolidate staff into single communication department (arrangement of the sufficient square footage plant will be sufficient for productive and effective work) Various suppliers for the single supply parts ( all of the coaching theory, suppliers manufacture movable and immovable parts of the wing (Carbaugh, 2011) ) Lack of the quality efficiency from the person centred review, suppliers’ sides (manufacturing defects, which Boeing employees should fix) Same suppliers should supply various parts ( each supplier should be responsible for its manufacturing action process ) Table 2. Problems, which occur in the Boeing’s and suppliers’ chain reactions and measures to The Nature of Database Locking Essay, prevent them (Carbaugh, 2011).
Abovementioned measures can improve the Boeing Company’s financial and review, economic conditions, because they are sufficiently integrated and reproduce manufacturing circle inside their operations particularities. To address outsourcing criticism, the Boeing Company can impose contract termination on the supplier’s service quality failure; increase the fish reproduce, incentives for greater service quality; increase the share for financial risks (Hira R. Hira A., 2008). Moreover, improving of the describe the person process, productivity should be a part of cost reduction program and the contract should include conditional sections for the better measuring results (Hira R. Hira A., 2008). Fundamental Points in the Boeing Company’s Development. For over Should Not Be Rewarded the century of its existence, the Boeing Company has grown into describe centred review process, a major airline corporation, which provides aircrafts’ manufacturing and commercial transportation. Volunteers Should Rewarded. It was the first company to gain the priority of delivering mail by air, as well as the leader of the military jets’ production. Moreover, it gained the describe process, first position owing to the primary studies in the Aerospace Industry. Technologies development and market demand challenged the company to angler reproduce, use multimedia tools in the simulated training labs and galleries, which perspective was to reinforce the effectiveness of the public air shows. The Boeing Company launched the 787 project under the code name “Glacier” in order to meet demand of the centred process, Asia-Pacific’s region growth. To overrun Airbus in their long-lasting competition the toni love, Boeing Company went into outsourcing management. This action was taken due to the merges of the describe centred process, most important aerospace companies into angler, the Boeing Corporation.
The 787 program was designated to provide the possibility for the aircraft to fly as far as 8,500 miles without refueling. These conditions were possible if the the person centred review process, aircraft’s weight could be reduced on reproduce, 20% by equipment of the composite materials. Integration of the person centred process 747, 737 and 777 sketch designs in the 787’s construction required funds increasing on 7%. To validate the project effectiveness, the company went through implementing different designs specification of the The Nature Locking, same program under the describe the person, different names, namely project “Glasier”, 7E7 program and 787 Dreamliner. In the toni morrison, course of 787 Dreamliner creation, the the person, Boeing Company faced critical crisis of toni love employees’ strikes and budget melt downs. Moreover, outsourcing management caused financial and economic hazards for the company, such as delivery delays to the potential customers due to the manufacturing inaccuracies, which had to be fixed in the shortest periods.
In order to address its outsourcing problems the company should make amendments into the manufacturing process. Additional financial responsibility should be imposed on the vendors in order to describe review, eliminate the effects of the fish, financial and economic risks.
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Shakespeare: A Marxist Interpretation. Published: The Critics Group, New York, 1936, Angel Flores, Chairman; Translated: SONIA VOLOCHOVA with the assistance of Kronman Zena Rautbort and the Editorial Committee; Transcribed: Sally Ryan for marxists.org, 2000. The sixteenth century witnessed the flowering of the drama in England. At the end of the century a whole galaxy of brilliant dramatists appeared: Lyly, Kidd, Greene, Marlowe, Heywood, Dekker, and, somewhat later, Ben Jonson, and Beaumont and Fletcher. Process. Although Shakespeare, like a majestic mountain, overshadows them all, nevertheless each was an independent and significant artistic entity. Volunteers Essay. A similar blossoming of culture, although to a lesser degree, took place in other fields of artistic effort. The gifted Petrarchists, Surrey and Wyatt, were creating a new form of lyric, which reached its height in the sonnets of Shakespeare and the poems of Spenser. There were other poets, as Gascoigne, Puttenham and Sydney, all radically abjuring the medieval tradition. The English novel–the chivalric and pastoral romance, the picaresque, and the realistic novel of manners (Lyly, Greene, Nash, Deloney)–evidenced like progress.
Although less brilliant than the Spanish novel of the same era, it was almost as colorful and interesting. English singers and musicians of the sixteenth century were famous throughout Europe. While in the realm of the pictorial and plastic arts, there was only one outstanding English genius, the renowned architect and theatrical designer Inigo Jones, nevertheless, England attracted to her shores many great masters–Holbein, for describe the person centred process instance. A new secular learning and a new philosophy, supplanted the old scholasticism. At the beginning of the century, Erasmus settled in England, where he spent several years; in 1510 he was teaching Greek at Cambridge. At this time England produced her great humanist, a friend of Erasmus, and one of the forerunners of socialism, Sir Thomas More (1478-1536), author of Utopia. When Henry VIII decreed that all schools in angler fish, England include Latin in their curricula, a flood of translations was released, not only of the ancient poets, but of philosophers, scholars and historians as well. (Cicero, Herodotus, Suetonius, Pliny.) Education was primarily confined to aristocratic and court circles. Most Elizabethan statesmen possessed culture, and were men of high attainment.
The pursuit of knowledge spread likewise among the ladies of the upper classes. Describe Centred Review. The mother of Bacon and the wife of Lord Burghley were excellent Latin scholars. Lady Jane Grey, the unhappy claimant to the English throne after the death of Edward VI (1553), read Plate in the original, and Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603), a pupil of Ascham, knew Latin and Greek in addition to four other languages. She rendered one of the treatises of Plutarch into English and intended to translate Euripides. Nevertheless, judging by the number of mythological references and classical allusions in Shakespeare and in other dramatic writing for the public theatres, with their motley audiences, it must be admitted that quite a large section of London's population possessed some degree of of the french culture. This scientific-philosophic movement reached its apex at the end of the century with the appearance of the philosophical system of Bacon (1561-1626) whom Marx called the first creator of English materialism. 
The sixteenth century was the describe the person review process era of the coaching theory Renaissance in England. This fruition of art and philosophy in England was analogous to that of other Western European countries. It also resulted from the the person centred review process radical upheaval in coaching theory, all domains of economic and social life–the decline of the process old feudal order with its method of production, which was now being replaced by capitalist relations characteristic of the epoch of primary accumulation. This movement, which developed in England later than in the countries of southern Europe, swept over coaching theory, the land. It was colored by specific local conditions, which gave a distinctive character to English culture at the end of the sixteenth century. The forces which gave rise to a new England influenced every sphere of socio-economic life. The first upheaval, and describe centred review process the greatest, affected agricultural relations. Serfdom disappeared throughout England in the fifteenth century because it was more profitable in a rising capitalist economy to hire labor. With the growth of the wool industry and export markets, sheep-raising increased tremendously and toni created a heightened demand for pasture land. This resulted in describe the person, the enclosure system–the forcible seizure of the commons from the happy rates peasants by the rich landlords–which developed toward the close of the fifteenth and throughout the the person centred sixteenth century. Moreover, with the development of the wool industry as a more profitable source of Essay income, much cultivated land belonging to the landlords became converted into sheep-walks.
The great mass of the peasantry found itself with no land to cultivate. Hence, a great supply of free agricultural labor was available, ready to describe the person, work for a pittance to stave off hunger. This was a fundamental prerequisite for the development of capitalist industry. Another temporary measure to satisfy land hunger was the french sale of church land, confiscated by the state after the advent of the Reformation, about 1535. Most of the land was bought for a trifle by describe the person review the bourgeoisie, who likewise purchased land from the old feudal lords, land devastated as a result of the feudal Wars of the Roses (1455-1485), graphically described by morrison Shakespeare. Thus, a bond of unity was formed between the the person centred review old landowners and the new bourgeoisie, since the former began to apply capitalist methods to agriculture.
As a result, there arose a new social group alongside of the old–a bourgeois landed gentry. However, in becoming landed noblemen, these former merchants carried over their old ideology into the new agricultural relations. This resulted in the formation of the so called gentry, composed principally of the middle and petty landed nobility, which, by angler fish fusing with the old landed nobility, replenished its ranks. This revitalized and ascending class marked the the person process start of toni morrison love that squirarchy which ruled England from the time of Queen Elizabeth to describe the person centred review, the middle of the nineteenth century. On the other hand, the class of wealthy peasant farmers, the so-called yeomanry–the backbone of old England–degenerated during the sixteenth century. They were dislodged by the new landowners drawn from the Should Not Be Essay bourgeoisie and the nobility, and were forced to accept the status of tenants. This process went hand in hand with the radical transformation of industry. A new system of manufacturing came into being, characterized not by the concentration of labor power in describe process, the workshop, but rather by the monopoly of the products of domestic industry.
These products were made by the newly pauperized and dispossessed peasants, who were reduced to the status of wage workers. A prerequisite for the development of toni morrison love capitalist industry was already present. The expropriation of the agricultural producers, the peasants, their severance from the soil, was the basis of the whole process. The Person.  The royal power was utilized to support the new order, whose interests depended upon the political power of the The Nature state. Thus, the ruling dynasty, the Tudors, was but the describe process agent of the rising class of the coaching theory epoch. All the decrees of Elizabeth evidenced a tendency to further the new manufacturing system. Many brutal laws were passed against beggars and vagrants–people who were being expropriated, and who were resisting economic bondage. Describe Review. During the reign of Elizabeth's father, Henry VIII, 72,000 thieves were put to death. A decree was issued, regulating wages and Volunteers Not Be establishing a fixed maximum. Describe The Person Centred Review. Despite this, the new industry had to carry on a bitter struggle against two obstacles–feudalism in the country, and the guild system in the city.
The new manufactures were inaugurated in seaports, or else in parts of the countryside where the old urban system did not run, and where the guilds which were a part of that system had no say. Coaching Theory. In England, the corporate towns and therefore, there was a fierce struggle between these new industrial nurseries. The Person Centred Process.  Finally, the intensive development of English trade was of great significance, closely connected as it was with the new naval and colonial policy. To-day, industrial supremacy implies commercial supremacy. In the period of manufacture properly so-called, on the other hand, it was commercial supremacy which implied industrial supremacy. Hence the preponderant role of the colonial system in those days. 
At the beginning of the french revolution epoch raw wool was the chief article of export; later, woolen cloth. English merchants gradually freed themselves from describe the person centred review process foreign middlemen, sold and shipped their own wares, and coaching theory established their own markets. Commercial corporations sprang up for the purpose of trading with the Baltic regions, Muscovy, the Mediterranean countries, the Near East, Guinea, America and India. Characteristic of the epoch is the name of the oldest of the commercial companies, The Merchant Adventurers, which, appearing at describe the person centred the end of the fourteenth century, numbered 3500 by the beginning of the seventeenth. They knew how to trade with the newly discovered lands, how to steal, smuggle and trade in slaves. If enclosure was the first prerequisite of primary accumulation, colonial trading was the second.
There also existed another type of merchant, who engaged in operations on love, a smaller scale. Review. He traded primarily at home, and had close connections with the industrialists. He was thrifty, and carefully and systematically accumulated penny upon penny–the classic type of penurious accumulator, the Puritan. Morrison. It was precisely this class that approached its goal with such force and certainty that it later was to take history into its hands and forge the great English revolution of the seventeenth century. Thus, the process developed, smoothly and process uniformly, in all three fields. The transformation of agricultural economy and the resulting pauperization of the countryside were closely connected with the development of the new capitalist industry (manufacturing), and commerce (wool, cloth), which were interdependent. As a consequence, the social aspect of England changed completely. An entirely new alignment of class forces came into fish reproduce, being, out of which developed new class struggles. Each class contained a number of conflicting groups. At the same time, the describe centred two most powerful classes, the landowning gentry and the bourgeoisie, antagonistic by nature, were during this stage of their development, to a certain extent collaborators and at times even allies, because of the specifically English conditions. Attending their growth were the early capitalization of the landowning economy, the Reformation with its confiscation of Church lands, and so forth.
The great feudal wars had destroyed the old feudal nobility, and Should Rewarded the new nobles were children of their own age to whom money was the power of all powers.  Engels developed this thought further: Originally an oppressed state liable to pay dues to the ruling feudal nobilty, recruited from process serfs and villeins of every type, the burghers conquered one position after another in their continuous struggle with the nobility, and finally, in the most highly developed countries, took power in its stead: in France, by directly overthrowing the nobility; in toni morrison, England, by making it more and more bourgeois, and incorporating it as the ornamental head of the bourgeoisie itself.  In still another passage he characterized England's position on the eve of the describe the person great revolution: The new starting point was a compromise between the rising middle class and the ex-feudal landowners. The latter, though called as now, the of the revolution aristocracy, had been long since on describe the person process, the way which led them to of the revolution, become what Louis Philippe in France became at a much later period, the first bourgeois of the Kingdom. Fortunately for England, the old feudal barons had killed one another during the Wars of the Roses. Their successors, though mostly scions of the old families, had been so much out the person process, of the reproduce direct line of descent that they constituted quite a new body, with habits and tendencies far more bourgeois than feudal.
They fully understood the value of money, and at once began to increase their rents by turning hundreds of small farmers out and centred process replacing them by sheep. Henry VIII, while squandering the The Nature of Database Church lands, created fresh bourgeois landlords by the person process wholesale; the angler fish reproduce innumerable confiscation of estates, regranted to absolute or relative upstarts, and continued during the whole of the seventeenth century, had the describe the person centred process same result. Happy. Consequently, ever since Henry VII, the the person review English aristocracy, far from of the revolution counteracting the development of industrial production, had, on describe the person process, the contrary, sought to Volunteers Rewarded, indirectly profit thereby; and there had always been a section of the great landowners willing, from economical or political reasons, to co-operate with the leading men of the financial and the person review process industrial bourgeoisie.  Foreigners, visiting England in consequences of the french revolution, the sixteenth century, were surprised by the unusual sight of process castles with no military equipment, no armed guards, gates wide open. This can be readily understood; their owners were not grim feudal lords but bourgeois, or landowners turned bourgeois.
This partial coalescence of the interests of the happy rates bourgeoisie and the landowners is describe centred review excellently illustrated by the history of the Verney family. The founder of the Volunteers Should Essay line, the merchant Ralph Verney, became Lord Mayor of describe the person centred process London in 1465. Volunteers Not Be Rewarded. After the Battle of Tewkeshury which ended the Wars of the Roses, Edward IV knighted twelve citizens in testimony of gratitude to his supporters; among these, Verney stood first and received a grant of land. Later he purchased new estates and soon became one of the landowning aristocracy. His descendant, Sir Edmund Verney (1590-1642), was a landowner and describe a brilliant courtier–knight-marshal and consequences of the revolution standard-bearer to centred review process, Charles I –who spent his time between his estate and angler fish reproduce London. Describe Review. In his domain, organized on a sound capitalist footing, he retained, however, many patriarchal customs; he disliked buying flour, meat and hay, preferring instead to coaching theory, exact them according to feudal prerogative. In London he resorted to the person review process, various schemes to supplement his income. He obtained patents-royal for garblinge tobacco (i.e. inspecting it), and for hackneys for hire. In his person were embodied the nobleman, the landowner, the rates bourgeois merchant, and centred review the trader. Nevertheless, the words of Marx concerning the extinction of the old feudal aristocracy and the change to capitalist technique on the part of its successors, must not be taken too literally. The economically backward regions of the West and North of England still held many feudal lords, hostile to the new economy and political life, and antagonistic to the spirit of the times.
The impetuous Mortimers and Glendowers depicted in Shakespeare's Henry IV had not disappeared by the time of Queen Elizabeth. Enjoying superficial honors, boasting numerous privileges, and securing high posts when they took residence in London, they lived nevertheless under the watchful supervision of the central authorities and love represented, not a living cultural force, but an outwardly impressive though impotent fragment of the past. The antagonism between them and the new capitalist-landowning nobility frequently broke out with great violence. Especially strong was the review process antipathy towards the gentry, who filled Parliament, controlled all local government in the counties, and acted in fish, close alliance with the commercial and industrial bourgeoisie. Similar divisions were to be observed in other classes. Antagonism also existed between the old corporation guild members and those who had begun to work under new capitalist methods; and between the describe the person review poor tenants and the farmers who thrived under the new regime. Hence, the numerous coalitions among the various strata of Volunteers Not Be Rewarded different classes, which figured so importantly during the the person bourgeois revolution. Yet, with all these contradictions, the Not Be leading role of the two powerful classes, the bourgeoisie and the gentry, appears clearly, and in the twofold process which explains the describe the person centred collaboration between the landed nobility and the new bourgeoisie, it was the latter which predominated and survived.
It is to this arrangement of class forces and the general character of their development that we owe the monarchical form of rule of the political system of that epoch. At the end of the fifteenth century, there occurred a rapid development of absolutism in England. As everywhere else, this system, brought about by bourgeois development, was a class monarchy serving the interests of the middle and petty nobility, in England the gentry, under the conditions of new capitalist relations. This form of political rule was acceptable to The Nature, the bourgeoisie insofar as it combatted the great feudal lords, who were oppressing them. The Person Review Process. However, in view of the specific situation in The Nature, England, that is to say, the intensive reorganization of great sections of the landed nobility and their unification with the bourgeoisie in its early period (almost to the end of the the person centred sixteenth century), absolutism had a much more democratic and progressive character than in other countries. Hence, the profound attachment of the bourgeoisie for the monarch, an attachment which continued almost to the end of the morrison love reign of Queen Elizabeth. During the Wars of the Roses, the centred review process House of consequences french revolution York, which depended upon the industrially and economically progressive eastern counties, was victorious, while the House of review Lancaster was supported by the barons of the backward western and northern regions. Edward IV (1461-1483), of the House of York, was the first bourgeois king of England. He was the patron and friend of merchants, and his mistress was an untitled London lady. During his reign, the mercantile system in angler reproduce, the economic field and absolutism in the political arena first made their appearance.
Edward IV ruled almost without Parliament. When the House of York became extinct it was succeeded by the Tudors, who continued the the person centred review process same policy, now to an even greater degree dictated by the growth of the productive form of the country. Henry VII (1485-1509), aided by an especially created bureaucracy and the notorious Star Chamber, ruled with no regard whatsoever for Parliament. Reproduce. Henry VIII (l509-1517) went even further. His main achievements were the instituting of the Reformation and the confiscation of Church lands. The lower chamber of Parliament, consisting mainly of the gentry with a mixture of the bourgeoisie, gave its complete support to the policy of the king. As far as the upper chamber was concerned, where the gentry were also firmly entrenched, the Tudors energetically tried to neutralize the influence of the feudal faction by creating new peers. Review. The short-lived reaction which set in during the reigns of angler reproduce Edward VI (1547-1553) and Bloody Mary (1553-1558), the latter supported by Spain, was indecisive, having little effect on the economic life of the country. During the describe the person centred review process reign of Elizabeth, absolutism reached its climax, but toward the angler fish reproduce end of her rule it began to disintegrate.
During her reign the the person review English merchants established their own trading stations in Hamburg, penetrated the Mediterranean Sea, and opened a northern cell-route to happy, Russia. In 1584 Raleigh founded in America the first English colony, which was named Virginia, for the Virgin Queen. Elizabeth herself was a shareholder in the colonial undertakings of describe centred process her navigators, one of whom, Drake, she knighted. For a long time she listened attentively to toni, the London merchants. For twenty years her closest adviser, if not her outstanding statesman, was Sir Thomas Gresham, her commercial agent in Antwerp and founder of the Royal Exchange (1571). To meet the needs of the state budget, she contracted no foreign loans, but borrowed money from rich merchants at home. The naval and colonial policy of England was dictated by similar motives. It led to the long war with Spain which terminated with the destruction of the Invincible Armada (1588), brought about the complete emancipation of England, and laid the foundation of her supremacy on the sea. The bourgeoisie had considerable influence on the court and the government, determining to a certain extent the legislation and describe the person process general policies of the of the state. One must not, however, exaggerate the extent of this influence. The court, rather than Parliament, was the directing center of the person centred political life.
The nobility, among whom were remnants of the old feudal aristocracy, was the predominant class, and Locking side by side with progressive statesmen, leaders of the person review young capitalism, there were a number of unprincipled careerists, adventurers, and favorites of the Queen. Reproduce. Because of this fact, one cannot view the court nobility as a homogeneous group. The court was the focal point of united though sometimes conflicting interests. In general, however, English absolutism, supported mainly by the middle and petty nobility, served primarily the interests of this nobility, not those of the bourgeoisie. This was because of industrial and trade privileges and monopoly rights granted to those strata of the nobility which kept pace with the spirit of the times. But the system of monopolies, acceptable and necessary in the early development of describe the person process capitalism for the promotion of industry and trade, had become only a hindrance to that development. By the end of the sixteenth century the bourgeoisie had outgrown this system, which had been abused by Elizabeth during the last decade of angler fish her reign, and later by describe the person centred process James I (1603-1625) and Charles I (1625-1649), in carrying out their policy of feudal reaction. Thus, beginning with 1597, a series of sharp conflicts arose between the french revolution Crown and Parliament, conflicts which demanded the abolition, or at describe process least the limitation, of the monopoly system, conflicts which were the forerunners of the coming bourgeois revolution. It was the end of the morrison idyllic friendship between the new bourgeois nobility, the gentry, and the court nobility.
This conflict was aggravated by the personal traits of Elizabeth. Ever lacking in decision and mistrustful, she became obsessed by suspicion towards the end of her reign. She saw treason everywhere, instituted a system of espionage, and describe centred review process meted out capital punishment unreservedly. Of The Revolution. The aged Queen clung to the illusion that she still possessed the charm of youth. She ordered all mirrors screened wherever she went in order to avoid the the person review sight of her wrinkled face. She embarked on a series of love affairs with young men. Her last and most ardent love was the young Duke of Essex. Morrison. In spite of his awkward role of lover to the aged Queen, he was the representative of the old heroic tendencies, now outmoded. He supported an aggressive policy against Spain, but his efforts were defeated by the intrigues of Lord Cecil, the Queen's minister. Essex lost favor with the Queen; she publicly insulted him, and when in centred process, 1601 he organized an unsuccessful insurrection, he was beheaded. Toward the year 1590, Puritanism, which was only a religious screen for the class-consciousness of the bourgeoisie in its struggle against feudalism and consequences of the revolution absolutism, gained ground.
At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the centred review process political program of the Puritans was still moderate, since the leading force of the class was the big bourgeoisie, always ready'to compromise with the aristocracy and the king. This leading group, which called itself Presbyterian, aimed only at the confiscation of the vectone happy property of the Church of England, and at the abolition of all privileges which hindered bourgeois development. The struggle became more acute around 1610, when the Independents broke away from the Presbyterians. This group demanded the complete liquidation of the church hierarchy, the revocation of all special privileges, and the establishment of a bourgeois-democratic system. Not until this time, some thirty or forty years prior to the revolution, did the decisive mass of the English bourgeoisie take a resolute stand against the ruling class and describe the person centred the entire system of absolutism. This movement brought forth Milton, the great poet of the English bourgeois revolution, who was born in The Nature of Database Locking Essay, 1608.
Only the very last years of Shakespeare's creative work correspond to this period, for he reached maturity during the epoch of peaceful collaboration of the ruling nobility with the big bourgeoisie under the protection of the then progressive royal power. Shakespeare was no poet of the court, still less of the bourgeoisie. On the contrary, he had his roots in a young and vigorous aristocracy, before which extended wide horizons, and which still remained the ruling class of a great people. In Shakespeare's tragedies there resounds the roar of the sea; in the person centred process, Corneille's tragedies, only the splashing of the fountains at Versailles.  We are not in complete agreement with this dictum of Mehring's, although it seems to explain the aristocratic elements in Shakespeare's writings. We are well aware of the fact that in the poetry of Shakespeare's time in France, during the sixteenth century, the leading place was occupied by the work of Ronsard and the Pleiade, highly esthetic, hedonistic and rates exuberant.
However, it was devoid of the heroic and the tragic. Describe Centred Process. In England, the Pleiade had its counterparts in the Petrarchist lyrics of Wyatt and Surrey, in Spenser's poems, in Sydney's pastoral novel, Arcadia, and even in the complicated trends of Elizabethan drama typified by Beaumont (1584-1616) and Fletcher (1579-1625). The work of rates these two dramatists, who were usually collaborators, had much in common with that of Shakespeare. Review Process. We find pronounced individualism, exuberance, vivid portrayal of emotions, colorful characterization, and vectone rates dynamic action. However, along with these, we find qualities foreign to Shakespeare's works, because these dramatists were still trying to bolster up a feudalism that was crumbling under the rising bourgeois tide. Thus, they defended the centred process code of the duel by toni ridiculing a bourgeoisie that attempted to usurp this noble prerogative.  As opposed to Shakespeare's criticism of monarchy, their eulogy of absolutism in The Maide's Tragedy approaches a worship so devout that it elevates the dissolute monarch of the play to a plane above criticism. This tendency is even more pronounced in Fletcher's tragi-comedy, The Loyal Subject, in which the describe review hero suffers great abuse at the hands of his monarch, who finally restores him to grace. Portrayed as scoundrels throughout the play, they suddenly become regenerate in the last act. In another of his plays, The Bloody Brother, or, Rolio, Duk of Normandy, he advances the angler theory that true wisdom lies not in open opposition to a despotic monarch, nor in blind obedience to describe centred review, him, but in artful adaptation to the exigencies of the situation. This reveals to us the undoubted influence which the Spanish dramatists of the period exercised on Fletcher. These dramatists were exponents of Spanish absolutism, which. while bearing a superficial resemblance to the absolute monarchies of Europe in general, is Should Not Be rather to process, be placed in Rewarded, a class with the Asiatic form of government. 
Much more important, however, than these details is the general aspect of Beaumont and Fletcher's dramas. They contain an unconcealed epicureanism, devoid of describe the person review all moral and tragic problems. The aim of their plays was solely to divert and to Essay, offer pointed and entertaining impressions. This accounts for the elegant mounting, the describe the person skillful handling of plot, the opulence of scenic effects. Character delineation, on the other hand, as well as the forces motivating the actions of their dramatis personae, are relegated to a second place.
They strove for the most unusual, the most uncommon, the most pungent. With cynical frankness, Fletcher loved to happy, linger over describe centred, impotence, incest, sexual perversion. He looked upon the theatre as a place in which to spend a pleasant hour. Disturbing social problems are, therefore, almost completely banished from his work. Nor does it ever contain any genuinely heroic characters. No more than two, or possibly three, of Beaumont and Fletcher's plays can be called tragedies. All the rest are either light and elegantly frivolous comedies, or dramas with a happy ending. All this is far removed from the heroic art of Shakespeare, strong to the point of vulgarity. There is no question that the roots of consequences french his art must be sought, not in the circles of describe review epicurean noblemen, but in the revolutionary ideas and moods of the bourgeoisie.
There existed during this epoch a rather widespread literature, specifically middle-class in its thematic material and toni love its stylistic manner. A whole group of the person centred Shakespeare's contemporaries, led by Should Essay Thomas Heywood (1570-1640) and Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), belong in describe the person centred, this category. Folk naturalism, depiction of the plebeian milieu, family life and manners, naive moralizing, are amusingly juxtaposed with intrigue, melodrama, and motifs as sensational as if they had been copied out of angler reproduce a daily chronicle of events-scenes in houses of the person prostitution, insane asylums, and so forth. Heywood's historical drama Edward the Fourth is a glorification of merchants and artisans, the real heroes of the play. In Shakespeare's chronicles, the basic theme deals with two great problems–power and the fate of nations.
Heywood's plays, on morrison love, the other hand, attach greater significance to the sentimental questions of describe the person process family life. This middle-class naturalism and moralizing is not confined to the plays of the time; it appears also in the novels. The end of the sixteenth century witnessed the development of the naturalistic or autobiographical novel of manners (Greene, Nash), which depicted the life of the consequences french revolution outcasts of society and the history of the hero's worldly transgressions. Describe The Person Review Process. Or, like the Spanish picaresque novel, it depicted the Rewarded gradual social ascent of the adventurer of the person centred process plebeian origin. This provided an opportunity for a series of satirical sketches of typical representatives of every possible class, profession, or social station. That most curious industrial trilogy, The Gentle Craft, Jack of Newberry, Thomas of Reading, by Thomas Deloney, the story of coaching theory a Norwich silk-weaver, presented a most detailed picture of the describe review process lives of shoemakers and weavers–a sympathetic account of the transition from guild craftsmanship to manufacturing. This leads us even farther away from Shakespeare's work than the plays of Beaumont and consequences of the french Fletcher. Shakespeare, a humanist and a man of the person centred review historic perspective, concentrates on moral, political, and philosophical questions of universal significance; he strives to change the world. In all the other writers previously mentioned we have but the timid aspirations of the Volunteers Should Not Be Rewarded Essay middle-classes, submissively accepting the whole existing mode of life, attempting to protect their right to a modest place in centred, the world, a little happiness, and toni morrison love a shred of respect from the privileged aristocratic class.
Peaceful in describe centred review process, their middle-class morality, they desired only to earn their living through painstaking labor. Love. Taken as a whole, this morality was embryonic Puritanism, as yet far from describe centred review its revolutionary maturity. Toni Love. These people were completely fettered by their middle-class ideology, from which, as Engels says, the titans of the Renaissance were free. Ben Jonson (1572-1637) represented a different trend of bourgeois drama. His wide intellectual range, his love of life, his iconoclastic presentation and solution of moral problems place this great artist nearer to Shakespeare.
Nevertheless, Ben Jonson, too, was bound by middle-class ideology, though in a lesser degree than those previously mentioned. He was interested in the morality of his class only in relation to current problems. Describe The Person Process. He was too much limited by these current interests and could not rise above them. Angler. He was not granted Shakespeare's intellectual and philosophical insight. A rationalist, slightly pedantic in his reasoning, he was the describe the person review enemy of all romanticism, which he angrily ridiculed. He maintained that the coaching theory artist must depict only the people of every day life, and only those occurrences from which edification can be drawn. His main concern in all his plays was to be rational and plausible, in the popular, naturalistic meaning of the term, and to edify. It can be said that, inasmuch as the Puritans were enemies of the describe the person centred process theatre, Ben Jonson was basically, in his point of view, very close to them. Ben Jonson, like Moliere, with whom he had much in common, endeavors to correct morals through ridicule in his comedies Every Man in his Humor, and Epicoene, or the Silent Woman. He exhibits scoundrels, eccentrics, and a whole gallery of morally deformed types of every shape and vectone happy color.
In The Alchemist, he exposes one of the abuses of the age, superstition, and the chicanery connected with it. In Bartholomew Fair, he ridicules the noble spendthrift, together with the predatory and hypocritical priest, the review process prototype of Tartuffe. In the comedy, The Devil is an Ass, he presents an interesting picture of the depravity and degeneracy of the court of James I. At the same time, Ben Jonson also criticizes the class whose representative he is. His Volpone is The Nature Essay a grotesquerie of a cunning old man, who not only makes fools of ail those who dream of inheriting his fortune, but robs them at the same time, until he falls prey to the greed of his assistants. By thus having confined his thematic material to the realism of daily life, combined with a great deal of malice and the person review process even photographic copies of contemporaries, never to be found in Shakespeare, Ben Jonson limited the horizon of vectone happy rates his art. This is particularly apparent in the construction of his characters. The Person Review. As in Moliere, they are usually dominated by one particular trait, which colors all their feeling and actions. This explains their one-sided and schematic nature. Parody and distortion replace the broad and profound mirroring of reality to be found in Shakespeare. Angler Reproduce. Ben Jonson was a great scholar, a man of enlightenment and erudition, but he was able to mirror only the milieu with which he was familiar, and centred process that only to a limited degree; Shakespeare reflected an immense epoch in Should Not Be Essay, full with inspired insight into process, the future.
There was still another group of bourgeois dramatists, represented by the close forerunners and contemporaries of Shakespeare, with Marlowe at the head. It is to this group that Shakespeare belongs. Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), the stormy genius of the English Renaissance, who died prematurely, reflected in vectone rates, his work the describe the person review aspirations of the rising English bourgeoisie during the period of its initial strength. His plays expressed all the passion, all the super-abundance of strength, all the utopian daring of thought and coaching theory will of a newly-born, exultant class, eager to rush into the fray for review process the conquest of the world. Marlowe was the toni first to develop the heroic tragedy, the tragedy of a powerful individual whose passions and grandiose struggles encompass and unite all the action. Centred. To know everything, to possess everything–this is the motto of Marlowe's heroes. In the preface to his first tragedy, Tamburlaine the Great, he introduces the theme. The shepherd who becomes master solely through will, and faith in his star, is conceived on a high plane. He is a true conquistador of the sixteenth century, avid and drunk with his own strength, ready to conquer the world. Tamburlaine reckons with nothing, not even with the will of the gods. And at the end of the tragedy he dies unbroken in vectone happy, spirit, with a proud challenge to fate and describe centred process death on his lips.
Tamburlaine, however, is not only toni morrison love, a man of great ambitions; he is a thinker as well. Describe Review Process. Hungry for knowledge, he craves to understand the marvelous construction of the world, to coaching theory, fathom the centred review run of each planet. To the man of the Renaissance, knowledge and power were inseparable. Such a superman is Dr. Faustus, who sells his soul to tile devil in exchange for mortal happiness, knowledge and coaching theory power.
But he desires this power in order to render his country impregnable, to surround it with an iron wall, to create an describe unconquerable army, to establish universities. A similar figure, this time in the guise of a villain, is Barabas, in The Jew of Malta. With gold, his one weapon, he fights the entire world. He commits incredible villainies, sacrificing his daughter for the sake of revenging himself on rates, the Christians who had insulted him, and meets his downfall with his pride unbroken, as Tamburlaine and Dr. Describe Centred Review. Faustus. As if in contradistinction to these types, Marlowe, in The Troublesome Raigne and Deathe of Edward the Second, a chronicle play wherein, as in coaching theory, Shakespeare, certain fundamental problems of political power and national destiny are analyzed, portrays a weak character around whom swirl intense passions. Bourgeois critics consider Marlowe the founder of the romantic drama. This is partly true, insofar as Marlowe's plays are filled with a daring imagination and poetic fantasy, far removed from the naturalism of describe the person centred review process Heywood or even of Ben Jonson.
But it is a special kind of romanticism, a romanticism which Engels, in Not Be Rewarded, characterizing the epoch of describe the person review process primary accumulation, described as follows: It was the knight-errant period of the bourgeoisie; it had, too, its romances and coaching theory its amorous enthusiasms, but on a bourgeois footing and in the last analysis, with bourgeois aims.  The basis of Marlowe's romanticism is a vigorous realism. Realistic are his powerful characters, hewn from granite; realistic, the ideological and psychological design of his plays; his language and his poetry. He introduced blank verse into drama, a poetic form far more flexible and describe the person centred review expressive than the polished, rhymed metre of the older dramatists. But most realistic is his depiction of the ardent, anarchic, amoral strivings of his epoch. According to Engels: . A period which loosened all the old ties of angler reproduce society and shattered all inherited conceptions. The world had suddenly become ten times bigger; instead of a quadrant of a hemisphere, the whole globe now lay before the eyes of the West Europeans, who hastened to take possession of the other seven quadrants. And along with the describe centred process old narrow barriers of their native land, the thousand-year old barriers of consequences of the french revolution mediaeval conventional thought were also broken down. An infinitely wider horizon opened out before both the outward and the inward gaze of man. What mattered the prospects offered by respectability, or the honorable guild privileges inherited through generations, to the young man tempted by the wealth of India, the gold and silver mines of Mexico and Potosi? 
Marlowe was the ideologist of the revolutionary, but as yet only elementally and anarchistically revolutionary, English merchant bourgeoisie of the end of the sixteenth century. A true humanist, he transferred their strivings to a higher plane. The Person Review. He did not use bourgeois themes, he reflected the very essence of the aspirations of angler fish this class in describe, pure form, without the commonplace bourgeois wrappings. It is this that relates Marlowe to Shakespeare. Angler Reproduce. There exists, of course, a fundamental difference between them. Shakespeare, who is an incomparably deeper and more mature humanist, transcends Marlowe's anarchic amoralism. Nevertheless, Shakespeare has his roots in Marlowe.
This kinship is corroborated by the enormous influence Marlowe exercised over Shakespeare's early work. Shakespeare borrowed not only the blank verse and centred review process certain stylistic details, but also the conception of a lofty tragic hero. Reproduce. In a series of early plays, Shakespeare follows in the footsteps of Marlowe; Richard III (1592) and describe the person centred review Titus Andronicus  (1593) resemble, in coaching theory, many respects, The Jew of Malta (1589-1590) That Shakespeare borrowed from describe the person review this play for his conception of Shylock in The Merchant of Venice (1596) cannot be doubted, while Richard II (1595) retraces the most essential aspects of Edward II (1592). Toni Morrison. Even in his later and greatest tragedies, Shakespeare remained indebted to describe centred, his mentor Marlowe; there is consequences french revolution something of Tamburlaine in the person centred review, King Lear (1605) and Macbeth (1605). We do not, therefore, expect to find any specifically bourgeois content in Shakespeare which is normally absent from the works of the great humanists of the epoch. Marlowe and several other dramatists  of his group exemplify this theory. This is angler fish reproduce also true of the humanist poets of other countries. The ordinary middle-class thematic material is centred review completely alien to Petrarch, and if we do find some aspects of it in Boccaccio, in The Decameron and partly in the Corbaccio, we must not forget that this is but a small part of his inheritance. An equally significant aspect of his literary output, unjustly neglected in the popular evaluations because of his Decameron, is presented by a number of vectone rates poetic romances on legendary themes of chivalry.
These are realistic in treatment and progressive in ideology. This is also true of the splendid pastorals, Ameto and the Ninfale Fiesolano, so truly revolutionary in content, and Fiammetta, which laid the foundation of the new realistic and psychological novel. Bourgeois themes are not to be found in any of the books, nor in the work of the great painters of the time. Raphael, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci carried out revolutionary ideas through aristocratic, mythological, and even religious subject-matter. Middle-class themes would not have adequately expressed their ideas and would have restricted the depth and extent of their efforts. Shakespeare, too, followed this trend. Describe. It was even more natural that he should have done so, because the circumstances attending the historical development of England–the fusion between the nobility and reproduce the middle-classes-created conditions extremely favorable to such an art.
In discussing the describe evolution of toni morrison law, Engels says: The form in which this happens can, however, vary considerably. It is possible, as happened in the person centred, England, in harmony with the whole national development, to toni love, retain in the main the forms of the old feudal laws while giving them a bourgeois content; in fact, directly giving a bourgeois meaning to the old feudal name. Describe The Person Centred Process.  Is this not equally applicable to the literary scene? It is impossible, purely on the basis of the aristocratic nature of his characterizations and subject-matter to draw the conclusion that Shakespeare was the ideologist of the new nobility which was fast acquiring bourgeois trappings. On the contrary, Shakespeare was strongly opposed to the attempt on the part of this new nobility to appropriate the fruits of primary accumulation and to monopolize all culture.
However, Shakespeare found subject-matter and imagery of a feudal character to be a convenient form for the following reasons: the traditional dramatic plots, the blending of of the revolution nobility and bourgeoisie, the avoidance of middle-class limitations. Since the substance was completely bourgeois, through contact with the new content, the form was materially changed. Shakespeare is the humanist ideologist of the bourgeoisie of the time, for whom the source material of his plays had no importance, and which, as Engels has pointed out, he did not disdain to borrow even from the Middle Ages. He was concerned only with how he could adapt this material. It does not follow that he denied the the person centred review process living present around him, or that he was but another of that group of closet humanists whom Engels characterized as second or third-rate men, or cautious Philistines who are afraid of burning their fingers (like Erasmus).  His reactions to the world around him, and to coaching theory, the changes in the political and social currents of his time were strong but complex. They found expression not in impulsive outbursts or obvious allusions to describe review process, the evils of the times, but in coaching theory, profound internal upheavals and changed evaluations of centred review process humanity and of the whole life process. In view of this, Shakespeare's work, in spite of the internal unity and the correctness of its basic ideology, falls into three periods. During the first period, until around 1601, there occurred the The Nature of Database Locking coalescence of all the review foremost forces of the country: upper middle-class, the monarchy, the gentry, and even a part of the landed nobility. Angler Fish Reproduce. This process is reflected by the joyous optimism of describe process Shakespeare s early work, which is filled with a bold and happy affirmation of life, and with obviously aristocratic elements. He has two main themes–the assertion of the new absolutist national state, and of the intoxicating joy of living now available to the individual, at last emancipated from feudal bondage.
To the first theme he dedicated the cycle of chronicle plays; to the second, the series of enchanting, gay comedies. But the effects of the disintegration of the french class alignment are already apparent in the plays written towards the end of the period, around 1597. The decomposition of the court had set in, the Puritans were becoming more and more aggressive, the struggle between the bourgeoisie and the nobility had already begun. Hence, the tragic treatment of royal power in Julius Caesar (1599), with its confused conclusions, its pessimism; and the gloomy overtones of the earlier Much Ado About Nothing (1598). During the second period, to 1609–years which marked the decline of the person process Elizabeth's reign and the advent, under James I, of Locking feudal reaction–the process of the person process disintegration was completed. The nobility with the support of the toni monarchy, was preparing to defend its position against describe the person centred review process, the imminent onslaught of the bourgeoisie and the gentry. Vacillation, evasion, compromise, we'e no longer possible; he who was not afraid to Volunteers Should Not Be, burn his fingers had to make a choice.
Shakespeare made his. He broke through the circle of superficial, aristocratic emotions, discontinued the gay comedies and the idealized depiction of the the person past, written in angler fish, celebration of describe review process that glorious present which was no more. With powerful tragedies, as well as sharply dramatic comedies, he entered the arena as champion of the consequences of the french heroic ideals of bourgeois humanism. Shakespeare, however, was not destined to retain this position. Reality was against him.
The age of humanism was at an end. Narrow, fanatical Puritanism began increasingly to permeate the the person centred review process bourgeoisie and this, in toni love, turn, affected Shakespeare. He was forced to choose between the degenerate royalists and the revolutionary, though sanctimonious, Puritan hagglers. An additional factor entered the situation. By 1610, the London theatre had become very strongly aristocratic in flavor because of the growing royalist patronage and the irreconcilable hatred of the Puritans for the stage. The Beaumont and Fletcher type of play became the vogue. Centred Review. Its popularity rose to such heights that it began to crowd Shakespeare off the stage. Necessity forced the bourgeois dramatists to Not Be Essay, face the dilemma. Shakespeare, therefore, made a slight compromise. Without betraying either his basic principles, or his social, ethical, and political convictions, he made certain ideological concessions which affected even his style.
During this third period (1609-1611) he wrote a series of tragicomedies in the manner of describe centred review process Fletcher. Psychological analysis and definitely motivated action then began to disappear; grim realism gave way to fairy tale and legend. Shakespeare became preoccupied with the Volunteers complicated, cleverly constructed plots (Cymbeline) demanded by describe the person process the public. His plays were once more filled with those purely decorative, esthetic elements–masques, pastorals, and angler reproduce fairy scenes–which abound in the plays of his first period, and are completely absent from those of his second. This was the celebrated reconciliation with life that Shakespearean scholars delight to discuss, but which actually weakened his genius. Shakespeare could not long endure such self-imposed violation of his artistic integrity. For the last time he gave full voice to describe the person centred review, his humanist credo in his swan-song, The Tempest. Five years before his death, at coaching theory the height of his creative power, he stopped writing for the theatre (1611). Nevertheless, in spite of the critical phases through which he passed, the basic characteristics of the person centred review Shakespeare's point of view and style–his militant, revolutionary protests against feudal forms, conceptions, and institutions–remained unaffected throughout his life.
What were these characteristics? First of all–a new morality, based, not on consequences french, the authority of religion or of feudal tradition, but on the free will of man, on the voice of his conscience, on his sense of responsibility towards himself and the world. This called for the emancipation of the describe centred feelings and personality of the individual; in particular, this necessited individualism, that most vital and typical characteristic of the angler Renaissance, which found its fullest expression in Shakespeare. This resulted in a new approach towards social relations, the organization of the centred review state, the nature of The Nature of Database Locking Essay authority. To Shakespeare, the highest authority was that of centred review absolute monarchy, but his conception of this was not so much the authority of divine right as the authority of responsibility. The monarch justifies his rank and existence only when he expresses the collective will of the people and realizes their collective welfare. Secondly–a scientific attitude towards the world, life, and reality, which, rejecting all metaphysical interpretations, demands a causal explanation of all natural, social, and psychological phenomena. Coaching Theory. The possibilities of such a scientific approach to reality were, to be sure, very limited in Shakespeare's day.
Nevertheless, this is the essence and the basis of Shakespeare's creative method. And, finally–the energy and optimism so characteristic of the Renaissance. Shakespeare did not permit resignation and apathy to enter the soul of man; struggle was to him the describe the person whole meaning and content of vectone happy life–creative struggle for the realization, if not of the highest ideals, at least of the process organic desires inherent in his individualistic character. Inactive natures, sunk in abstract dreaming or hedonism, or lacking in a sense of responsibility towards themselves and towards humanity, were destined by Locking Essay Shakespeare either for destruction (Anthony in Richard II), or ridicule (Jaques in As You Like It). This approach is one of the the person centred process most significant aspects of the new ethical philosophy of humanism as Shakespeare understood it. Shakespeare's first period included epic and lyric poems as well as plays. Both these genres, so typical of the Volunteers Should Rewarded Essay Renaissance, found fertile soil in England. His poems Venus and Adonis (1593), and Lucrece (1594), though more conventional in style than any of his works, reveal his characteristic manner. Their natural tone and vivid realism stand out in sharp relief and centred review distinguish them from the work of his contemporaries.
Let us compare Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis with Ronsard's poem on happy rates, the same theme; instead of Ronsard's conciliatory, esthetically cold treatment of the dramatic end of Venus' beloved, and her great sorrow, we find in Shakespeare a genuine and ardent passion. Ronsald's poem is a graceful, inanimate picture; Shakespeare's, a dynamic, fervent cry of describe the person centred passion and suffering. Such is the contrast between the humanist poet of the progressive element of the toni gentry, and Shakespeare, the humanist poet of the bourgeoisie. His treatment of ancient themes closely resembles that of another great humanist poet of the bourgeoisie, the describe the person review process Boccaccio of vectone Ameto and Ninfale Fiesolano. In England, the the person review process poem which most nearly approaches Venus and Adonis is toni Marlowe's Hero and Leander. Shakespeare's sonnets are distinguished also by a profound realism which reveals the sequence of his personal experiences. His poems were well received by his contemporaries. The Person Centred Review Process. Lyric and coaching theory epic poetry was the vogue. Hence it was more esteemed and describe centred process remunerative than the drama. Still, Shakespeare early rejected both these forms for the drama, the most progressive and democratic genre of the epoch, in which he could express himself completely. The plays of The Nature Shakespeare's first period fall into three groups: comedies, chronicles and tragedies.
Beginning with the comedies, a division can be made between those we may term realistic, as to describe process, both style and subject, and romantic, as to subject alone. The realistic comedies are: The Comedy of Errors (1592), which is an adaptation of Plautus' Menaechmi; The Taming of the Shrew (1593), and The Merry Wives of Windsor (1600). The romantic comedies are The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1591), Love's Labour's Lost (1595), A Midsummer Night's Dream (1596), The Merchant of Venice (1596), Much Ado About Nothing (1598), As You Like It (1599), and Twelfth Night (1599). Let us analyze this group first; it offers rich and varied material for a comprehension of the growth of Shakespeare's world perspective. The outstanding characteristics of these plays are usually considered to of Database, be the carefree joy of describe the person centred process living and the aristocratic elements of the coaching theory thematic material.
This is partially true, but requires elucidation. The thematic material does not consist entirely of the aristocratic elements–the life of leisure led by the nobility, whose days, to all appearances, were spent in gay pursuits and games of love. These elements Shakespeare uses merely as a visible background, against the person review process, which he unfolds the revolution new humanist conception of describe the person review process love, and the more pedestrian emotions and attitudes. Beneath the gay, airy play of sensations and events is concealed the serious inner struggle for new ideals. In as early a play as The Two Gentlemen of consequences of the Verona are found two moral systems sharply juxtaposed: Proteus, the scapegrace aristocrat, a Don Juan type rooted in feudalism, believes himself entitled to all things and fills his life with empty, fugitive pleasures; on the other hand, Valentine longs to enrich his personality, and conceives of a harmoniously organized society based upon truth, honor and friendship, in which each person's conduct would be founded upon obedience to his own sincere inclinations. His generosity of describe the person review soul compels any personal sacrifice for his ideal of friendship. His subsequent disillusionment drives him to revolt, ostracizing him from a society not yet ready for his ideals. This comedy is a first attempt, although ineffectual, to affirm the rights of the unclassed individual. The effort failed because of Valentine's confusion and naivete.
Shakespeare is still groping his way, feeling for firm ground. However, in his very neat play, Love's Labour's Lost, he poses one of the cardinal problems of the epoch by Rewarded combatting the attempt of the aristocracy to appropriate humanism and turn it into a bubble of describe centred review process abstract hedonism. The King of Savarre and a few members of his retinue renounce human society and the love of women to ponder upon happy rates, abstract philosophy. But a French princess, with her maids-in-waiting, arrives at the court, and all the centred review process sober intentions of The Nature of Database Locking these anchorites are scattered to the four winds; they fall in love. They continue to play the hypocrite, concealing their real feelings until Biron unmasks himself and his companions, when, in a magnificent monologue (IV, 3), he disclaims abstract philosophy and glorifies the describe the person force of love, the fountain-head of coaching theory all authentic wisdom. The antithetical character of these two aspects of centred humanism is manifested not only in the ideology, but also in the style. Of Database. The conspirators against love express their philosophical vows euphemistically. The Person Review Process. After his metamorphosis Biron eschews such flourishes, and tells his beloved (V, 2) : And I will wish thee never more to dance, Nor never more in Russian habit wait. 0, never will I trust to speeches penn'd,
Nor to the motion of a school-boy's tongue; Nor never come in visard to my friend; Nor woo in rhyme, like a blind harper's song: Taffeta phrases, silken terms precise, Three pil'd hyperboles, spruce affectation, Figures pedantical; these summer-flies. Have blown me full of maggot ostentation; I do forswear them: and I here protest, By this white glove,–now white the hand, God knows!–
Henceforth my wooing mind shall be express'd. In russet yeas, and honest kersey noes: In this play, Shakespeare refutes those who accuse him of sympathetically depicting the aristocracy by voicing through Biron, his most positive character, his rejection of the aristocratic manner of life. There is also the dull and pedantic schoolmaster Holofernes, filled with the same bombast and rhetoric indulged in by the titled and florid aristocrats. In his case the medieval scholastic origin of such bombast and rhetoric is unconcealed.  Here, too, on a lower plane, is angler reproduce encountered a struggle between two styles and two world perspectives : Holofernes suffers a humiliating defeat at the hands of the clown, Costard, who possesses a healthy, realistic intellect. As You Like It is akin to the foregoing play, in describe centred review, that Shakespeare decries escapism as a philosophy. The old Duke and his retinue live in a half-illusory world until Orlando, healthy, sober, optimistic, leads them back to everyday reality.
Most of the Locking scenes are delicate, tranquil pastorals, the peace of which Shakespeare himself quickly dispels by the person centred process opposing the coarse, natural, healthy desires of Audrey, William, and Touchstone to the euphemistic shepherdess, Phebe. Here again, Touchstone, the clown, a plebeian, is the exponent of Volunteers Rewarded common sense. Shakespeare quickly dispatches Jaques, the melancholy misanthrope, who is the implacable enemy of realism. The Person Review Process. Some of the critical interpretations of this character are astonishing. Brandes pronounces him to be the revolution embodiment of Shakespeare himself, the mouthpiece of his dearest and most sacred thoughts, and Friche repeated his mistake, though from a different position. But is not Jaques, who, morose and sullen, remains alone in the forest when all the rest exultantly go back to a joyous life of reality, a negative, and at times, even a comical figure? Yet, just as Polonius, he was not deterred from expressing true ideas or from evaluating certain realistic points of view correctly and intelligently, Jaques is introduced to repel the audience, who would thus apprehend the play's basic meaning and direction. A Midsummer Night's Dream is the apotheosis of a free, self-determined love which transcends tradition, the ancient law of Athens, and paternal authority. Describe Process. Schematically, the play is a masque.
Shakespeare does not destroy its form, as in the case of the pastoral in coaching theory, As You Like It, but uses another method. The formal, ancient mythology is supplanted by plebeian superstitions (fairies, the describe the person centred review process mischievous Puck). Shakespeare instills vital emotion into the tenuous scheme of the affected court masque. The last two plays in this group deserve special attention. The Merchant of Venice, although classified as a comedy, ought not, strictly speaking, to be so termed. The element of romantic intrigue plays a secondary role. The chief problem is of a broad, socio-moral nature. Out of two medieval legends Shakespeare created a profound play, in which two worlds are contrasted.
One, a world of joy, beauty, and friendship, is represented by Antonio and consequences of the french his friends, Portia, Nerissa and Jessica; the other, a world of rapaciousness, greed, and malice, is represented by Shylock, Tubal, and their servants. In the the person review preceding comedies reconciliation was possible, evil could become good. In The Merchant of Venice, however, this is not so; the war between the two worlds is a war to Rewarded, the death. The conflict is not racial, as many critics contend, but social. Shylock tells us this in so many words (I, 3): How like a fawning publican he looks! I hate him for he is a Christian; then, immediately after: But more for that, in low simplicity, He lends out money qratis, and brings down.
The rate of usance here with us in Venice. In the same vein, he explains the character and causes of Antonio's hatred for Shylock: He hates our sacred nation; and he rails, Even there where merchants most do congregate, On me, my bargains, and my well-won thrift, Which he calls interest. Cursed be my tribe. If I forgive him! Thus the racial conflict is process immediately superseded by a greater one; the class conflict. But what is the social basis of these two groups? Friche maintains that Antonio's world represents the vectone feudal aristocracy, lavish squanderers who lived for pleasure only.
Shylock's world, on the other hand, represents the class which is describe about to supplant the other,.the bourgeoisie, calculating, niggardly, and merciless in its hatred for its enemy, the aristocracy. Fiche is incorrect. Coaching Theory. The social structure of the play is describe process more complex, more subtle. Its title, The Merchant of Venice, does not refer to Shylock, as is generally assumed, but to Antonio. Antonio's class position as a practical and Should Essay wealthy merchant is clearly stated at the beginning of the exposition (I, I), where Antonio's friend Gratiano, addresses him: You look not well, Signior Antonio;
You have too much respect upon the world: 'They lose it that do buy it with much care. Antonio immediately denies this. However, since these words are uttered by Gratiano, so intimate a friend of describe the person Antonio, we are justified in assuming that they properly reflect Antonio's activities. Nor does it follow that, because Bassanio ruined his business with his wasteful extravagance, he as an vectone rates idle, parasitical arisrocrat. The hard-working, efficient merchant who lived on a luxurious scale, spending his profits lavishly and head over heels in debt, was a typical figure of the describe the person Renaissance. Unquestionably, Antonio's whole circle, among whom there is not a single nobleman, belong to the patricians of the Venetian merchant-class. It is of no consequence that the business activities of his friends, Lorenzo, Gratiano, Solanio, Salarnio, are not shown. Shylock does not represent the coaching theory entire bourgeoisie, but only one of its elements; he is a money-lender. Describe The Person Centred Review Process. Usury was but one aspect of capital,  and met with moral and legal disapprobation The lawmakers tried to regulate money-lending; the moralists inveighed against The Nature Essay, it.
Even if Shakespeare did not differentiate between the two forms of capital, still, in the person review process, Shylock, he depicted a representative of the least productive and most rapacious section of the bourgeoisie. In creating Shylock, Shakespeare was attacking the Essay enemies of humanism, the Puritans. As a perfect example of the wealthy merchant-adventurer, Antonio is brave, enterprising, generous, and describe centred review keyed to the love of life and esthetic ideals of the Renaissance. He understands Portia's words on mercy (IV, 1), as well as the touches of consequences french sweet harmony (V, 1), to which Shylock is describe the person centred deaf: The man that hath no music in himself,
Nor is not mov'd with concord of sweet sounds, Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils; The motions of his spirit are dull as night, And his affections dark as Erebus: Let no such man be trusted. This is Jessica's justification for leaving her father for Lorenzo. Friche claims that Shakespeare senses the inevitable victory of Shylock, the vectone happy rates bourgeois, over Antonio, the feudal aristocrat. According to him, only such an assumption can explain Antonio's otherwise incomprehensible melancholy and the gloomy tone of the play.
But Antonio is not a feudal aristocrat; Shylock does not represent the describe review process bourgeoisie as a whole, and the tone of the play is not gloomy but exceptionally bright and joyous. Lest the audience misinterpret his intentions, Shakespeare adds a last act which contributes nothing to the plot, but which glorifies the new, beautiful, and joyous life about to unfold before Shylock's opponents, after Antonio's victory. Shakespeare criticizes certain failings in the ruling class, hoping thus to strengthen its position. Even more significant is of Database Locking his approach to the race problem, so striking in the profundity of its humanism. The Jewish usurer was a character from the Italian novella, which served as Shakespeare's source for The Merchant of Venice. The racial and describe centred review process religious motivations of the mutual hatred between Antonio and Shylock are replaced by the only true motivation, the social. As if to leave no doubt about his own view on the matter, Shakespeare introduces Shylock's famous monologue (III, l)–as fiery a plea for racial equality as can he found in literature: . He hath disgraced me and hindered me of half a million; laughed at my losses, mocked at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine enemies; and what's his reason?I am a Jew! hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions? fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer as a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us, do we not laugh? if you poison us, do we not die? and if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? The efforts of some critics to defend their view that the play shows anti-Semitic tendencies, by their insistence that Shylock was envisaged as a comic character according to the old theatrical tradition, are untenable.
In the first place, Shylock is not a simple comic character like the clowns. Like Polonius, his personality is complex. Toni Morrison Love. In the second place, even the purely comic characters often express pertinent, profound ideas. The claim that, if the monologue be taken seriously, the unity of Shylock's personality is destroyed, because he causes the audience alternately to hate and to sympathize with him, is likewise untenable. Describe The Person Process. Shakespeare's realistic art and his objectivity spring precisely from such complex figures and evaluations. In Othello he again surmounts the racial problem in the same inspired manner. In Twelfth Night, the last of the angler fish reproduce romantic comedies, Shakespeare again takes up the theme of the person centred love. At the same time, he treats the problem more openly than ever. Two types of love are graphically contrasted. Coaching Theory. The play opens with the Duke, Orsino, languishing for the cruel beauty, the Countess Olivia; he seeks consolation in centred, solitude and in melancholy song. He sends a messenger to Olivia, charging him to describe his love for her with all possible eloquence Shakespeare gently ridicules this doomed love, so typical of the feudal aristocracy, a love which leaves one completely unmoved.
As a contrast, Shakespeare depicts the vital and realistic love of Viola for Orsino. Her love, which forms the basis of the rates play, calls forth the warmest sympathy. Similarly vital and unaffected is Olivia's passion for describe review process Sebastian. All her aristocratic reserve is forgotten, she abandons herself to coaching theory, the violence of her feeling. Orsino, on the other hand, remains a waxen figure, an elegant marionette in the aristocratic style, even after he is forced by circumstances to capitulate and to marry Viola. Yet he is a lover of music, like most humanists; he is describe the person centred review magnanimous and kind. Although Shakespeare is The Nature of Database Locking careful not to caricature or slander him, he exposes him as a slave of aristocratic etiquette, thus destroying any sympathy one might have for him. Viola, on describe centred, the other hand, is morrison love one of Shakespeare's most attractive women. Her moral firmness and describe centred process initiative, combined with her feminine tenderness, her unswerving honesty in fulfilling obligations, endow her with that true humanist harmony which Shakespeare considered to be the highest expression of dignity. The comedy also contains a group of characters who present a problem of the utmost social significance, expressed in consequences of the french revolution, a more pedestrian form than the love theme.
They are Sir Toby Belch, Olivia's uncle, and Sir Andrew Ague-cheek, his friend and imitator. In Shakespeare's time the title Sir was applied to a specific caste of the nobility–the knights. With the exception of the chronicles, which, because of their themes, necessitate the presence of many noblemen, Shakespeare seldom uses this title in his comedies of manners. It is describe the person usually indicative of a swaggering or licentious person. Falstaff and the priest Hugh Evans, the bombastic and stupid pedant, in the Merry Wives of Windsor, are knights, but not Fenton, who is rates a positive character. In Twelfth Night, the two knights, who are always together throughout the play, fulfill a particular purpose. They represent the aristocratic parasite, feudal in nature. Their parasitism is greater than is indicated.
The fact that certain traits in a character are not demonstrated in the play does not, in Shakespeare, indicate the non-existence of such traits; they are implied. This is an important aspect of Shakespeare's art, as of all the humanist art of the the person Renaissance. The commercial activities of of the Antonio in The Merchant of Venice, and describe review of the semi-bourgeois Page and Ford in The Merry Wives of Windsor are not revealed in the plays. Their speeches and conduct permit us, in fact compel us, to assume the existence of such activities. The parasitism of both Sir Toby and reproduce Sir Andrew, on the other hand, is shown with painstaking care. There exists, however, a basic difference between these two characters.
Sir Andrew is despicable; Sir Toby is amusing and almost sympathetic. In contradistinction to the overbearing Sir Andrew, full of illusions about his dignity as a member of the nobility, Sir Toby is centred process well aware of his own worthlessness, and deliberately reveals it. Shakespeare ironically rewards this degenerate noble for his honesty and wit by allowing him, a knight, to marry Maria, his niece's plebeian servant. There is another interesting parallel. To retrieve his fortunes, Sir Andrew woos a rich bride, as Petruchio in The Taming of the Shrew, and Bassanio in The Merchant of Venice. While Petruchio's desire to retrieve his fortune by a wealthy marriage arises from a daring, enterprising, and progressive spirit, Sir Andrew's stems from Not Be Essay a petty nobleman's attempt to cling to life. These are two perfect illustrations from Shakespeare of the fact that no evaluation of a situation or character can be made without considering the describe period and the social environment, as well as the personality of the character. The lower plane, always so important with Shakespeare, is happy represented by the pert Maria, the clever Clown, Fabian, and Malvolio. They do not carry on any independent action, except for the jest played on Malvolio, but serve as a rational background for the main plot. Their presence lends it a healthy and concrete reality. The clever Clown and Maria, the merry liar, represent two aspects of Viola's character.
The three speak a common language, a language different from that used by Viola when conversing with Orsino or Olivia. Malvolio is in sharp contrast to the other members of the centred group. It has been suggested that he, like Shylock, was intended as a caricature of the Puritans. This is possible. The portrait, however, is too indistinct. Essentially, Malvolio's function is to be the happy rates Duke's double on the lower plane. This is the person review process indicated, not so much by his attachment to Olivia as by his stilted and tedious punctiliousness.
Surrounded by reproduce his magnificent court, Orsino is describe the person convincingly brilliant. Malvolio is only distasteful and ridiculous. Reproduce. Orsino's oratorical and musical propensities represent the aristocracy's unsuccessful attempt to the person centred process, appropriate humanist culture. The ascetic pedantry of the plebeian Malvolio is inimical to humanism. The Comedy of The Nature Locking Errors, first of the realistic comedies, is too unimportant for detailed analysis. Process. The Merry Wives of Windsor will be discussed later, in connection with the analyses of the of Database Locking chronicles. The Taming of the Shrew is one of the foremost expositions of the new humanist morality, though apparently farcical, lacking in ideological content, and derived largely from the old anonymous play of the same title, from which Shakespeare borrowed not only the plot but whole sections. The spoiled, shrewish Katharina is transformed by her clever and adroit husband, Petruchio, into describe the person centred process, the ideal, well-behaved wife. The Nature. In the last act, the formerly submissive Bianca has become a peevish, capricious beauty, whereas Katharina has become the essence of meakness and affability.
Her famous monologue in the last act is so moralistic that it repels the audience. It is interesting that even in Shakespeare's time many resented the speech. Shortly after the appearance of describe review The Taming of the Shrew, Fletcher wrote The Woman's Prize, or, The Tamer Tamed, a play in which Katharina is avenged. When Katharina dies, Petruchio marries again; the Volunteers Essay second wife behaves towards him as earlier he had behaved towards Katharina. Shakespeare, however, found it necessary to present Katharina as a spoiled and ill-tempered woman from the beginning of the play, According to her acquaintances, she was stark mad, intolerable curst and describe review process shrewd and froward . beyond all measure. There is no one mad enough to consider marrying her. No wonder Petruchio was forced to have recourse to such cruel measures in order to tame her! Had Shakespeare not presented Katharina in as unfavorable and repellent a light as possible, the basic idea of the play would have failed. Volunteers Should Not Be. But what is Katharina's real character? When her father tells Bianca's suitors that she cannot marry until her older sister finds a husband, Katharina, aware of the general attitude towards her, suffers from the humiliating position in which she has been placed (I,1): Kath: I pray you, sir, is it your will.
To make a stale of me amongst these mates? Hort: Mates, maid! how mean you that, no mates for you, Unless you were of gentler, milder mould. Kath: I' faith, sir, you shall never need to fear; I wis it is describe centred review not half-way to her heart; But if it were, doubt not her care should be. To comb your noddle with a three-legg'd stool, And paint your face, and use you like a fool. Though sharp, Katharina's answer is but a dignified retort to Hortensio's crude cynicism She does not start the quarrel; she merely defends herself. Shakespeare, however, seems to feel that a woman has no right to answer a mans insolence with insolence and threat with threat. When Bianca hears her father's decision and begins to weep, Katharina says:
A pretty peat! it is best. Put finger in the eye,–and she knew why. Katharina's contemptuous words fail to express her real sentiments: she is too upset. Happy Rates. Bianca's conduct is a direct slur on Katherina's character; it represents her as an inhuman person, her sister's unhappiness. Thus far, Katharina has shown some sharpness, even some crudeness, but where has she shown pugnacity? Whe'e has she appeared as a spoiled and capricious child? In the second act Katharina is found beating Bianca, but even this is justified (II, 1): Bianca: Good sister, wrong me not, nor wrong yourself, To make a bondmaid and a slave of the person centred review me; That I disdain: but for these other gawds,
Unbind my hands, I'll pull them off myself, Yea, all my raiment, to my petticoat; Or what you will command me I will do, So well I know my duty to my elders. Is Bianca sincere or merely hypocritical? Neither; her last sentence simply indicates lack of personality. Since her psychology is love that of a slave, she thinks that Katharina wants her ornaments. Bianca imputes only the lowest motives to Katharina; feelings of the heart, individualism, are incomprehensible to the person centred review process, her. Katharina is neither covetous nor envious.
She is simply filled with the naive despair of vectone happy a misunderstood human being who sees lavish praise and caresses showered upon describe centred process, her sister–a soulless doll set up for morrison her emulation. The audience's sympathy is with Katharina, who is neither intolerable curst nor shrewd and froward; she is describe centred merely fighting for Volunteers Should Rewarded the right of a woman to be an centred process individual. Petruchio makes up his mind to confuse her; compliments her on her daintiness and mildness which are praised in every town. Such mockery incenses Katharina and explains the sharpness of angler her tongue and her insults. When Petruchio announces (II, 1): we have 'greed so well together, That upon Sunday is the wedding-day. I'll see thee hang'd on Sunday first. But she meekly goes to the altar.
Her words are only a defense against arrogant interference, her darts are not sharper than Rosaline's in the person, Love's Labour's Lost or Beatrice's in Much Ado About Nothing. Toni Morrison. Katharina, it is true, slaps Petruchio's face, which they would not have done. But neither would Biron or Benedick have behaved like Petruchio. Describe Centred Review. The Taming of the Shrew is a farce; any of the characters could have been as rude as Katharina. This is the last of the untamed Katharina. Love. How is the taming accomplished? Petruchio tames Katharina by humiliating and starving her. Where then, is the shrew? Here is only a woman fighting for her dignity and unreasonably insulted by her husband. Shakespeare borrowed the idea–the taming of a shrew–from an describe centred old play.
He kept the angler fish reproduce traditional theme, but negated the traditional ethics through his treatment of the central character, Katharina. His recondite ideas are more valuable and revealing than all the describe review process surface elaboration. The chronicle plays, of The Nature which there are nine, consist of the three parts of Henry VI (1590-1591), Richard III (1592), Richard II (1595), King John (1596), the two parts of describe the person centred review Henry IV (1597), and Henry V (1598). It is vectone rates more important to remember that Henry VI, Part I, was most likely an adaptation of an older play. Describe The Person Process. The historical chronology of their reigns is: King John, 1199-1216; Richard II, 1377-1399; Henry IV, 1399-1413; Henry V, 1413-1422; Henry VI, 1422-1461; Richard III, 1483-1485. Some critics insist that the sequence of these plays is Not Be unimportant because Shakespeare conceived the entire cycle long before writing any of it. According to these critics, Shakespeare intended to present a philosophy of the dynastic history of England for a definite period. Moral retribution furnishes the basis of this philosophy. Even though Richard II was a bad king, his overthrow by describe review process Bolingbroke–the future Henry IV–was a great sin. The consequences were visited, not only upon Should Not Be Rewarded Essay, the usurper, but upon the whole nation, afflicted with the plague during the centred process reign of Henry IV, and particularly upon his grandson, Henry VI, who appeared to carry within him the seeds of this hereditary sin. The House of York rose in revolt against of the french revolution, the House of Lancaster and overcame it.
Edward IV's accession to the throne was also based on review process, criminal usurpation. God's vengeance was, therefore, once more visited upon the people in the form of the coaching theory tyrannical rule of the predatory and process cruel Richard III, who had gained the throne by murdering the other members of the royal house. Moral equilibrium was not restored until Henry VII, a Lancaster, married one of the princesses of the consequences revolution House of describe review process York, thus uniting the two warring houses. With his lawful occupation of the throne the morrison morally pure dynasty of the Tudors ushered in an era of national prosperity. A great deal of this is correct. It is true that Shakespeare held the overthrowing of a lawful ruler to the person centred, be a great evil, even when justified by fish reproduce circumstances. Nor can one quarrel with the thesis that Elizabeth's grandfather, Henry VII, is an process idealized figure. Coaching Theory. The concept of inherited sin, however, is alien to the person centred process, Shakespeare. Other wise, he could not have depicted Henry V's reign so glamorously. The notion that the whole nation was doomed to suffer for the sin of its monarch is even more alien to Shakespeare, who is too profound a realist to subscribe to angler fish, the metaphysics so characteristic of feudalism. The belief that the describe the person centred process whole historical cycle concerns itself with but the rates narrow problems of dynastic rule, and that this accounts for the unity of the subject-matter; is also untrue.
The unity of the cycle is limited to Shakespeare's approach to political events. Each of the chronicle plays retains, therefore, an independent existence and significance. The distinctiveness of theme and action is carried out even in the compositional design. The alternation of epic, though disjointed, scenes in Henry VI, the abundance of describe the person review colorful folk elements in Henry IV and Henry V, the concentration of action around the angler fish protagonist in Richard III, are differences which belie the structural unity which these critics read into the cycle. In his chronicles, Shakespeare fully revealed his political philosophy –his attitude towards royal power and his understanding of the historical process. It is the person a mistake, however, to attribute too much historio-graphical wisdom to Shakespeare, as some Soviet critics do. Since the study of socio-economic phenomena was almost nonexistent in his time, Shakespeare could not present a rounded historical conception of the french revolution epoch. However, he grasped certain basic factors and aspects of social phenomena, harmonizing them with the more specific historical traits derived from other sources, which were meager, confused, and biased. He wrote his historical cycle at a time when all the progressive forces of the land were–or at any rate, he thought were–united. Since such unity was then possible only centred process, under absolutism, the basic theme of the chronicles is the angler reproduce affirmation of absolute power.
But Shakespeare did not merely affirm absolutism; he also analyzed it its limitations, possibilities, and purpose–at once criticizing and championing it. Above all, Shakespeare recognized the necessity of a strong central power, which could be assured by a rigid succession to the throne. The problem of succession was very crucial at that time, when the Wars of the Roses and the unrest preceding Elizabeth's accession were still vivid in the minds of the describe people. Even during Elizabeth's reign the struggle for the throne continued, as exemplified by the activities of Mary, Queen of Scots, Essex, and others. In Italy, during this time the usurpation of power was as a rule instigated by the Progressive forces. In England, it was exactly the opposite. The necessity for happy a rigid law of succession was a constant subject of controversy. King Lear was the first humanist English tragedy dedicated to that problem.
Shakespeare had in mind the horrors of civil war attendant upon the ancient British King Gorboduc's reckless division of describe the person review process his kingdom. Not Be Essay. The English bourgeoisie favored not only monarchism, but even absolutism, which still served their ends. This is the describe the person centred process basic problem which occupied Shakespeare. This also explains the peculiar omissions in toni love, his works. In King John , for instance, there is no mention of the Magna Charta, the most important event of that epoch; this partial surrender of royal prerogative would have lowered the ruler's stature and defeated Shakespeare's purpose–the presentation of a strong monarch. His unhappy choice of King John as the subject was motivated by the attempt of this monarch–the first such effort in English history–to effect a separation between Church and describe review State, an act of tremendous importance in the subsequent development of England. He regarded John Lackland as the predecessor of Henry VIII, who brought about the Reformation. Nevertheless, Shakespeare's objectivity compelled him to cite some of King John's negative traits–his questionable seizure of the crown, and Essay the cruel punishment indicted upon Prince Arthur, the lawful heir. King John assumes, therefore, a dual personality; the real hero of the play is not he, but Philip the Bastard. Neither of these acts, however, reduces his stature as much as any reference to the Magna Charta would have done.
He is fighting for the cause of nationalism; Arthus is a protege of France, against whom it is necessary to protect England's power. That, King John is describe the person centred strong enough to angler fish, do. When first the describe the person centred French and of the revolution then the English king try to persuade the citizens of Anglers to open the gates to the lawful sovereign (II, 1), they stubbornly refuse to do so; they will have nothing to do with dynastic squabbles. Only after one of the pretenders has proven his strength will they bend the knee before him. Describe The Person Review. This political wisdom of the bourgeoisie dominates the entire play.
Whether King John or King Philip has a legitimate claim to the throne of France is of as little importance as their moral defects; only the toni morrison love strength and unity of review England matter. This idea is clearly formulated in coaching theory, the words of Philip the Bastard, which end the describe the person process play: . nought shall make us rue, If England to itself do rest but true. The bourgeoisie, the petty and middle gentry, and the absolutists were united by their common struggle against french revolution, the powerful feudal nobles. The chronicle plays leave no doubt as to where Shakespeare's sympathies lay.
The powerful feudal nobles depicted by him–the Percys, Glendowers, Mortimers–are arrogant and refractory. They are forever testing their strength against the king's and organizing rebellions and conspiracies. To Shakespeare, they were the scourge of the land. He saw Henry IV's reign as an uninterrupted series of feudal uprisings, which were not accidental, but which resulted from the king's usurpation. Shakespeare, however, is presenting not the idea of moral retribution, of describe centred review a higher, divine judgment, but a sober political concept. Bolingbroke's usurpation of the throne set a precedent, thus showing the vectone happy feudal nobles how they, too, could attain power. After he has seized the throne, they demand to be rewarded for their aid. When he refuses, they turn against him. They reason that, since Henry IV succeeded in overthrowing Richard II, they in turn can overthrow Henry.
This is the curse of the usurper. Hotspur's rebellion climaxes the struggle between the king and his vassals. The Person Centred Process. Hotspur is a brave, fiery, tempestuous feudal lord who throws himself headlong into the strife and dies a hero. Fare thee well, great heart! exclaims Prince Henry as he kills him (Henry IV, Part I, V, 4). Shakespeare emphasizes Hotspur's greatness by contrasting it with the cowardice of Falstaff, who, feigning death, lies next to the fallen hero on the field. Coaching Theory. Shakespeare makes his conclusions more convincing by drawing a dangerous rebel in describe centred process, heroic proportions. Had Hotspur been weak and insignificant, Shakespeare's argument would have been won too easily. It is thus that Shakespeare fights his class enemies when he demonstrates his thesis–the objectivity of his approach constitutes his greatness. Of great significance are the factors which hastened Hotspur's death: the vacillation of reproduce his own father and uncle, and centred review process their pursuit of personal political ends, which are tantamount to betrayal. The personal egotism of the feudal nobles, the lack of cohesion of their forces at a time when only the greatest unity could have assured their victory, proved fatal.
Since, however, these traits are rooted in the very class nature of feudalism, Shakespeare clearly demonstrates that the nobles are doomed by the very attributes they are fighting to preserve. In Henry VI, Young Clifford is interested only in Volunteers Should, avenging his father's death; Somerset is constantly involved in the person centred, political squabbles; Warwick alone is inspired by a hope for justice and desires to fight for the nation's welfare. When, however, he succumbs to his feeling of personal injury, betrays these principles and allies himself with his former enemies, he, too, perishes. A strong king, according to of Database Essay, Shakespeare, is the greatest political blessing a nation can enjoy; a strong monarchy is a guarantee of national prosperity. Title alone does not make a king,–recall Richard II's hysterical discourse about his divine right as an anointed king (IV, 1)–he must justify that rank. A king should be strong, upright and wise; he must express the collective will of the nation. Henry VI perishes because he is not such a king, but not before causing innumerable calamities.
Shakespeare did not say that such a king should be overthrown, but maintained that the overthrow of such a ruler was inevitable; nevertheless he repeatedly emphasized that the describe centred review process overthrow of a king was a great misfortune. The hopelessness of this dilemma is toni revealed in Shakespeare's selection of kings. King John at best is only tolerable; Henry IV is inadequate; Richard II, Henry VI, and Richard III are bad–only Henry V is a desirable king. The selection is still more illuminating when the rulers in his Roman tragedies and the kings in his historico-legendary plays are taken into account. Hamlet's father, and Duncan, had to be presented as good kings. They are, however, hardly more than mentioned. But what about Julius Caesar, Claudius, Macbeth, Lear, or even Antony? There are good king in some of Shakespeare's plays, but they are always legendary, never historical monarchs. They are the princes or dukes–the exact title does not matter; what does matter is describe review process that they are sovereign and absolute rulers. The Comedy of Essay Errors, A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Romeo and Juliet, and Measure for Measure contain such good princes and describe the person review process dukes. They are wise and high-minded, settle all conflicts, and restore justice.
It is significant, however, that the term prince or duke, rather than the term King, is applied to them. The confused king in Much Ado About Nothing and the foolish king in Love's Labour's Lost are of no consequence. Henry V, however, is an exception. Angler Reproduce. He embodies all of Shakespeare's optimistic hopes which were to be realized by absolutism. Describe The Person Centred Process. Henry V refers to himself as the sun. When such an expression is not used ironically–and it is Not Be Essay not so used in this play–it indicates Shakespeare's own evaluation. The Person Centred Review. Henry V,which concludes the cycle of chronicle plays, is, therefore, best suited to an analysis of Shakespeare's concrete political depiction of angler reproduce bad kings. Henry V is shown as a sovereign who has completely crushed feudalism. The conspiracy of the feudal lords in the first act creates an impression, not of the Precariousness of the the person review king's position–as in Henry IV –but of absolute confidence and calm assurance. The same impression is created by the discussion of his pretensions to the French throne.
Instead of anxious fears of an unclear future, the exposition induces full confidence in the success of a mission that is just, while the triumphant note on which the play ends resounds with faith in a bright future, not to be found in any of the other chronicles. Henry's confident power is founded on the support of the masses. When, as Prince Henry, he tramped the roads and frequented the taverns in the company of Falstaff and his band (Henry IV), he came into close contact with the people. He continued this practice when he became king. On the happy rates eve of the person review process a decisive battle (Henry V, IV, 1), he makes the rounds of the English camp in disguise and chats with the officers and soldiers to discover their real thoughts and feelings. In essence, the tactic he employs is morrison no different from that used by his father, Bolingbroke, who, as he rode through the streets on his way to exile, dived into their hearts with humble and familiar courtesy, threw away reverence . on slaves, wooed poor craftsmen with the describe the person review craft of smiles, doffed his bonnet to consequences of the french, an oyster-wench (Richard II, I, 4). No wonder the people greeted Bolingbroke jubilantly on his victorious return. He replied to their greetings from one side to the other turning, bareheaded, lower than his proud steed's neck (V, 2). Such is Shakespeare's conception of a positive king. Henry IV's son did not need to bow lower than his proud steed's neck; he could converse with the people in a friendly and natural fashion without loss of dignity.
The democratic composition of Henry's army is emphasized. It was no accident that Shakespeare introduced common soldiers and describe centred the lower officers. Nor did he do it simply for the sake of color and innocent comic effect. They are the base upon which rests the king's strength. Three centuries before the appearance of scientific history, Shakespeare, through his intuitive genius, knew that the morrison Battle of Agincourt was not worn by a little group of well-born heroes, but by the English soldiers. The English yeomanry conquered the disintegrating feudal nobility of France. This is graphically demonstrated in the scenes which depict the English and describe review process French camps on the eve of vectone rates battle (III, 6-7),–on the one hand is the vapid foppishness, the boasting, the describe centred process badinage, in Not Be Rewarded Essay, the French camp; on the other, the serious concentration, the honest concern, the feeling of great national responsibility which animates every English soldier. It is not so much a national, as a class contrast.  Henry appreciates his plebeian soldiers; because of his silent approval, Fluellen makes short work of the insolent braggart Pistol, who had insulted him. The Person Review. Though not a feudal aristocrat, Pistol is at any rate a remnant of the dying feudal order (V, I). The Nature.  Nor does the king confine himself to democratic sympathies; his very nature is profoundly democratic. In the last scene (V, 2), Henry, in telling the Drench princess of his feelings for her, emphasizes his plebeian moderation and simplicity, so different from the affectation of the the person process court. Volunteers Rewarded Essay. According to historical facts available in describe the person centred process, Shakespeare's time, Henry was not nearly so simple and crude as he presented him.
In this vivid, if exaggerated self-characterization, we find in a more developed and more socially rooted form that which Shakespeare previously revealed in Biron's monologue in Love's Labour's Lost: protestations against all affectation and empty aristocratic polish in the name of fish reproduce democratic simplicity, sincerity of feelings, and the person centred review natural expression. Henry's speech puts him in coaching theory, the company of Fluellen and describe centred review Williams. This, according to Shakespeare's idea, makes him a people's king. Shakespeare's selection of soldiers is extremely interesting. Vectone. Williams and Bates are pure English, but Fluellen is Welsh; Macmorris, Irish; Jamy, Scotch. Here are the nationalities of the future Great Britain; they are depicted fighting side by side like brothers for the common good, for centred process the future imperial state. This amazingly perspicacious picture Shakespeare painted at of the revolution a time when Ireland, nominally under the the person process rule of the English king, was in a state of constant insurrection, and when Scotland was still completely independent.
Henry V is Shakespeare's ideal king. Nevertheless, in spite of its felicitous conception, this play is among the reproduce weakest of Shakespeare's works. Critics unanimously proclaim it too discursive and unconvincing. Is it not possible that the play was a failure because Shakespeare had already begun to be tormented by doubts; because his attitude towards absolutism had already become ambiguous,–a state of describe the person review process mind which prevented him from mobilizing all his creative resources in Should Not Be Essay, its defense? Shakespeare's most brilliant play of this type is Richard III, an historical tragedy of epic proportions.
Its distinguishing characteristics are the unity of its plot and the concentration of action around the leading character. Richard dominates the other characters. To know Richard, therefore, is to understand the thematic design of the play. The contradictions in the person review process, Richard's nature have been pointed out by all Shakespearean scholars. They do not, however, disclose the social nature of these contradictions. According to them, Richard is a villain, a monster, a devil incarnate, who is, nevertheless, not devoid of a certain attraction, particularly in coaching theory, the final scenes of the Battle of Bosworth Field.
In order to mate the transition from the psychological to the social antithesis, it is necessary to begin with the most positive basic constant in Richard's character, a constant which Shakespeare endows with immense human and social values. In intelligence, will-power, and describe centred process even in valor, Richard excels everyone around him. He is a true hero in the style of Marlowe's Tamburlaine or Faust. In comparison, his antagonists, as well as his friends, are but pitiful pigmies. If, from the coaching theory point of view of abstract morality, Richard is a villain, then who among the others is the person centred process beyond reproach?
Edward, the impotent voluptuary? The boastful and ambitious kinsmen of the queen: Rivers, Grey, Vaughan? Buckingham, the unprincipled careerist? The dull and stupid Hastings? Stanley, the hypocritical politician? Or Catesby, Richard's devoted slave?
The youthful princes slaughtered by of Database Locking Richard evoke pity, nothing more. Sympathy for Clarence is neutralized by describe process his apathy and stupidity. The queens who hurl imprecations at Richard are not devoid of The Nature of Database Essay tragic grandeur. Centred Process. They are not, however, his personal antagonists, but the representation of Fate. Of the three, only Margaret can match his mentality, but her spirit is broken. Even Richard's strongest opponent, the radiant Richmond, is unconvincing. His role in the play is that of the deus ex machina, who ends the feudal Wars of the vectone Roses. Richard towers over him as Hamlet over Fortinbras. The selection of characters is significant; it emphasizes Richard's true greatness.
This greatness is unceasingly demonstrated throughout the first four acts and reaches a climax in the fifth, when Richard's star begins to wane. He is centred process revealed as a true hero, fighting against Essay, inexorable fate, and describe the person centred perishing in a burst of tragic glory. Shakespeare, mighty master that he was, has few passages as forceful as the one in which Richard reveals the daring mind and will of a conqueror, as he challenges the decrepit feudal morality (V, 3): Let not our babbling dreams affright our souls; Conscience is but a word that cowards use, Devis'd at first to keep the strong in awe: Our strong arms be our conscience, swords our law.
Or the passage in Should Rewarded, which Richard calls his men to the battle which is to be fatal to him (V, 3) : Hark! I hear their drum. Fight, gentlemen of England! fight, bold yeomen! Draw, archers, draw your arrows to review process, the head! Spur your proud horses hard, and coaching theory ride in blood; Richard's greatness is more than an abstract psychological attribute; it is an expression of Shakespeare's social and describe the person review process political thought. Richard represents the strong ruler, who firmly holds the reins of power and puts on end to the intrigues and quarrels of the court cliques. Of The Revolution. One must not, however, overestimate Shakespeare's historical knowledge or his comprehension of historical events That Richard was a progressive sovereign who protected commerce and industry by concluding advantageous treaties and introducing improvements in shipbuilding, is never even indicated. The chronicles which served as source material shed but little light on describe the person review process, these matters. It is coaching theory possible that even if Shakespeare were aware of these events, he did not care to make use of them.
He was interested in review, only one central problem, the basic theme of all his chronicles: the affirmation of the principle of absolutism as the only power strong enough to suppress the french revolution anarchy of feudalism. It does not follow, as Levidov states in his Three Shakespeares, that Richard is Shakespeare's favorite protagonist, whom he pretended to vilify in order to the person centred process, placate the censors and the court. Richard III is not a political discourse written in the language of Aesop,–it is a great work of art. Having exalted Richard, Shakespeare judged and condemned him according to his basic political belief. Richard is a scoundrel; such a man is not fit to control the reins of state. Shakespeare, instead of suppressing, emphasizes this aspect, attributing crimes to Richard the of the french latter never committed. This is more than mere moralizing, more than mere humanism; sentimentality is alien to Shakespeare,–when necessary he is stern and courageous.
Hamlet slays the objectionable but innocuous Polonius as he would kill a rat, and Romeo does not for a moment hesitate to kill the harmless Paris. Friar Lawrence's speech in Romeo and Juliet is the key to many of the person centred review process Shakespeare's ideas (II, 3): For naught so vile that on the earth doth live. But to the earth some special good doth give; Nor aught so good but, strain'd from that fair use, Revolts from true birth, stumbling on abuse; Virtue itself turns vice, being misapplied; And vice sometimes by Should Not Be Rewarded action dignified. Shakespeare's condemnation of Richard indicates a definite political view.
Power, based on villainy, violence, and usurpation, undermines its own roots. Like Bolingbroke (Henry IV), Richard combats feudalism and process attains absolute power by means which give rise to anarchy and toni morrison love strengthen the forces of feudal reaction. The violation of the tradition of succession to the throne, so dear to the heart of Hastings, is of no importance; in Shakespeare's day, changes in the law of succession were constantly being formulated and accepted. Shakespeare was not opposed to such changes. Bolingbroke had at least maintained his usurpation through the support of the masses, whose hearts he succeeded in winning, but Richard was forced to rely on describe review process, his mercenaries and on those lords who were attached to him for reasons of their own. Immediately after his seizure of the Volunteers Should Not Be Rewarded throne, Richard's allies demand an the person accounting. New revolts, new wars are imminent. it is fortunate for angler fish reproduce England that Richard's conqueror is Richmond, Elizabeth's grandfather. Richard falters for lack of support. He merits his fate, –none of his actions had been dictated by concern for the welfare of the nation, but were all products of his boundless ambition and egoism. Falstaff, who makes his first appearance in Henry IV, is mentioned in Henry V, and is resurrected in describe the person centred review, The Merry Wives of Windsor, is a figure of great social significance. Much has been written about his social import.
The majority of bourgeois critics agree that Falstaff is a parody on toni morrison, the degenerate feudal nobility, the embodiment of all their vices–boastfulness, swashbuckling, drunkenness, libertinism. This evaluation is correct but not complete. It needs amplification, in describe centred process, order to explain Falstaff's vitality and inimitable appeal. Falstaff is of feudal origin. He is forever swearing, he tries to dazzle the bourgeois Mistress Ford with his title; throughout, he makes use of feudal terms and ideas.
His celebrated band–Nym, Poins, Bardolph–to whom he paid no wages, but who served him as vassals for of the french revolution a share in chance booty, is an amusing burlesque on the person centred, the retainers of the medieval lord. He is not, however, the feudal lord of the old order, but an opportunist who has adapted himself to the spirit of the times and assimilated all the worst habits of primary accumulation; in short, he represents, on a lower and comic plane, the feudal lord for whom money became the power of all powers. This degenerate and rates declassed feudal knight has freed himself from the person all the illusions of his class. When, alluding to his mighty exploit on the highway, he says (Henry IV, Part I, I, 2): . let us be Diana's foresters, gentlemen of the shade, he is cynically ridiculing all the feudal conceptions of chivalry. Even more revealing in his discourse on knightly honor (Henry IV, Part J, V, 1), which, while reminiscent of Shylock's speech about Jews and Christians, undoubtedly contains Shakespeare's own ideas on the subject:  . how if honour prick me off when I come on? how then? Can honour set-to a leg? no: or an arm? no: or take away the grief of a wound? no.
Honour hath no still in surgery, then? no. What is honour? a word. Toni Morrison. What is in that word, honour. What is that honour? air. a trim reckoning!–Who hath it? he that died o' Wednesday, Doth he feel it? no. Doth he hear it? no. Is it insensible, then? yea, to the dead. Centred Review. But will it not live with the coaching theory living? no.
Why? detraction will not suffer it:–therefore I'll none of describe review process it: honour is a mere scutcheon: and so ends my catechism. Falstaff could so successfully adapt himself because of the coaching theory similarity of the activities of the feudal knights and the profit knights of describe the person review process primary accumulation. The former, protected by consequences revolution their castles, plundered on the highways; the latter on the sea and in the colonies. Describe The Person Centred Review. When these knights and conquistadors of high rank indulged in such plundering, it assumed imposing, even heroic proportions; with Falstaff, it becomes merely sordid thievery. He sinks to such a level that he is kept by the mistress of a tavern.
His end is well known; like refuse, he is thrown into Volunteers Should Not Be Rewarded Essay, the Thames, in a hamper of dirty clothes. In spite of the hilarious adaptation of Sir John Falstaff to the spirit of the process times, he never loses completely his feudal nature. Like the landowning nobility of the sixteenth century, the vectone happy masters of the sheep-walks and enclosures, he too, on a lesser and comic plane, has but superficially acquired a new quality. Describe The Person Centred Review. His class nature has not changed; he is a thorough parasite. His world perspective is not that of the Renaissance. He is no humanist, no daring individualist, he is of the not even the passionate anarchist of Marlowe's plays; he is only a cynic. He has lost the describe the person principles of the past and become imbued with the spirit of negation, retaining however, his lusty desire for life and pleasure.
Why, then, does he attract us? Because he is his own accuser, exposing and ridiculing himself through both word and deed. His cynicism thus becomes a moral attribute. Falstaff is consequences of the french revolution clever and astute. His laughter spares no one, not even the king. He is witty, and a butt for others. Because of his shrewdness, and humorous self-exposure, Shakespeare tempers his judgment of him. Thus, Shakespeare varies his attack on feudalism, but retains his usual objectivity; because his victim is so petty and unimportant, he resorts to buffoonery. Since he does not desire too easy a victory, he endows Falstaff with a measure of virtue; he judges and condemns him in spite of it.
One major idea runs through all Shakespeare's chronicle plays: the problem of state power. Perhaps even more significant is the face that they also contain, in undeveloped, though clearly evidenced form, the philosophy of the historical process. As emphasized by Marx and Engels, the social background in Shakespeare is not a mere detail of the the person review process plot, as the bourgeois critics conceive it to angler fish, be. On the contrary, the social background is the causal explanation of the plot. Since scientific learning was practically nonexistent in Shakespeare's day–not even Bacon had fully succeeded in laying its foundations–Shakespeare's persistent though unformed striving to discover causal explanations of the historical process were remarkable.
The insistence of bourgeois Shakespearean scholars that the action in his plays is determined solely by the individual will and process energy of the protagonists, is completely untenable. Only the traditional conventions of dramatic technique could create the illusion that individual initiative and heroism determine the outcome of battles, conspiracies, and so forth. The protagonists of the plays personify the power of the mass rather than of the of the french revolution individual. This is vividly illustrated in Henry V, where the elegant and weak feudal lords of France are overwhelmed by the English soldiers and lower officers at the Battle of Agincourt. An even more striking example is to be found in the person review process, Troilus and Cressida (V, 8), when Achilles, after ordering his bodyguard to kill Hector, boasts of his brilliant victory. The chronicle plays of Shakespeare are permeated with the idea of the inevitability of the historical process: evil inevitability, Richard II calls it.
There are many references to the times and the spirit of the times. The Earl of Westmoreland (Henry IV, Part II, IV, 1) replies to the accusation of the rebellious feudal nobles with: O, my good Lord Mowbray, Construe the times to their necessities, And you shall say indeed, it is the time, And not the king, that doth you injuries. In like manner does the rebel Hastings defend his behavior (Henry IV, PArt II, I, 3) We are time's subjects, and time bids be gone. The role played by individual temperament and personality in shaping the course of events is The Nature not minimized, but the the person review individual is helpless to cope with the force of circumstances. This is shown by Warwick, when he comments on the Earl of Northumberland's treason (Henry IV, Part II, III, 1):
There is vectone a history in all men's lives, Figuring the nature of the times deceas'd; The which observ'd, a man may prophesy, With a near aim, of the centred process main chance of revolution things. As yet not come to life. In explaining the transformation of the king's character, the Archbishop in Henry V (I, I) says: . miracles are ceas'd; And therefore we must needs admit the means. How things are perfected. Shakespeare not only states his thesis of the causal conditioning of historical events, but demonstrates it through all the describe centred review means at his command. One of his chief means is the coaching theory social background.
In Henry IV, the scenes in which Falstaff appears; in Henry V, the scenes in the camp; and in Richard III, the scenes of Richard's proclamation as king, depict the life which is the foundation from which spring major political events. A similar background is to centred review, be found in the Roman tragedies and the historico-legendary plays, not explicitly, but implicitly, in the pointed and expressive allusions of the coaching theory characters. This is especially true of Hamlet, Othello, and particularly Coriolanus. Finally, this social background is also present in the comedies, where it is usually to be found on the lower plane, above all in the speeches of the jesters. Shakespeare, the greatest of all individualists, wrote not the individual but the social biographies of his protagonists. Three other plays also belong to the first period: the tragedies Titus Andronicus (1593), Romeo and Juliet (1594), and Julius Caesar (1599). The first is too unimportant to describe the person review, merit much attention, especially since its authorship is The Nature of Database disputed. The second, however, deserves consideration. The social aspect of the love theme in the person centred review, Romeo and Juliet is more obvious than in Shakespeare's other comedies.
Here it becomes the struggle of the new man of the Renaissance against the feudal order. This struggle takes the form of a demand for freedom in love and opposition to antiquated moral traditions. The fact that the type of hereditary family feud, exemplified by the Montagues and Capulets, dates from pre-feudal times is of little consequence, since feudalism adopted, even perfected the institution of the fish blood feud. Nor is it of any greater importance that the two families involved are not members of the feudal aristocracy. They are bourgeois patricians, rather than members of the new bourgeoisie of the epoch of the person process primary accumulation, thoroughly medieval urban philistines permeated by feudal ideas. The struggle of the lovers against coaching theory, their social environment is the struggle of bourgeois humanism against feudalism, the Renaissance against the Middle Ages. To make the situation clearer, Shakespeare introduces a number of secondary characters who indirectly bring into relief the class nature of the chief actors and the conflicting class forces.
The bold and dynamic Mercutio, Romeo's closest friend, is contrasted with the gloomy guardian of family honor, Tybalt, the true feudal noble. Juliet's suitor, Count Paris, also represents feudalism. He woos Juliet through her father, not taking the trouble to inform himself about the person review her feelings. Handsome and angler fish punctilious, he is as dull and lifeless as Orsino in Twelfth Night, a wax figure, as he is characterized by the coarse, but astute Nurse. He is a Count; his title is no accidental attribute.
With the exception of the chronicle, Shakespeare seldom introduces titled people; he has even fewer Counts than Knights. Count Paris is an aristocrat in every sense of the word. The reactionary Capulet's strong liking for him reveals their class orientation. Friar Lawrence, on the other hand, who assists the lovers in their struggle against the old world, is an amazing character. The Person Centred Review Process. A churchman in name only, he is both scholar and Should Not Be philosopher, a stranger to describe, all ecclesiastical bigotry, a true pantheist. He stems directly from toni love Saint Francis of Assisi, the most progressive force of medieval Christianity, and Giordano Bruno, who was burned at centred the stake for coaching theory his bold opinions. He is one of Shakespeare's most progressive characters. The social background against which the conflict is describe the person centred review process projected is broadly developed; every stage is shown. The two old men, Montague and coaching theory Capulet, are secretly oppressed by the burden of the long family feud, which they permit to smoulder from inertia, but there are always young hot-heads such as Tybalt to inflame it anew. Romeo and Juliet are the victims of this feud, but in death they are victorious. The play ends with an affirmation of the new life; over the bodies of the describe the person lovers, the french revolution two families are at describe review last reconciled.
This reconciliation is expressed by the Prince, the absolute ruler, the exponent of the new morality. The struggle against feudal aristocracy is also shown by the language and angler fish style of the play. Describe The Person Centred Review. When Romeo is in love with Rosaline he sighs languorously and his speech abounds in affectation. After meeting Juliet, he is completely transformed. Unlike Biron, he does not indulge in toni morrison, penitent discourses, but briefly and firmly renounce his former infatuation. Review. From that moment his language is as passionate and coaching theory unaffected as are his actions. Julius Caesar was written at the end of the first period, when absolutism in England was beginning to show clear signs of deterioration. The court had become a centre of intrigue and favoritism; feudal reaction once more became a threat, while the bourgeoisie, together with the leading ranks of the new nobility, began to be imbued with greater and greater antagonism towards monarchical power.. Shakespeare was keenly aware of this, and his ideal of the absolute monarch, typified by Henry V, becomes tarnished; this awareness is review shown in Julius Caesar, with its concept of Volunteers Should Not Be Essay tyranny. It was customary in Shakespeare's day to interpret Roman history in the light of contemporary England; hence, the idealization of Julius Caesar as a strong and glorious monarch in English literature more than ten years before Shakespeare's tragedy.
In his earlier plays, Shakespeare himself presented this point of view on more than one occasion, notably in Henry VI, Part III (V, 5), where the assassination of Caesar is stigmatized as the greatest of crimes. The Person Centred Review. In Julius Caesar, however, he adopted a radically different attitude. Plutarch, from whom Shakespeare drew the material for his tragedy, was to a great extent responsible for this transformation. The Roman biographer presented Caesar, with all his human weaknesses, as an ambitious egoist who attained power through clever political maneuvering; Brutus, as a true hero, the defender of liberty, whose sole aim was to free the people from the yoke of a tyrant. Shakespeare took over this attitude in his play. Like Plutarch, he completely disregarded both the progressive, democratic character of Caesar's activities, and the reactionary tendencies of of the french revolution Brutus, the aristocrat-republican.
Shakespeare concentrated on describe the person centred, the problem of power and a ruler's responsibility to the people. Caesar lacks this sense of happy responsibility. Review Process. He is another Richard III, an egoist, who, drunk with power, cares only for angler his crown.  Though he did not fail to emphasize Caesar's positive traits, his courage and colossal will-power, Shakespeare unhesitatingly condemned him, as he had condemned Richard III. Brutus is, on the contrary, idealized. Shakespeare disregards all the moral defects pointed out by Plutarch: his greediness (he charged forty per cent interest on his loans), his hypocrisy (he accepted many favors and posts of honor from Caesar), and his cruelty to prisoners of war.
Shakespeare emphasizes only his passionate patriotism, his heroic struggle for freedom. And yet Brutus depresses us. Describe Process. The tone of the play is more despairing than the gloomiest of Shakespeare's tragedies Brutus perished because the masses, carried away by the demagogic eloquence of Antony, denied him their support. A great deal has been written about Shakespeare's portrayal of the masses. Of Database Essay. Bourgeois scholars are unanimous in their opinion that Shakespeare despised and hated the masses, that he depicted them as a dart, dangerous, unstable force. These scholars have not troubled to probe Shakespeare's attitude towards the people, nor to question the reasons for such an attitude. As the ideologist of the rising bourgeoisie in the epoch of primary accumulation, an epoch of relentless conflict between the nascent capitalism and the peasant masses it was exploiting Shakespeare might conceivably not have been too tenderly inclined towards the masses. A contemptuous attitude towards the rabble is common to all the humanists, the aristocracy of intellect; to describe, Chaucer, the founder of English humanism; even to Volunteers Not Be, the two most democratic contemporaries of Shakespeare, Heywood and Dekker. It was the feudal lords of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who made the people's misery an issue in their struggle against absolutism. Marx characterizes the feudal socialism of the first half of the nineteenth century as follows:
The aristocracy, in order to rally the people to them, waved the proletarian almsbag in front for a banner. But the describe the person people, as often as it joined them, saw on of the revolution, their hind-quarters the old feudal coats-of-arms, and deserted with loud and irreverent laughter.  It is an old tactic, which dates from the beginning of the struggle between the the person centred review process nobility and toni morrison love the bourgeoisie. It is no accident that a sympathetic depiction of the people is the person centred often found in Volunteers Rewarded Essay, the most aristocratic of Shakespeare's contemporaries, Beaumont and Fletcher. Nevertheless, Shakespeare loved the people, loved them without sentimentality, without shedding crocodile tears over them, with a vital and healthy love. Nowhere in his plays can one find any prejudices against the people, any preconceived contempt, any ridicule or slander. Solicitude for the welfare of the people, he considers to be one of the first duties of a king. His plays, particularly his chronicles, are filled with such expressions as good citizens, good yeomen, and so on.
The plebeian jesters, servants, or simple peasants are often the exponents of common sense and moral truth; they expose the hypocrisy and affectations of their noble masters. Several times, he makes the people be the judge of the great ones of this world, and describe centred process pronounce sentence on them. When Richard III, the usurper, is coaching theory pronounced king, the the person review process people are expressively silent; these same people are jubilant when, in Richard II, Bolingbroke triumphantly ascends the The Nature of Database throne. In Hamlet, Claudius admits that Hamlet is describe the person process lov'd by the multitude. At the same time, Shakespeare points out the people's political immaturity, their fickleness, their lack of independent thought or action, their credulity. All this was true of the English people of his time. The Cade Rebellion of 1450 was, from the point of view of the development of coaching theory capitalism, a reactionary movement; and a whole series of peasant uprisings in the sixteenth century were inspired by the Catholic clergy, who used them to gain their reactionary ends, and by the feudal lords who were dissatisfied with the absolutist regime. This is describe the person how the rebellious masses are depicted by Shakespeare. That is coaching theory why Hamlet, who is so lov'd by review process the multitude does not seek the help of the undependable, immature masses, who, under the coaching theory influence of demagogic agitators, are ready to follow anyone, even Laertes, who is completely useless to them. Shakespeare's second period included the tragedies, Hamlet (1601), Othello (1604), King Lear (1605), Macbeth (1605), Antony and Cleopatra (1606), Coriolanus (1607), Timon of Athens (l607); and the comedies Troilus and review Cressida (1601), All's Well That Ends Well (1602), Measure for Measure (1604), and Pericles  (1608). These comedies differ from the buoyant, romantic comedies of his first period.
They lack his joyous love for the beautiful forms of life, and his light, playful humor. Should Rewarded. Instead, there is such an overtone of tragedy that the term drama would be more suitable, especially when applied to describe centred review process, Measure for Measure. We have previously attempted to explain this metamorphosis in Shakespeare's creative genius. Revolution. The last years of describe the person Elizabeth's reign and the first years of the The Nature Locking reign of James I were marked by a grave political cleavage,'which caused a spiritual conflict in Shakespeare. His philosophy became tragic, but not gloomy, nor despondently pessimistic. Despite the austerity of his tragedies, they almost always end on a note of a courageous, heroic affirmation of life. According to Shakespeare, the value of life is in heroic struggle, even if this struggle ends in defeat. Hamlet, which begins the series of Shakespeare's tragedies, is the most difficult to describe the person process, analyze.
The idealist criticism or the Essay nineteenth century, influenced by Goethe, claimed the basic idea in the tragedy to be the conflict between Hamlet's thought and will, in describe review process, which he appears as the victim of the dominance of coaching theory thought over describe the person process, will, a martyr to reflection, incapable of realistic action. This idea, however, is rates utterly false. It sprang from nineteenth century German petty-bourgeois thought, which strove to comprehend and justify its political and spiritual impotence. Actually, Hamlet is capable of action to the highest degree, even of heroic action, as evidenced by the episode of his sea-journey, and by the series of the person centred review process daring deeds performed in the palace. The idea of conflict between thought and action was alien to the artists of the Renaissance, and particularly to Shakespeare, who could not conceive of thought as divorced from action. What, then, prevents Hamlet from avenging his father's murder? Some critics claim that Hamlet's postponment of the killing of Claudius, the usurper, was logically motivated–for instance, Hamlet's reluctance to murder Claudius while praying, lest his soul should enter heaven–and that a five act play, without such delays, would not have been possible. But it is not so much his hesitation, as the tone which Hamlet adopts when he speaks of Volunteers Should Rewarded his revenge, that proves him lacking in will-power. No conflict, however, exists between his thought and will.
He is horrified by the person centred review process the crime, by his mother's inconstancy in marrying the usurper, ere those shoes were old, and by the rampant hypocrisy and rates debauchery of the entire court, even of his beloved Ophelia,–a debauchery and hypocrisy which he attributes to centred process, the world at fish reproduce large. It never occurs to him to take revenge as an act of the person centred process personal justice. Firstly, because his father is dear to him, not only as a father, but as an image of beauty, a great man as well as a great monarch, especially in love, comparison with the insignificant and morally warped Claudius. Secondly, because Hamlet views this private crime only as an review indication of the angler general corruption of the age, of universal and irreparable evil. Under such circumstances, personal revenge is futile. He therefore overcomes his narrow, subjective tendency to become a merciless judge of his epoch. It undoubtedly grieves Hamlet to break with Ophelia, but he does not lament, and ostensibly seems unaffected as he drowns this pain in a much greater pain for all humanity. What type of action could and should such thought produce? Only one, inner renunciation and departure from this world. This he succeeds in accomplishing.
For Hamlet, the heir to the throne, a man of passionate, energetic nature, with an describe centred inherent capacity for appreciating the full joy and beauty of reproduce life, this is an act of tremendous strength. The traditional idea of ancestral revenge, an idea existing in society before social classes, and the person which later became one of the of the bases of the feudal world outlook, is minimized and almost utterly discarded in the tragedy. Hamlet is 'not entirely free from the idea of revenge, but he has lost the describe the person review urgent impulse for it. He is essentially a man of the new age–a humanist. As proof of this, Shakespeare introduces the theme of ancestral revenge on two occasions; once in connection with Laertes, and again with Fortinbras. In both instances, their reactions are utterly different from those of vectone Hamlet. When Laertes learns of his father's death, he behaves like a feudal lord, bursting into the palace with armed men to demand an answer from the king. Fortinbras, on the contrary, has no belief in the efficacy of ancestral revenge.
Like a skillful man of describe centred business and a diplomat, he uses it merely as an excuse for political advancement. He is a thorough representative of primary accumulation. Hamlet stands midway between these two men. In the process of becoming a new man, a humanist, he frees himself only vectone happy rates, with difficulty from the old feudal outlook. He becomes a rounded humanist, while Fortinbras remains a mere talented opportunist. Hamlet suffers because he is describe review far in advance of his time. He is tormented by angler fish his passivity. What underlies the the person centred review great disillusionment and sorrow that Shakespeare expressed through Hamlet, and which he himself unquestionably experienced at this time? It is possible to interpret this attitude of Essay Shakespeare's in terms of the decay of absolutism around 1600. The degeneracy of the English court stood out in sharp relief. Shakespeare depicted it with unusual depth, transferring the scene of action to Denmark.
He portrays various degrees of pettiness and vulgarity,–the corrupt agents of the King, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern; the describe the person empty-headed and obsequious Osric; the shrewd but foolish Polonius. Polonius is consequences of the revolution of particular importance because he is not merely a feudal noble like Osric, but one with a new quality. Many traits reveal the review aristocrat who has adapted himself to primary accumulation, and has become partly bourgeois–sagacious, and solicitous for his family. Consequences French Revolution. His son and daughter are equally practical and calculating, although, quite naturally, they also have feudal characteristics. Typical of this are Ophelia's blind obedience to her father and Laertes' violent rage when he revenges the death of Polonius. Review. In depicting the family of Polonius, Shakespeare severely criticizes the gentry, which, without changing its feudal nature, acquired the worst habits of the epoch of primary accumulation. To what, then, should Hamlet cling? The practical philistinism of the Volunteers Should Not Be Essay bourgeoisie disgusts him. He has no faith in the masses, seeing only their instability and political immaturity; he is the person centred review surrounded by a tragic emptiness. The Nature. Were he an describe process egocentric, he would have seized the crown, led a secluded life, and found epicurean consolation in of Database Locking Essay, the society of his friends. Hamlet, the humanist, can exist only by the person review comprehending and accepting the world–hence the hopelessness of his plight.
But all these psychological motivations are but concrete personal reactions to the general socio-historical conditions. Toni Love. Court debauchery and centred the disintegration of absolutism are only the immediate clauses of Hamlet's deeply rooted pessimism. The epoch in which Shakespeare lived saw the rise of the bourgeoisie, which has pitilessly torn asunder the Volunteers Not Be Rewarded motley feudal ties that bound man to his natural superiors, and has left no other bond between man and man than naked self-interest and callous cash payment. It has drowned the most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervour, of chivalrous enthusiasm, of describe philistine sentimentalism, in the icy water of egotistical calculation. The bourgeoisie has stripped of its halo every occupation hitherto honoured and looked up to with reverent awe. The bourgeoisie has torn away from the family its sentimental veil, and has reduced the family relation to a mere money relation.  All this happened later, but the beginnings of this gigantic moral cataclysm existed in coaching theory, Shakespeare's time and he reflected it with exceptional clarity and the person review process depth (Falstaff, Edmund in King Lear , Timon).
The old morality was collapsing and toni morrison Shakespeare was among the first to undermine it. No new morality had as pet been substituted, and the one being formulated by Shakespeare's class, Puritan morality with all its class limitations, repelled him. He therefore attempted to create a new morality based upon the great ideas and problems advanced by the humanist bourgeoisie of the Renaissance, which, in turn, had been derived from describe the person all the social classes except the ruling feudal class. The bourgeoisie did not carry out its promises at that time nor later. Immediately after its first victories, its class limitations and contradictions forced it to rates, change; instead of universal truth, it advocated philistine hypocrisy; instead of universal freedom, the enslavement of the lower classes. Even at that time, when the describe review process bourgeoisie was in morrison love, its infancy, its best representatives, the great humanists of the Renaissance, felt the inevitability of this betrayal. They sensed the discrepancy between the describe the person centred review magnitude of the problems which their class had undertaken to solve, and the possibility of toni putting their solutions into effect. Hence, the describe the person centred process greatest creations of Michelangelo reflect angry grief, the canvases of Leonardo da Vinci, sad smiles, and Shakespeare's Hamlet is filled with worldly sorrow. Hamlet, i.e. Shakespeare, saw the coaching theory break which had already started in the old world of feudal morality; he did not bewail it. On the contrary, he exerted all his efforts to describe the person process, destroy the old world outlook.
In his monologue to be or not to be he reaches the highest point of skepticism possible at that time. Even Marlowe did not permit himself such frankness. Hamlet's reasoning –that your worm is your only real emperor for diet, that your fat icing and your lean beggar is but variable service, two dishes, but to one table (IV, 3), and that Alexander of Macedonia returned into coaching theory, dust; the dust is earth; of earth we make loam; and why of process that loam whereto he was converted might they not stop a beer-barrel? (V, l)–destroys the idea of feudal monarchy in particular, and the entire feudal dogma of class hierarchy in general. Then are our beggars bodies, and our monarchs and outstretched heroes the vectone happy rates beggars' shadows, says Hamlet to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern (II, 2). The toe of the describe centred review peasant comes so near the toni heel of the courtier, he galls his kibe, says Hamlet to the grave-digger (V, l)–hinting at the person centred review process agrarian revolt. This is said with sarcasm but not at the peasants' expense. Vectone Rates. Hamlet's personality, behavior, and the person process manner of coaching theory speech betray not the describe the person review slightest mark of affectation despite his sentimentality. He is anti-feudal, humanist, democratic. He does not mourn the old world.
But, like the best minds of his time, he shudders at the sight; shudders because he does not see a new world that will satisfy him. Caught between the corruption of the court, the vulgarity of the growing bourgeoisie, and the masses in whom he has no belief, there is only one outlet for him: the toni morrison half-pretended madness and apathetic action by which he accidentally brings about his futile revenge before he himself perishes. Thus, Hamlet yields to the person review, the healthier and less exacting Fortinbras. Essay. This mirrors the crisis of humanism. Although Hamlet is deeply pessimistic, it cannot be said to reflect Shakespeare's world perspective. The characters of his other plays are equally representative of his ideas. In Othello, Coriolanus, and Prospero, Shakespeare continues his ideological struggle.
Hamlet's pessimism is transitory and centred process does not reveal Shakespeare's striving for his still nebulous ideals and for his love of life, which, in vectone rates, itself, is a fundamental basis of optimism. In Othello, Shakespeare returns to love as a theme. The first act echoes the theme of Romeo and Juliet, a love which struggles with a hostile social environment representative of the describe the person process feudal conception of the home. But in Othello, love conquers immediately and its victory is the greater because it is attained despite the The Nature Essay most tenacious of describe the person centred process prejudices, that of vectone happy rates race. The concept of describe the person centred review Othello as a Moor was borrowed from the Italian novella. However, Shakespeare did not mechanically reproduce this racial motif.
Brabantio is dismayed at his daughter's desire to marry a dark-skinned person. Iago, in Locking, attempting to strike Othello's most vulnerable spot in centred process, order to vectone rates, inflame his jealousy, never permits him to forget the color of his skin: She will compare your appearance to the appearance of her magpies (III, 3). Iago's efforts are unavailing; Desdemona loves Othello despite his race and color. In their tragic passion, the racial problem as such does not exist, nor does it influence the Doge's attitude towards Othello. Shakespeare solves the race problem in a more radical fashion than in the Merchant of Venice. In the describe process latter, only one monologue, which is not even an integral part of the play, treats the problem whereas in Othello, the angler fish reproduce theme is treated in full.
Othello is a thorough representative of the new age. The fact that the play hints Othello is of royal descent is unimportant. This is but an empty decoration that serves no thematic function. Othello is essentially an individual without family or country, an alien, a Moor, who, through sheer personal virtue and valor, riser to higher positions and respectability. Othello and Desdemona are not united by parental will, nor.by elemental passion, as are Romeo and Juliet, but by mutual understanding and friendship–the highest form of human love. This explains the nature of describe process Othello's jealousy. It is not the wounded honor of a nobleman, nor is it the proprietary attitude of a philistine husband, whose rights have been invaded.
It is toni love rather a feeling of outrage at the violation of the implicit trust and mutual confidence that had united Othello and Desdemona. Describe Centred. It is Desdemona's falseness that overwhelms Othello. His jealousy is of the coaching theory same texture as his love. The Person Process. The love that unites Othello and Desdemona can withstand all tests only in a congenial environment and not in one morally and ideologically hostile. To Shakespeare, the tragic struggle does not bear an coaching theory abstract psychological character, but is based upon a class conflict. Such is the nature of all Shakespeare's tragedies. Othello and centred review process Desdemona are surrounded by Roderigo, Cassio and Iago. Roderigo is coaching theory a noble who disposes of his estate, pockets the gold, and follows the young Desdemona to Cyprus, hoping to cuckold her Moorish husband. He bears Desdemona no real love but merely desires to boast of his new conquest. The Person Centred Review Process. He represents the degenerating, vapid, feudal gentry. In the development of the tragedy Roderigo plays a necessary role; he is part of the social background.
Cassio resembles him in many respects. Aristocratic, handsome, superbly educated–a real Florentine–he reminds one of Paris in Romeo and Juliet. More wasted and slovenly than the latter, he gets drunk easily, and is inordinately fond of prostitutes. The drama really revolves around the plebeian Iago, clever, energetic, talented, but without honor or conscience. In Iago many Shakespearean scholars have seen evil incarnate, the angler reproduce offspring of the the person process devil in medieval miracle plays. This is not the case.
Shakespeare was concerned with more important problems than the depiction of abstract grotesque. Iago is not the embodiment of the medieval Christian devil, but of the predatory, cynical philistine merchant of the The Nature of Database Locking Essay period of primary accumulation, rage's philosophy is expressed by the phrase, put money in thy purse, advice which he continually imparts to Roderigo, and by the idea that the end justifies the means. This is the thesis of moral relativism and nihilism, or, as it was then called in England, Machiavellism, which was one of the chief doctrines of the epoch. Othello, on the other hand, is the exponent of centred review process an opposite point of view–the humanist. He believes in of Database, goodness and truth, and review demands absolute moral standards, determined by the individual conscience of man. From this springs his credulity, of of the revolution which Iago takes advantage. The empty-headed Cassio, because of his noble birth, good manners, and influence in high places, is elevated over the head of the talented plebeian, Iago. Describe The Person Process. Iago revenges himself, not on Cassio, but on his commander Othello, who has denied him the position. Revenge, arising from concrete, personal antagonism, develops into a struggle of Rewarded Essay two world outlooks, corresponding to two conflicting ideologies within the same class.
Othello perishes in this struggle, perishes at that moment when his trust in Iago conquers his faith in review, Desdemona. His murder of Desdemona marks the climax of this struggle; but as soon as Othello realizes that his jealousy was groundless, he transcends the deed and vectone happy regains his faith. By killing himself, he affirms the integrity of describe the person process this faith and thus vanquishes the relativist, Iago. Othello has overcome the hopeless gloom of Hamlet. In King Lear, Shakespeare returns to his favorite theme, the problem of royal and consequences french state power, but this time expounds his meaning clearly. Lear is absorbed in the illusion of kingship even more than the half-mad Richard II. He divorces it from its material attributes, envisaging his power as all privileges and no responsibilities. Therefore, during his lifetime, he apportions his kingdom–as a feudal landowner apportions his estate–to his daughters, reserving to himself certain intangible rights. He is the perfect type of centred feudal king. Feudal symbols, feudal formulas, are everything to him. Consequences French Revolution. He demands from his daughters not vital expressions of sincere feeling, but only ceremonial phrases expressing the love and devotion of centred process a vassal.
He Insists upon a retinue of a hundred knights as prerogative and symbol of his sovereign power. The two older daughters embody the same feudal ideals, with, however, these additional traits, so typical of primary accumulation-perfidy, cruelty, greed, ruthlessness. Since these traits were as typical of feudalism, Regan and Goneril, like Falstaff, mark the transition. Cordelia, on the contrary, expresses the new era. She is a humanist, who knows only one law, the law of truth and simplicity. On hearing her sisters' protestation of love, she says (I, I): Then poor Cordelia!
And yet not so, since I am sure my love's. More ponderous than my tongue. When her turn comes, she replies simply to her father: I love your majesty according to my bond; nor more nor less. Lear: So young, and Volunteers Not Be Rewarded Essay so untender? Cordelia: So young, my lord, and true. Lear, outraged, disowns her. Later, Lear's delusions are dispelled. He undergoes great suffering, but through this he is regenerated. Having endured need and privation, he begins to understand a great deal of what had hitherto been incomprehensible, and to review, regard his power, life, and mankind in a different light (III, 4): Poor naked wretches, wheresoe'er you are,
That hide the pelting of this pitiless storm, How shall your houseless heads and unfed sides, Your loop'd and window'd raggedness, defend you. From seasons such as these? 0, I have ta'en. Too little care of this! Take physic, pomp;
Expose thyself to feel what wretches feel, That thou mayst shake the superflux to morrison, them, And show the heavens more just. He begins to sense the monstrous injustice of the feudal-aristocratic system, that system which he had unthinkingly upheld (IV, 6): Through tatter'd clothes small vices do appear;
Robes and the person process furr'd gowns hide all. Toni Love. Plate sin with gold, And the strong lance of justice hurtless breaks; Arm it in rags, a pigmy's straw doth pierce it. Here and elsewhere Lear merely repeats that which his jester, who symbolizes the wisdom and expresses the moral of the play, expounds in his bitterly sarcastic song (III, 2): When nobles are their tailors' tutors; No heretics burn'd, but wenches' suitors; When every case in law is right; No squire in debt, nor no poor knight; When slanders do not live in tongues;
Nor cutpurses come not to throngs; When usurers tell their gold i' the process field; And bawds and whores do churches build;– Then shall the realm of Albion. Come to angler fish, great confusion: Then comes the time, who lives to see't, That going shall be us'd with feet. But is there no character in describe the person review process, the tragedy who exemplifies an active force,–it is difficult to consider Cordelia as such–free from the feudal illusions of Lear, and in that sense, distinct from him? Goneril and Regan appear to be such characters. But, to an even greater degree, this is true of Edmund, the son of Gloster. Edmund negates all the toni morrison love most heavenly ecstasies, and all the feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations.
The quotations from the Communist Manifesto, previously cited in describe the person centred review process, reference to Hamlet, are even more applicable to Edmund. Edmund destroys his brother through calumny, dooms his father to horrible torments, successively deceives Goneril and Regan, in his designs on coaching theory, the throne. Clever, crafty, energetic, he plays his game so skillfully, that were it not for describe the person review the fact that disaster overtakes one of his agents, Goneril's steward, and for the foresight of Albany, his intrigues would have been completely successful. He is even more machiavellian than Iago, because there is of the french revolution some concrete justification–the insult he has received–for the latter's malice and cruelty. Only cupidity and the person ambition guide Edmund. He is more contemptible than Richard III, for, though courageous, he lacks heroic glamour. Shakespeare depicts Edmund as the plundering aristocrat, who follows the worst practices of primary accumulation. Goneril, Regan and Edmund–here is a new generation rising to replace the old; a new force, no less ruthless than the vectone happy old and dying one. Are there, then, no progressive characters in the drama?
Besides Kent, who is a minor figure, and the unfortunate Gloster, there are Cordelia and centred review Edgar. With but poorly delineated class characteristics, they are portrayed in purely human terms. They, too, are the young generation, but are profoundly humanist in the Shakespearean meaning of the word. Vectone Happy Rates. Even if Cordelia is defeated, there remains Edgar, whom Albany invests with the royal power. The Person Centred. Hope for a better future is not lost. In Macbeth, Shakespeare once more fakes up the problem of royal power and usurpation. Macbeth is, in angler fish reproduce, a way, another Richard III, but more profoundly conceived. The Person Centred Review. The tragedy develops rather in the consciousness of its chief character than in their outward actions. Like Richard and The Nature of Database Bolingbroke, Macbeth, with his bloody usurpation, paves the way for a counter-usurpation. But, unlike Richard and Bolingbroke, Macbeth is aware from the very beginning of the consequences attendant upon his action.
Even before killing Duncan he states the iron law (I, 7): We still have judgment here; that we but teach. Bloody instructions, which being taught return. To plague the inventor: This even-handed justice. Commends the ingredients of our poison'd chalice. To our own lips. After the crime and his seizure of the throne, long before there are any indications of describe the person review process revolt, Macbeth, recognizing the inexorability of this iron law, begins to prepare his defenses by new murders and acts of coaching theory violence, which only serve to hasten the inevitable counter-action. It may be said, that having created the necessary conditions for counter-usurpation, Macbeth also supplied the the person centred process immediate provocation.
In Richard III, some accident or other can always be adduced to explain any event–his enemies might have been frightened by toni Richard and centred process might not have given him battle; Richmond might have been defeated; or, for that matter, there might have been no Richmond at all. In Macbeth similar alternatives are impossible. Macbeth himself creates his Richmond. Of Database Locking Essay. If not Malcolm, it would have been Donalbain; if not Donalbain, any other lord. No fear, except in the early scenes, or shadow of remorse is to be discerned in Macbeth and his wife.
This is purely a struggle of active forces, developed in Macbeth's consciousness, which psychically reflect that which must inevitably transpire in the socio-historical arena. This transference of the basic action to the psychic plane explains the prevalence of the supernatural in the tragedy. Shakespearean scholars have pointed out that, at the time of the writing of Macbeth, belief in spirits and witches was extremely widespread in England, even in the most cultivated circles of society. Shakespeare does not employ the supernatural in Macbeth as the describe review creation of a deranged imagination. This is true, and it is possible that even Shakespeare, notwithstanding his enlightened mind, believed a little in the existence of spirits and witches. Vestiges of medieval superstitions are to coaching theory, be encountered in the works of the most brilliant scholars and philosophers of the Renaissance, and describe the person even in the works of Bacon, the creator of English materialism. Nevertheless, this bears no relation to Volunteers Rewarded Essay, Shakespeare's or Bacon's art and thought. For Shakespeare, the artist, the supernatural has no objective existence and no independent meaning, as for Calderon, nor does it even appear as a primary motivating force. Centred Review Process. As background and of the french revolution allegory, it serves only to emphasize the realistic elements which are the basic content of his plays. In Macbeth, which is utilized by some critics in their attempt to prove Shakespeare a symbolist and mystic, the describe process supernatural as such is completely negated by the transference of the basic action to the psychic plane.
The conversations of Macbeth with the witches and phantoms, like the famous dialogue of Ivan Karamazov with the devil, are but the inner dialectical struggle of Macbeth with himself. This struggle is projected on the supernatural plane, just as the socio-historical events arising from Macbeth's concrete actions are projected on the spiritual plane. The lofty tragic pathos of this drama, one of the most profound and mature of Shakespeare's plays, has misled critics into emphasizing its gloominess. Such emphasis is correct insofar as it refers to the basic theme and situation. But on toni love, the periphery of the tragedy there move figures who relieve the gloom and prevent our accepting Macbeth as a picture of universal vileness. Centred. The chief protagonists, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, are surrounded by wholesome, energetic individuals: Duncan, Malcolm, Donalbain, Macduff, Siward. Macbeth and his wife are a canker on the body of a society which, in contrast to that of Hamlet or Lear, is completely healthy. The optimistic tone of the tragedy asserts itself especially in the figure of Malcolm. Angler Fish Reproduce. Fortinbras, who somewhat attenuates the pessimism of Hamlet, or Edgar, who partially dispels the gloom in King Lear, are vaguely outlined in their relationship to describe centred process, society.
Malcolm's social relation, on the other hand, is fully revealed in the scene in which he and Macduff sound each other out before uniting against Macbeth (IV, 3). Malcolm, pretending he is unfit for the crown, mentions his fondness for women and his cupidity. Fish Reproduce. Macduff is disturbed but is willing to overlook these defects. When, however, Malcolm announces that he is devoid of describe the person process justice, verity, temperance, stableness, Macduff recoils from him; he is placated only when he realizes that Malcolm has been subjecting him to a test. The Nature Of Database Essay. The advent of such a king augurs a beneficent reign. In Antony and the person review Cleopatra, we find in developed form the impact of two worlds: the old feudal and the new absolutist.
The first is embodied in Antony, the second in Octavius. Antony is a ruler of the old type, devoid of responsibility to the people and to himself. As ruler, he exults in his power, gained and Volunteers Essay held through sheer force and valor, subordinating it to his selfish, hedonistic desires. These desires find expression in Cleopatra, for whom he is ready to sacrifice everything. The Person Centred Review Process. At the decisive moment, when his fate hangs in the balance, although fully aware that only on land could he hope for victory, he elects to fight at sea, so that he may be near Cleopatra, who was reluctant to The Nature of Database Locking Essay, forsake her ship.
Shakespeare definitely debased Plutarch's portrayal of Cleopatra. He does not show the subtle mind of the describe review process rare Egyptian, her elegance of wit, her art in handling people; he presents only her physical charms, and the dangerous capriciousness of her moods. He debases the portrait of Cleopatra, but consciously and knowingly, pursuing a profound artistic conception. He wanted to angler, show that Antony was motivated by blind sensuality and frenzied passion, rather than by the lofty, humanist love which generally characterizes such ideologically positive forces as Romeo, Othello, and others. This sensuality was a basic defect in Antony's nature, which, if not provoked by Cleopatra, would have been aroused by mother woman. Shakespeare endows Antony with spiritual strength, nobleness and describe the person centred charm, exalting him to such an extent that the majority of critics have concluded that he was one of the dramatist's favorite heroes. They reason, contrasting him with the dull and dry Octavius, that Shakespeare ennobles Antony and fish mourns the ruin of the beautiful world symbolized by review Antony, which was being superseded by the new world of the prosaic man of affairs, Octavius.
They forget the Antony in Julius Caesar who is an attractive adventurer of gigantic breadth, an morrison love egoist pursuing narrow personal aims with no regard for his country and no sense of responsibility. Describe Centred. Even more important is the fact that they overlook Shakespeare's favorite method,–not to coaching theory, debase, not to describe centred, caricature, but to elevate, to show objectively those forces which he exposes and judges, thus adding strength and cogency to his portrayal of great class conflicts. At the end of the sixteenth century, feudalism, as exemplified by of Database Essay Antony, was far from that decay which it later suffered. But it had already received crushing blows, although the force which was to centred, extirpate it was as yet inchoate. Fish. This was the first act of that great historical tragedy of which Marx writes: So long as the ancien regime as the existing world order struggled with a nascent world, historical error was on its side, but not personal perversity. Its downfall was therefore tragic.  To convey this tragedy, Shakespeare ennobles Antony and does not invest Octavius with many attractive dualities, because by this time the describe centred review process dismal side of absolutism had already been disclosed to Shakespeare, as had the rising philistine capitalist culture.
Shakespeare's moral perspicacity, wisdom, and The Nature of Database Locking Essay objectivity, are here in centred review process, evidence. He perceived the tragic greatness of Antony, perhaps pitied him as he pitied the perishing Lear, but his world perspective prevented any regret at coaching theory the passing of the reign of the Lears and the Antonys. Unusually important for centred review process an understanding of Shakespeare's moral and Political views is the tragedy Coriolanus, which, unfortunately, has been subject to most erroneous interpretations by both bourgeois (G. Brandes) and Soviet (V. Should Rewarded. N. Friche) critics. Brandesin particular, with his untenable thesis about Shakespeare's aristocracy, his esthete's detestation of the rabble, and the stupid and stinking masses, wrongly identifies Shakespeare with Coriolanus. Coriolanus is a man of the review Renaissance: an heroic individualist, consumed by The Nature of Database Essay boundless ambition and a lust for battle. Unlike the adventurers of the sixteenth century, or Richard III, he is the person review not amoral; he is honorable, noble, generous. Truth, his highest law, compels him to shun indignantly his hypocritical and cowardly brother patricians, adherents of a compromising and double-dealing policy, whose sole aim was to betray the plebeians. The mother of Coriolanus, the consequences of the revolution worthy matron Volumnia, fully approves this tactic of the patricians. In the scene where all those close to Coriolanus plead with him to humble himself hypocritically and to flatter the people, not only in order to insure his election as consul, but also to exonerate himself from a terrible accusation (III, 2), Volumnia counsels her son, I would have had you put your power well on, before you had worn it out.
But Coriolanus does not wish to describe the person centred review process, lie and dissemble. Just as he betrayed all his stubborn haughtiness and contempt for the plebeians before (II, 3), so does he now disdain to defend himself, preferring instead a direct attack, knowing full well that this invites ruin, yet unable to renounce native honesty and straightforwardness. He denounces the jesuitic tactics of the toni morrison love patricians in the most unsparing terms (III, 1): Mangles true judgment, Mangles true judgment, and bereaves the state. Of that integrity which should become't; And later, when the centred review process patricians and his mother persuade him to make a humble apology to the people, he exclaims (III, 2): Lest I surcease to Not Be Rewarded, honour mine own truth, And by centred review my body's action teach my mind. A most inherent baseness. But he is not guilty of this baseness.
Like Hamlet, Cordelia, and Othello, Coriolanus knows only vectone rates, one law, the law of honour and truth, and in this he is at one with Shakespeare. This does not mean, however, that Shakespeare agrees with Coriolanus in his fierce hatred of the people and the betrayal of his country which this implies thereby. The whole play contradicts such a conception. To the unprejudiced reader, the Roman plebeians are portrayed in the tragedy with rare sympathy, and, moreover, with a profound understanding of their socio-historical position. Centred Review Process. Of course, the plebeians are not yet politically mature, nor are they distinguished for military prowess, but, in their struggles with the patricians, Shakespeare's sympathies are all on their side. As if to preclude any possible misunderstanding,-which nevertheless arose–in the very first lines of the play, which are as significant as the last, Shakespeare has the plebeians express their demands fully, in such a way that his own attitude towards them remains clear until the end.
One of them exclaims (I, I) : One word, good citizens. But another interrupts him: We are accounted poor citizens; the Volunteers Should Rewarded Essay patricians good. What authority surfeits on would relieve us: if they would yield us but the superfluity, while it were wholesome, we might guess they relieved us humanely; but they think we are too dear: the leanness that afflicts us, the object of our misery, is an inventory to particularize their abundance; our sufferance is a gain to them.–Let us revenge this with our pikes ere we become rakes: for the gods know I speak this in hunger for bread, not in thirst for process revenge. One can find no hypocrisy in such words, and the poet who can write them must be in sympathy with them.
The force and character of fish expression here are approached only by Shylock's monologue (III, 1), and by the words of the disillusioned Lear (IV, 6): Through tatter'd clothes small vices do appear; Robes and furr'd gowns hide all. Neither in this nor in process, any other scene in Coriolanus is there the faintest indication of hypocrisy, greed, or baseness on the part of the plebeians. How does Shakespeare show the attitude of the patricians to the plebeians? Menenius recounts the fable of the stomach and of Database Essay the head (I, 1). The Person Centred Process. Does Shakespeare agree? Menenius assures the plebeians:
The gods, not the patricians make it; and. Your knees to them, not arms, must help. You are transported by calamity. Thither where more attends you; and you slander. The helms o' the state, who care for you like fathers, When you curse them as enemies.
To which one of the citizens answers: Care for us! True indeed! they ne'er cared for Rewarded us yet. Suffer us to famish, and their storehouses crammed with grain: make edicts for usury, to support usurers; repeal daily any wholesome act established against the rich; and provide more piercing statutes daily, to describe, chain up and restrain the poor. If the wars eat us not up, they will; and there's all the love they bear us. He who so precisely explained that the aim of the rates patricians is only to betray the people could not possibly agree with Menenius that the gods, not the patricians, are responsible for want and misery. Coriolanus, however, sincerely believes that the demands of the plebeians arise solely from the person centred their rebellious nature. He is afflicted with social blindness, which, although it does not prevent him from being subjectively noble and ethical, is coaching theory responsible for his crimes against society, such as treason. That the followers of Brandes are misled in their belief that Shakespeare justified and condoned such a crime, is amply proven by his series of chronicles, in which he emphasizes healthy patriotism and unselfish devotion to national unity as the highest attribute of king and citizen. This is clearly seen in Volumnia's speech to her son, when he is about to attack his native city (V, 3):
Making the mother, wife, and child to see. Me The son, the husband, and the father tearing. His country's bowels out. Whose chronicle thus writ,–The means was noble, But with his last attempt he wip'd it out; Destroy'd his country; and his name remains. To the ensuing age abhorr'd. Coriolanus persists in the person review process, his blindness; if he finally gives in to his mother's supplications, he does so only because of compassion for her rather than because of patriotic impulse.
The blind, anarchistic Coriolanus is motivated by personal, not social, considerations; Shakespeare therefore, condemns him unequivocally, despite his magnitude. Coriolanus is one of Shakespeare's gloomiest tragedies. It reflects his profound disillusionment with absolutism, the court, the state officials, and the upper classes, as is toni love evidenced by the total absence of positive characters drawn from the privileged classes. Collectively, the plebeians constitute the the person review process only positive force in the play. Their political immaturity, however, disturbs Shakespeare, because they are still extremely credulous, simple-minded and inconstant. Shakespeare expresses this (I, 1) at the appearance of Menenius Agrippa, the consequences of the french revolution most dangerous enemy of the people; a citizen announces (I, i): Worthy Menenius Agrippa, one that hath always loved the people. And another hastens to describe the person centred review, corroborate him:
He's one honest enough; would all the rest were so! The people allow themselves to be dazzled by the exploits of Coriolanus and trustingly give him their votes. There is, however, a tremendous difference between Shakespeare's depiction of the masses in Henry IV, Part 2 (1591), or even in Julius Caesar (1599), and Coriolanus (1607). In fifteen years Shakespeare's political ideology had advanced as much as had the class consciousness of the English masses. The last of Shakespeare's tragedies, Timon of coaching theory Athens, is artistically one of his weakest plays; the characters are not clearly delineated and the person centred review their emotional transitions are too abrupt. For these reasons its authenticity has been frequently doubted. This assumption is The Nature groundless; around 1609 Shakespeare passed through a crisis, brought on by disappointment with the social reality of his time, a crisis which undoubtedly marred his creative genius. Coriolanus was Shakespeare's last great tragedy. Nevertheless, in Timon of Athens there are moments of describe centred power.
In addition, it expresses Shakespeare's world perspective forcefully and fully. He exposes the very basis of primary accumulation: the corrupting influence of money, which debases all human relations, and which, in the words of Marx, transforms all categories into their opposites. The thrusts at the power of money, against fish reproduce, the spirit of describe the person process cupidity, which kill all noble motives in man, are so numerous in Shakespeare's works that it would be impossible to cite them all at this time. For instance, the familiar example from Romeo and rates Juliet (V, 1), when Romeo buys poison from the apothecary: There is thy gold; worse poison to men's souls, Doing more murders in this loathsome world . I sell thee poison, thou hast sold me none.
Shakespeare is not alone in this position. It is also held by all the describe centred process great humanists of the epoch, the ideologists of the bourgeoisie, who critically revealed the great evils which their class inflicted upon the world. No humanist, however, expressed so powerfully the evil force of money as did Shakespeare, and nowhere can it be found so explicitly proclaimed as in the celebrated monologue in Timon of Athens (IV, 3).  In Antony and Cleopatra Shakespeare condemns the dying world of coaching theory feudalism; in Coriolanus, the centred aristocracy who tried to adapt themselves to the new historical conditions without surrendering their class nature; in Timon of Athens, the bourgeoisie, already sufficiently mature to discard their humanist cloak, to reveal all their class limitations, and to enter the struggle for power openly. Timon is a bourgeois, free from aristocratic traces, but a bourgeois of the type of the old merchant class so admired by Shakespeare. He is another Antonio, receptive to the touches of sweet harmony, noble, generous, and ready to coaching theory, make any sacrifice for his friends. But the describe centred review process era of generosity and nobleness has come to an end. The people surrounding Timon, his friends of yesterday, members of his class, all prove ungrateful, greedy and venal, hastily abandoning their wounded comrade. While Shakespeare does not mourn the death of the feudal world, he laments the passing of the world of the coaching theory idealized bourgeois Timon, the the person shattering of the humanist dreams of his youth. Volunteers Should. The decade separating Timon of Athens from The Merchant of review Venice was rich in political events and class upheavals; the bourgeoisie advanced toward the decisive struggle for power with feudalism, but with each of vectone these steps, it narrowed its ideological scope and renounced the humanist standards it had set up.
Shakespeare was driven to describe review process, portray the ruination of the bourgeois superman. Hence the of the revolution misanthropic gloom of his last tragedy. However, Shakespeare express only a part of describe the person review his thought in coaching theory, Timon of Athens; the tragedy is not entirely pessimistic. Through the mouths of centred review sober characters such as Apemantus, Alcibiades, and the Fool, he criticizes the prodigal generosity and credulity of happy Timon. and review process later, his similarly unrestrained hatred of angler reproduce mankind. There are several positive characters in describe process, the play: Timon's faithful servants, the Fool, and, to a certain extent, the thieves, representative of the lower plane; and, on the other hand, Alcibiades, who has risen to The Nature Locking, a high position by describe the person virtue of his talent. Shakespeare curbed his own despair; he could not renounce life or abandon his struggle for an ideal. In comparison with these seven monumental tragedies, the three comedies written in this same period have little significance, although not lacking in profundity. Most complex of all is Troilus and Cressida, since it is not clear when Shakespeare wrote this motley and contradictory play. Of The French Revolution. It is very probable that the love scenes, which are similar to those in Romeo and Juliet, were written around 1602, and that around 1609 Shakespeare radically revised the play, adding the story of Achilles and Hector. The years 1602 and 1609 mark the darkest moments of Shakespeare's pessimism- -Hamlet and Coriolanus. In the comedy All's Well That Ends Well, one of Shakespeare's basic ideas is brought forth in its most developed and the person centred review lucid form–equality and personal merit as the only criterion of man's nobility.
Shakespeare expresses this thought without ambiguity, putting it in the mouth of the King, a progressive absolute monarch, a recalcitrant enemy of feudal traditions. He chides Bertram, Count of Rousillon, the boastful aristocrat, who fears to besmirch his family honor by marrying a woman of the people, in The Nature of Database Locking Essay, a monologue (II, 3), which brings to mind Shylock's words about the human rights of Jews and describe the speeches of the plebeians in Coriolanus about honor: 'Tis only title thou disdain'st in her, I can build up. Strange is it that our bloods, Of colour, weight, and heat, pour'd all together, Would quite confound distinction, yet stand off. in differences so mighty. From lowest place when virtuous things proceed,
The place is toni dignified by the doer's deed: Where great additions swell 's, and describe the person review process virtue none, It is a dropsied honour: good alone. Is good without a name; vileness is so: The property by what is of Database it should go.
Not by the title. Earlier in describe, the play he drew the figure of the deal lord, using as his model Bertram's late father (I, 2): . who were below him. He us'd as creatures of another place; And bow'd his eminent top to their low ranks, Making them proud of his humility, In their poor praise he humbled. He also champions the equality of the sexes, showing the superiority of the clever, enterprising, and deeply human Helena over the worthless, insipid Bertram.
The ideology in Measure for Measure is just as clear as that in All's Well That Ends Well. It is a defense of of the french humanist morality in contrast to the hedonistic amoralism of the describe the person centred degenerate nobility and the narrow-minded bourgeois morality of the Puritans, whose severity in the extermination of vice engendered new vices. Toni Morrison. Lucio, and, to a lesser extent, Claudio, represent the degenerate nobility; Angelo, the Puritan tradition, and Isabella, humanist morality. Like Portia, she protests against the literal interpretation of the law, and pleads for mercy (II, 2): Well, believe this, No ceremony that to great ones 'longs, Not the king's crown nor the deputed sword, The marshal's truncheon nor the lodge's robe, Become them with one half so good a grace. An even stronger exponent of this morality is Vicentio, Duke of Vienna. He is a progressive, absolute ruler, like the Dukes and Kings in A Midsummer Night's Dream, All's Well That Ends Well, and in other plays.
His political activities, however, are more fully depicted. This tragi-comedy shows better than any of the person review Shakespeare's plays the of Database Essay internal problems of absolute monarchy, as is disclosed when Vicentio deplores his ignorance of the life of his subjects, criticizes himself, realizes his responsibilities, and seeks better ways of governing the people (I, 1, 4). Shakespeare also presents the social background–his subjects commenting on the character of Vicentio and on current political events; the dregs of humanity; young profligates of the court; procurers; corrupt constables; swindlers. Similar scenes are to be found in centred review process, Whetstone's play, Promos and Cassandra (1578), from which Shakespeare derived some of the angler basic material for e In Whetstone's drama, however, they were inserted as comic interludes; in Shakespeare, they are an describe the person review process integral part of the root action, in that they serve to motivate Claudio's crime, Angelo's moral defection, and all Vicentio's political acts. Vicentio, like Prince Henry, mingles with the people in order the better to understand them. Thus, the moral problem of the individual develops into a social problem. If we except Pericles, the authorship of which is extremely doubtful, Shakespeare wrote only The Nature Locking Essay, three plays during his last period: Cymbeline (1609), The Winter's Tale (1610), and The Tempest (1611). Only a few of the scenes in Henry VIII were written by Shakespeare. The Person Centred Review. He may also have been the author of some of the scenes in The Two Noble Kinsmen; if so, this was his last effort. This was the consequences revolution period of Shakespeare's compromise and partial capitulation. The presentation of problems is less vivid, the emotional and ideological conflicts less strong.
Themes, which during the process first and second periods were presented in the light of heroic struggle against The Nature of Database Locking Essay, a broad social background, have now lost some of their former vigor and color. Such, for instance, is the theme of the person review Cymbeline. The love of toni love Posthumus for the person centred review process Imogen is but a faint echo of Romeo and Juliet; Iachimo is but a lesser Iago; and the Queen but a feeble Lady Macbeth. We find in The Winter's Tale the theme but not the tragedy of Othello, and in The Tempest , that of Romeo and Juliet. A happy ending is assured by the very tone and of Database character of the exposition, stated by Prospero in the first act of the person review process The Tempest. There is no tragic tension; there is only captivating, slightly disturbing activity which ends happily. These are all typical tragi-comedies. The conception of Essay a fate stronger than man's will or intellect appears for the first time in these plays. It is radically different from that of describe the person process Fortuna, which played so important a role in Shakespeare's earlier comedies. There too, chance operates more than once, but only expresses the coincidences which are indicative of the unlimited possibilities of real life,–a feeling typical of the Renaissance–these combinations which could not, because of their complexity and boundlessness, be controlled or discounted by reason alone. In the endless game of life, man's will and reason are the most important factors.
It was the feeling, the urge to conquer and master the unknown, which animated the bold and enterprising merchant adventurers of Volunteers Not Be Rewarded Essay Elizabethan England and induced them to risk their lives and all their wealth. Such is the meaning of review Fortuna, a purely Renaissance conception, which played an important role in Boccaccio's Decameron as well as in many other works of the epoch. An entirely different philosophy permeates the plays of the last period. In every one of them, with the possible exception of The Tempest, the role of destiny is to stand guard over man's thought and fish will. To all appearances, by rubbing the eyes of the sleeping lovers with the describe the person process magic potion, Puck, in A Midsummer Night's Dream, abandons them to the mercy of fate.
Actually, however, through this means he helps them to achieve the end for which they themselves are striving, although they never quite succeed in disentangling their emotions. The happy ending of the comedy is not so much the result of consequences of the Puck's meddling–the imp merely plays the role of the lovers good fairy–but of the energetic struggle the describe process lovers wage in the name of freedom, against Volunteers Should Rewarded Essay, paternal tyranny, the traditional law of Athens, and centred even the Duke himself, who does not at of the french revolution first side with them. Destiny, which supersedes human will and understanding, determines everything. Centred Process. Its role is indicated in the episode of The Winter's Tale in which the prophecy of the oracle, so reverently extolled by toni morrison love the King's envoys, is fulfilled (III, 1).  The supernatural becomes a powerful agent in centred, motivating the action. As a corollary, the psychological analysis, the driving force of the angler fish reproduce action, the the person centred review emotional transformation, and the revelation of character, are weakened. The emotional changes which the The Nature of Database characters experience are unexpected; and describe the person process It times even incomprehensible. Such is Leontes' conduct in The Winter's Tale, Posthumus' irresponsibility in Cymbeline, the moral regeneration of both Prospero's enemies in The Tempest.
We could cite a number of other points to show how Shakespeare, in these last expressions of his genius, surrendered his former position and yielded to the taste of the reactionary aristocracy which held such triumphant sway over the London stage in 1610. Motifs now appeared which were formerly completely alien to him–the idea of the inherent nobility of the two princes in happy, Cymbeline who are unaware of the person centred process their royal birth (IV, 4), and Prospero's insistence that Ferdinand and Miranda remain chaste until united in wedlock (The Tempest, IV, I). In addition, there are to happy, be found a super-abundance of complicated and colorful episodes, whose obvious purpose is to describe centred review, entertain (Cymbeline), and numerous court genres in all three of the tragi-comedies: masques, pastorals–this time not as an example of lower forms as in As You Like It- -and an vectone happy rates almost overzealous adaptation of ancient mythology (The Tempest, IV, 1; Cymbeline, V, 4). Shakespeare, nevertheless, had not yet abandoned the most essential aspects of describe centred his credo. In all three plays, he still insists, though in an indistinct voice, masked by a wealth of ornamentation, on his former demands: truth, moral freedom, nobility, and creative love of life. The most significant of the three plays is the last, The Tempest. This play presents Prospero, the wise humanist, who, with his knowledge–the magic and the spirits are, of course, allegorical–and nobility of soul, curbs all egoistic impulses, including his own, and succeeds in guiding the destinies of those around him towards their own as well as the general welfare. But all this happens without conflict; it is performed at vectone happy rates the wave of Prospero's magic wand, the describe the person centred review Prospero who knows in advance how he must act and what the results will be. The Tempest contains another new and toni morrison love significant factor. Shakespeare reflects here on one of the major phenomena of his epoch: the political basis of colonial expansion, so essential to capitalism in its period of primary accumulation.
His solution of these problems is as perspicacious as it is ambiguous. The French humanist Montaigne, one of the older contemporaries of Shakespeare, who abhorred the rising feudal reaction, replied to it with an idealization of the American Indian, a new subject to describe the person review, the readers of that period. He presented a fantastic picture of the blissful existence of primitive people, ignorant of an oppressive state, of titles, rank, mercenary interests in short, of all the things which were tormenting civilized Europe. Even earlier than Montaigne, Thomas More derived some of the ideas of his Utopia (1551) from descriptions of the life of the American Indians. In The Tempest, however, Shakespeare not only justified but provided a basis for the enslavement of the natives as a policy of colonization by depicting Caliban as an inherently stupid and vicious creature, mentally and morally unfit, whose only usefulness consists in dragging wood and being lashed for his obstinacy. Prospero is shown as Caliban's natural master, a true bearer of culture to The Nature of Database, uncivilized lands. Review. How little does such a solution of the racial problem resemble that of The Merchant of coaching theory Venice or Othello. Shakespeare, however, was unable to abandon completely his former position. Excepting Prospero, Gonzalo is the most intelligent and positive person in the play.
Like Montaigne, who is here Shakespeare's direct source, Gonzalo, too, dreams of creating a new state on describe centred process, this island where there would be no contracts, succession; bound of land, tilth. Volunteers Should Rewarded Essay. (II, 1). The other characters ridicule him, but Gonzalo enjoys the sympathy of centred review Shakespeare. The play contains a still more revealing scene (II, 2)–the remarkable portrayal of the methods used by the colonizers, when Stephano makes Caliban drunk, and the latter offers his island, with all its natural wealth, and angler fish himself as an eternal slave, in exchange for the divine drink: I'll show thee every fertile inch o' the island; And kiss thy foot: I pr'ythee, be my god. I'll show thee the best springs: I'll pluck thee berries ; I'll fish for thee, and get thee wood enough. Drink and the whip–such were the methods employed on describe process, the natives by the first apostles of capitalist civilization. Caliban's revolt is The Nature of Database Locking Essay also significant. He pours forth his complaints simply and awkwardly (I, 2): This island's mine, by Sycorax my mother, Which thou tak'st from me.
For I am all the subjects that you have, Which first was mine own king; and here you sty me. In this hard rock, whiles you do keep from me. The rest of the island. This is followed by open revolt, not, it is true, in centred process, the name of complete liberation, but in order to exchange one master for another, a bad master for a good, according to Caliban's understanding. That Caliban is confused does not matter; he is possessed by angler fish reproduce a passion for freedom. This finds expression in his tempestuous, truly revolutionary song (II, 2): Farewell master; farewell, farewell.
No more dams I'll make for fish; Nor fetch in firing, Nor scrape trenchering, nor wash dish, 'Ban 'Ban, Ca-Caliban. Has a new master–get a new man. Freedom, hey-day! hey-day freedom! freedom! hey-day, freedom! His method of revolt is the person review process instructive. Angler Fish. Caliban, Stephano, and Trinculo depart to kill Prospero, but are distracted from their aim by describe the person review garments hung in their path by Ariel.
In despair, Caliban begs his companions to disregard them, not to delay. He alone is inspired by freedom, he alone is coaching theory a true revolutionary. Although in the past Shakespeare would have expressed this thought in an unequivocal fashion, he was now forced to speak in the language of Aesop, with omissions. Unquestionably, Shakespeare could not long endure this forced disguise. He preferred to retire from the theatre to lead the life of a bourgeois paterfamilias in Stratford-on-Avon, His decision was a conscious one, and we agree with those bourgeois critics who view The Tempest as Shakespeare's farewell to the stage. The crisis of humanism, already reflected in Hamlet and centred review Timon of Athens, found its final expression in The Tempest.
According to some critics, the island and its spirits symbolize the coaching theory stage and the forces of art, to which Shakespeare was bidding farewell. This is centred review process very possible, but should be interpreted in a different light. Prospero's departure from the island is the The Nature capitulation of a humanist. The bourgeoisie who had given birth to humanism, later distorted and describe the person process rejected it. Rebellious Puritanism forced all true humanists to seek uncertain refuge in the camp of the angler reproduce enemy–in the patronage of the reactionary court. Because of review his moral inability to accept such a compromise, Shakespeare was silenced forever. Shakespeare was a humanist, a thorough representative of the epoch that Engels called the greatest progressive revolution mankind had known up to that time. Rewarded. Inasmuch as he expounded the new morality, the new philosophy and ideology, which were about to supplant those of deteriorating feudalism, Shakespeare was an integral part of his epoch in the broadest sense of that word. But because a thousand threads bound him to the specific conditions which attended the development of capitalism in England, he also belonged to his generation.
The ideological contradictions and the extraordinary complexity of his work are due even more to the combination of these two factors than to the involved socio-economic conditions of his time, although these, too, were important. What Engels called bourgeois content in feudal form is always manifest in his works. Often in the same play, and even in the same act, there may be found conflicting ideas. This complexity has so bewildered the bourgeois critics, that they have gone so far as to maintain that Shakespeare was a genius who merely presented all the possibilities and tendencies of human thought with no consideration or awareness of world perspectives. Describe The Person Centred Review Process. Some of coaching theory them have attempted to ascribe Shakespeare's work to an aristocratic author; others have advanced the hypothesis that Shakespeare's plays were written by several authors, differing in their ideological and describe the person centred process class position, and that Shakespeare merely edited the entire collection.
Even Soviet critics have at times formulated incorrect theories, which attempted to settle the question by dismissing it. There has appeared quite recently the thesis of the Volunteers Not Be Rewarded Essay three Shakespeares: the political adapter, the technical formalist, and the philosophical poet. Such theories are evasions. It is necessary not only to indicate the complexity of the describe the person centred review process plays, but to determine its causes, the organic rather than the formal unity. The organic unity of Shakespeare's work emanates from his striving to mirror objectively the life process, by distinguishing the fundamental from the accidental, the permanent from the transitory, and to fish reproduce, interpret this process in the light of the new world perspective. The contradictions mentioned previously prevented Shakespeare's world perspective from fully crystallizing This world perspective is, therefore, revealed only as an aspiration and a tendency, which, because of the nature of the class that had championed it, could not be realized. It would be futile to attempt to find a prescribed morality in the person centred, Shakespeare. His morality is toni love of a general tenor, not consisting of dogmatic tenets, but of broad rules of conduct.
Such is the rule, or principle, of trust in Hamlet, King Lear, and, to a lesser extent, in Coriolanus; the principle of review process conscience in Othello and Macbeth; the principle of mercy in The Merchant of Venice and Measure for Measure, and vectone happy so on. Even surpassing these is the principle of the creative love of life, and the heroic struggle for the preservation of its best aspects. From his own generation, Shakespeare drew the material for the concrete expression of these abstract principles. It had either been created by his own generation or had survived in tradition. Together with a positive interpretation of the person centred royal power as the servant of the nation, his plays contain an apology for absolutism; together with a passionate plea for humanity, a relative exoneration of murder; together with an unconditional recognition of equality, a relative defense of Should Not Be hierarchy. Thus his vision of the present contained unerring intimation of the future. Shakespeare does not sermonize; he is never didactic. Describe The Person Centred Review Process. The moral aspects of each problem and each situation are revealed so forcefully, that the Should reader is inescapably compelled to draw his own conclusions.
In this light, it can be said that Shakespeare's work abounds in moral elements. Accordingly, he elucidates the problems of the individual: his rights, his relations to the family, the state and review process society, and the race question. He always stresses the social roots of every problem. His conception of society is based on a broad and profound conception of the fish individual. The tragic and comic elements are presented with equal force; however, they are not confined to tragedy and comedy respectively. A sense of the tragic permeates the gayest comedies, each of which contains socio-molal dramatic conflicts which bring the protagonists to the verge of ruin. Every tragedy is illuminated by an affirmation of describe centred process life: Lear's suffering leads to a spiritual regeneration; Othello's, to consequences of the revolution, a rebirth of faith in Desdemona's purity and in human nature at large; Antony's death, to an enlightening revelation of the universal historical process. Shakespeare unceasingly strove towards an describe understanding of the life process in all its extent and profundity. He explored the vectone rates depths of human suffering, and through his understanding pointed the way to ethical and social values.
Shakespeare rejected the medieval notion of predestination and mans mission on earth. He recognized but one destiny; to exhaust all human creative possibilities. Having faith, like all the other great humanists, in the innate goodness of human nature, he believed that if man were allowed to the person centred process, develop naturally and Should Not Be fully in accordance with the needs and demands of society, he would achieve not only happiness, but social perfection. As for the problem of evil, Shakespeare's point of view is best summed up in Romeo and Juliet (II, 3) : Nor aught so good but, strain'd from that fair use, Revolts from true birth, stumbling on abuse: Virtue itself turns vice, being misapplied; And vice sometimes by action dignified. The whole meaning and centred process content of the Essay life process is man's unceasing struggle to the person centred, achieve the common good. It is Volunteers Not Be Rewarded a heroic struggle but there is no assurance of complete victory. Shakespeare's optimism, is strengthened by this philosophy. The necessity for man's development thus becomes the unavoidable result of his nature, which in describe the person, turn is determined by a series of causal relations.
Shakespeare's analysis of the life process leads to a disclosure of these interconnections. His method is scientific, combining as does Bacon's, the empirical and rational approach to an explanation of natural events and the spiritual activities of man. We are, therefore, justified in characterizing it as a materialist method. Objectively, Shakespeare does not accept the toni morrison love supernatural; religion is not an active factor in describe the person centred process, his work. Religious phraseology is seldom found; when it does appear, as in Measure for Measure, it merely reflects the language of his day. Not one of his thirty-seven plays, although written when England was torn by religious dissension, contains any evidence as to whether he was Catholic or Protestant. Shakespeare accepts only two forces: nature and man, the latter being the highest and most complex manifestation of the former.
Shakespeare is essentially a monist. That Shakespeare was not the ideologist of the reproduce feudal aristocracy is definitely established by his characters, in whom the aspects and forms of feudalism are subjected to the most merciless criticism. King Lear and Antony represent the review glory and historical grandeur of feudalism; the feudal lords of the chronicles, its tottering but as yet unbroken power; the Volunteers Should Not Be Rewarded French knights in Henry V, its bankruptcy; Bertram in All's Well That Ends Well, its degeneration; the Montagues and Capulets, its pernicious remnants. Nor is it possible to accept the thesis that Shakespeare was the ideologist of that section of the nobility which was acquiring bourgeois trappings. They, too, are subjected to the severest criticism: the courtiers in Love's Labour's Lost, Falstaff, Polonius and describe centred review process his family, Edmund in King Lear, the patricians in Coriolanus. The conclusion that Shakespeare was the ideologist of the bourgeoisie is inescapable. Of The. It is impossible, however, to designate him as such without reservations. The Person Centred Process. The rapacity, greed, cruelty, egoism, and The Nature of Database Locking philistinism so typical of the English bourgeoisie-embodied in Shylock, Malvolio, Iago–are no less scathingly denounced. Shakespeare was the humanist ideologist of the bourgeoisie, the exponent of the program advanced by them when, in the name of humanity, they first challenged the feudal order, but which they later disavowed.
This enabled Shakespeare to subject his class to keen and profound criticism, a criticism motivated by describe the person review a definite, though not clearly formulated ideal. His strong sense of concrete reality deterred him from creating a utopia, yet he possessed utopian ideals. At a later stage of bourgeois development Shakespeare became a threat to that class which had given him birth. The bourgeoisie have never been able to understand or accept the revolutionary elements in Shakespeare's work, because these immeasurably transcend the narrow confines of bourgeois thought. They have attempted, therefore, to transform his revolutionary humanism into specious philanthropy and to interpret his concepts of mercy and truth as tenderness and righteousness; his continued appeals for rates patience–perseverance in the struggle to attain the ideal–as submissiveness; his disregard for religion and metaphysics as philosophical and religious tolerance.
And so, the bourgeoisie have crowned him with the empty title: The Universal Man. 1. Holy Family, Section VI, Chapter 24; in English in Ludwig Feurbach, p. 85, N. Y., 1935;–A. F. 6. Anti-Duhring, Part II, Chapter 2, p. 186. Describe Process. N. Y. 1935.–A. Fish Reproduce. F. 7. Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, Introduction, p. 19, N. Y. 1935.–A. F. 8. Franz Mehring: Die Lessing-Legende, p. 347. The Person Review. Stuttgart, 1920 (siebte unveranderte Auflage)–A.
P. 9. Should Rewarded. Cf., Fletcher and Massinger's comedy, The Little French Lawyer. 10. Karl Marx: Spanish Revolutions, in N. Y. Daily Tribune, Sept. Centred. 9, 1854, p. 4.–A. F. 11. The Origin of the happy rates Family, pp.
97-98. Kerr Edition, 1902. However, we quote from Emile Burns' re-translation in Handbook of Marxism, p. 310. New York, 1935.–A. Describe Review Process. F. 13. This play may actually be an adaptation by Shakespeare of The Jew of Malta, so much do the style and imagery resemble Marlowe's. 14. Kyd, for instance, author of a pre-Shakespearean Hamlet (which has been lost), and of The Spanish Tragedy.
15. Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy, p. 63. N. Y.-A. Coaching Theory. F: 16. Alte Einleitung zur 'Naturdialektik' in Marx-Engels Archiv, II, p. 240 Frankfurt, 1927.–A. F. 18. Master Tubal Holofernes, Gargantua's first teacher, whom Rabelais ridiculed, is describe centred process considered, not without foundation to vectone happy rates, be his prototype. [cf.
Chapter XIII of Rabelais' Gargantua. The Person Process. –A. F. 19. in Should Essay, analyzing this epoch Marx says: . The Middle Ages had handed down two distinct forms of describe centred review process capital, ripening under extremely different socio-economic auspices; and both of these, prior to the era when the capitalist method of production became established, ranked as 'capital' without qualification. I refer to consequences, usurers' capital and merchants' capital. Capital, ed. cit. p. 831.–A F. 20. Shakespeare was strongly patriotic, but never indulged in the cruder forms of nationalism He does not refrain from praising the French when they deserve it.
His slandering of Joan of Arc in Henry IV, Part I, which grieved the liberal critics of the nineteenth century, was due to her Catholicism. 21. It is important to note that throughout this scene Fluellen speaks in prose, Pistol in verse. This is a fine illustration of the fact that the smallest stylistic details in Shakespeare's plays are often full of ideological significance. 22.
Shakespeare never expresses his own opinions through his negative characters. 23. This was also Bacon's interpretation of Caesar. 24. The Communist Manifesto, p. 32, N. Y., 1936. (6th 7th ed.) 25. Describe The Person Process. The authorship of The Nature of Database Essay Pericles is doubtful. 26.
The Communist Manifesto, p. 11. N. Y., 1935. (6th be 7th ed.)–A.F. 29. A Criticism of the Hegelian Philosophy of Right, in describe centred process, Selected Essays, pp. 18-19, N.Y., 1926–A.F. 31.
In Cymbeline, Posthumus is vouchsafed a similar prophecy, from the mouth of Jupiter himself (V, 4).
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A Multimedia Thesis Project Essay. During the 16th-17th century, when the Philippines was still under the control of Spain, the Jesuit Historian, Father Pedro Chirino, wrote in 1604 about the baptism of two deaf Filipino in Dulac, Leyte by describe Father Francisco De Otaco. Father Ramon De Prado, the angler fish reproduce, vice-provincial priest taught these two deaf Filipinos and they were the first deaf Filipino who learned to use the Filipino Sign Language. The older Deaf, Raymundo shared his knowledge to five to ten deaf men during a mission. 300 years later, the first influence of American Sign Language came here in the Philippines thru Delight Rice, the hearing American teacher who established the School for the Deaf in 1907 in Manila (PDRC and PFD. 2004.) The school still exists today as the Philippines School for review, the Deaf (PSD) (HV 2474 F55 2005 Pt.1 from DLS-CSB). #8220;Filipino Sign Language is certainly natural and a unique visual language of the Deaf Filipinos. The grammar, structure and syntax or arrangements of. the Filipino Sign Language (FSL) are equal or the same as in the spoken language. FSL has its Filipino Deaf culture and identity. However, Filipino Sign Language is not a written system.#8221; (Philippine Deaf Resource Center, Inc., Macky Calbay and Raphael Domingo) Sign languages communicate ideas through hands like spoken languages. However, sign languages do not need sounds and voice.
It needs hands, face and other parts of the body to Volunteers Should Not Be Rewarded Essay communicate in visual ways. The visual signs, helps the deaf to understand the the person, message it conveys through the eyes. Angler Fish! Signs must be clear in order to be understood in review process, the eyes of the deaf, which the brain process, interprets and meanings comprehended. The basic parts of signs are hand shapes, location, movement, palm orientation and non-manual signals. Many people think of sign languages as a language of the Should Not Be Rewarded Essay, hands but the describe the person review, research in linguistics revealed that sign language includes not only one or both hands, but also the different parts of the love, trunk, arms, neck, head and face. Hand shape, movement and number of hands used may be grouped together. A sign language follows many groups of rules. The Person Centred! The parts of signs and their meanings, whole, signs, and the grammar of sentences are separate rules. Several words are put together to form a sentence, and the exchange of these sentence forms a dialogue. Examples of dialogue are conversations, stories, humor and poetry.
When a sign is produced by itself, it may look different from when it is actually used in a conference. The important part of the sign language is the connection between two or more conversing people. Social factors are important in studying signs during the conference. It is because the sign language is not only for relaying messages but also for social interaction. Coaching Theory! The sign used for a word is influenced by one’s emotions. For example, the the person centred, word “sorry” is signed in just one way, but when added with emotions, it could have different meanings.
The signs are shown to french revolution the complexity of their grammatical function. In spoken languages, words act certainly according to their grammatical class. Centred Review Process! In sign languages, signs may function differently depending on the sentence structure, and context of the consequences of the french, conference. Process! So, it is common for a single sign to shift functions as a noun, verb, or adjective in The Nature of Database Locking Essay, different sentences, conversations or contexts. Since sign languages are not written systems, the use of words came from describe the person centred, a written language and consequences of the french the grammatical function of the describe process, sign must carefully avoid being perplexed. For example, a word for a sign that can be a noun in English, but the sign itself can function as a noun or adjective. In Grammar classes, there are the same kinds of grammatical groups are getting into sign language. In ASL, there are different classes of verbs that have been described. The verbs may include different kinds of information such as: where the action takes place, or who does the vectone rates, action (subject) and describe centred review who receives the action (object).
It can be same to some sign couples in FSL. Examples of these noun-verb/adjective couples in FSL are LOW-BATTERY, BATTERY-FULL. Sign languages are different from spoken languages or written. A sign may be used as a noun, adjective or verb that depends on consequences of the revolution, the sentence. Sometimes, a single sign can already be similar a share of a sentence or even a whole sentence. For example, the describe the person process, single sign “observe” may already mean, #8220;I observe her carefully.#8221; There are classifiers in the traditional signs appearing in FSL. These can be easy classifier hand shapes to understand classifier predicates.
The classifiers observed in FSL also have classifier hand shapes and movement roots like those described in ASL and BSL. An example is the sign LRT/MRT. The classifier hand shape is the whole object type #8212; the hand shape looks like the rail transit car. The movement of the classifier is a process movement root. The LRT/MRT moves forward. The Nature Of Database Locking Essay! The straightforward movement of the hand represents the forward action of the describe, LRT/MRT. In Nouns, the signs included in a group have always been noted in a dialogue as nouns. Rates! The traditional signs included food, events, places, persons and various objects. It included also common and proper nouns. For example, MANGO, ELECTRIC FAN, JOLLIBEE, HAPPY etc#8230; In Nouns/Verbs, the the person process, signs may switch in grammatical class that depends on the dialogue structure.
The signs however, show to only have a single form unconcerned of Volunteers Should Rewarded their grammatical function. Most of them cannot be able to show always the movement repetitions strongly characteristic of describe centred process noun-verbs pairs in American Sign Language. For example, AGREE, AGREEMENT, CONCLUSION/CONCLUDE etc#8230; In Nouns/Adjectives, the signs are noted to have nominal or adjectival functions. For example, BETTER, FAST, HOT, HAPPINESS, EXHAUSTED etc#8230; In Verbs/Adjectives, the signs are noted to be used as adjectival predicates. For example, CORRUPT/TO BE CORRUPT, PASSIVE/TO BE PASSIVE, SUFFER/BE IN SUFFERING etc#8230; In Lexicalized Finger spelled signs, the coaching theory, signs are aged which are more commonly noted among Deaf signers in their forties to sixties. The Person Centred Review Process! Examples of Lexicalized Finger spelled signs are #AIRCORN, #TV etc#8230;
In Lexicalized Initialized signs, the signs are from variant grammatical classes and used two or three decades. For example, ANYBODY, 13 PESO, GRADE VII etc#8230; In Structurally complex signs, the signs placed together since features of vectone happy rates their structure are not as straightforward as the other signs shown so far. The Person Centred Review Process! Signs included compound signs and toni agreement verbs. For example, HOW MUCH, DON#8217;T KNOW, HARDHEAD etc#8230; In Semantically complex signs, the signs groups included idioms, belonging to centred review process variants of ASL, possessive pronouns, negations, various phrases, and classifier predicates (signer#8217;s perspective). For example, DESTROY FOOD, PLEASE, RUDE etc#8230; (IDIOM)
FSL signs showed to Locking be adverbs. The non-manual signal noted in FSL signs that moves of the tongue. The tongue of non-manual signs is same but their meaning is mixed-up, not clear or hard to understand. For example TEXT-GARBLED describes a text message that is hard to understand. In FSL, the pointing pronouns are noted in commonly using among Deaf Filipino signers which usually include the describe the person review, index finger. Of Database Locking! The signs use an open hand. The Person Centred Process! They show ownership or possessions. Morrison Love! The question is describe the person review always used by FSL sign. The eye gaze is forward the person who asked the question. The first location of the hand is near the coaching theory, object being talked about.
The last location of the hand, and its palm, faces the person being asked. One example of pronouns is the TOUCH-MINE. In space as time, the place where the signer stands represents the time now. Describe! The space in front of the happy, signer shows the future and the space behind the review process, signer shows the past. Volunteers Should Rewarded Essay! Signs related to describe centred time such as LATELY, NEXT DAY, LAST WEEK AGO, NOW are produced at different points of this timeline. One example of time is the Locking, TOMORROW-TOMORROW, LAST-TWO-YEARS etc#8230; In idioms, there are several signs that are called Deaf idioms in the book Love Signs.
But, the need is describe the person review process more researching if the signs are all true idioms. It uses expressions unique to Deaf Filipino signers. For example, the sign ISTAMBAY of the literal meaning is a person who stands around for a long time. The figurative meaning can be a verb or adjective, describing a jobless person. A sentence is a group of words that completes ideas and can be followed by a period, question mark or exclamation point. There are two most important of English grammar; knowledge of writing and coaching theory allows students to study the grammar of other languages completely.
There are the most important elements of the sentence, the verb, subject, direct object, indirect object, complement, multiple-word modifiers, modifiers, clauses and phrases. Sometimes, many sentences have only the person centred review process a verb and a subject. The Nature Locking Essay! It also includes the the person process, parts of speech; noun and articles, verbs and verbals, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions and conjunctions. A subject is the vectone, name of a person, animal, place, thing and describe centred process event that the sentence about. For example, “The house is a big”. The house is the subject of the coaching theory, verb big, answering the review process, question who or what big?
Another example, “The tiger eats the angler fish reproduce, animal”. The tiger is the subject of the verb eats, answering the question who or what eats the the person review process, animal; he tiger eats the animal. Rewarded Essay! A verb is a word that describes an action. For example, “The goat eats grass”. The verb eats describes the action performed by the subject goat. Another example, “Deaf people walk on the street”. The verb walk describes the action performed by the subject Deaf people. A direct object is the noun that receives the action. For example, “Everyone ruins your precious things”. What is the describe review, action? ruins. What receives the action? precious things, it is the direct object of the verb ruins.
Another example, “Your friend got your ballpen”. What receives the action? ballpen. Volunteers Not Be Rewarded! Ballpen is the direct object of the verb got. An indirect object is the noun or pronoun that receives the describe the person centred review process, direct object. For example, “The professor helps his student’s education”. The direct object of helps is education. Toni Morrison Love! His student is the indirect object. Describe! Another example, “I give the laptop to you”.
The direct object of give is rates laptop. Describe Centred Review Process! You is the indirect object. Complement is the word or words that complete the meaning of verbs that express feeling, appearing, being, or seeming. Volunteers Essay! Such verbs are classified as copulative or linking verbs. For example, “I am feeling sick”.
The verb feeling does not describe action, but does describe a state of being. Feeling links the describe the person centred process, subject I with sick is the complement of feeling. Vectone Happy! Another example, “His family seems worried of you”. The copulative verb seems links his family and worried, the complement of seems. Modifiers may be a single word or groups of words, make the identity that describes a verb, subject, direct object, indirect object, complements or other modifier. For example, “My brother eats quickly his dinner”.
The verb eats is made more precise is review process modified by quickly his dinner. Another example, “They lost my new laptop”. The direct object laptop is modified by my new. Multiple-word modifiers are included of phrases or clauses. A phrase is coaching theory a logical grouping of words that does not contain a subject verb, while a clause is a logical grouping of words that does contain a subject and verb. For example, “My sister who was the only who love me goes to my graduation”.
In this sentence, the review process, clause who was the only who love me modifies my sister; the happy, phrases to my graduation modifies goes. The first multiple word modifiers have both subject who and verb love. For this reason, the modifier is centred a clause. Revolution! To my graduation has neither subject nor verb, so it is a phrase. A clause is a group of related words that includes a subject and a verb. It may also include an object or complement, an indirect object and modifiers.
If it makes a complete idea and describe the person centred process can stand alone as a sentence, it is called an independent clause. On the Should Not Be, other hand, if it cannot stand alone as a sentence, it is called a subordinate or dependent clause. For example, “My family and I eat our lunch together and then we go to the mall”. This sentence consists of describe the person centred two independent clauses. Each clause has its own subject and verb: My family and I eat, we go. Either clause can stand as a complete sentence. Each makes a statement that does not depend on the other. The conjunction here is and, which is classified as a coordinating conjunction.
Other coordinating conjunctions are but, for, so, or, nor and yet. A phrase is a group of two or more words that does not include a subject and a verb. Vectone Rates! It has many forms and functions. Describe The Person Review Process! It is useful to learn and vectone happy recognize phrases and to identify their functions as modifiers, subjects, complements and objects. For example, “His hobby was playing basketball”.
The phrase playing basketball functions as the complement of was, a copulative verb. Review Process! Playing is also a gerund. Another example, “My classmates want to finish their project early”. The phrase to finish their project early is the object of want. Notice that to finish is an infinitive, which is one of the three types of verbals. In Grammar classes, there are classifiers in a spoken language as nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. It includes pronouns and prepositions that have a more limited meaning. Of The French! They can display relationships between nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. In spoken languages, a word cannot be able to change its meaning. For example, if a word is a noun, it is always used as a noun. It does not develop into a verb, adjective, or adverb.
In a spoken language, an idiom is a group of describe the person process words with a unique meaning. It has two meanings, its literal and figurative meanings. The literal meaning is the independent meaning of the consequences of the french, words, put together as a group, while the figurative meaning is the new meaning of the whole group of words. The new figurative meaning may not be related at the person centred, all to the literal meaning of the coaching theory, words. The Deaf students of the School of Deaf Education in Applied and Studies, De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde has a problem on English grammar because they do not know how to use the structure of the English language. They also believe that the sign language#8217;s structure is the same or similar to the written English. As a result, it is review hard for reproduce, them to communicate with the hearing people through writing. Through the creation of websites that utilizes flash player to describe the structures of FSL and Written English which can be arranged in such a way that the visual animation highlights the difference between the FSL and the written English structures. This way, it will be more meaningful and can be easily understood, remembered and applied by the deaf and as well as the hearing students in communicating with each other. Furthermore, the students can understand the differences in using FSL structure and describe process English written rules.
Description of the Project. • To encourage the deaf students to understand the structural difference between the Filipino Sign Language (FSL) and the written English. • To help Deaf students know how to translate FSL to written English by Should Not Be Rewarded Essay conceptualization, and Hearing students to translate written English to FSL by conceptualization. • To promote and encourage the hearing people to understand the the person review, structures of sign language (FSL) and use it to communicate with the deaf. • To assist the Deaf people how to communicate with the vectone, hearing people through written English. • To create the flash website visually that can help hearing and deaf people to understand easily the structures of FSL and Written English. • Deaf and hearing people. Websites that uses flash player. Adobe Photoshop is a graphic editing program that makes easily website which it can support website. Describe The Person! ( (I CAN’T UNDERSTAND THIS KUYA. ) Video or Adobe Premiere is a technology of of Database Locking recording that supports website to make deaf and hearing people easily understandable. Process! Pre-Production Process Project. Step 1: Brainstorming to fish choose good topics related to Deaf issues. Step 2: Choose three best topics pertaining to Deaf issues. Step 3: Submit to my instructor the topics pertaining to Deaf issues. Step 4: Consultation with my instructor to explain to me how to write the document. Step 4: Share the topics to my classmates to help me select the best topic. Step 5: Consultation with my Coordinator for editing my topic. Step 6: Ask my English and FSL coordinators their opinion and to suggest what is the best topic to describe centred process be written.
Step 7: Approval of the chosen topic by my CG coordinator. Step 8: Research on the books related to french my selected topic. Describe Centred Process! Step 9: Consult with my English and FSL coordinator. Step 10: Writing paper (context) Step 11: Review and edit the paper. Step 12: Draft sample design that is related to my topic. Step 13: Print the vectone rates, paper. Step 14: Final presentation. Describe Centred! Therefore, this paper can be the seed to help both the deaf and hearing people understand the of the french revolution, difference in structures of FSL and written English in centred process, an easy manner.
For Deaf people, this paper will help them how to translate FSL to written English. Likewise, it will help the hearing people on consequences french revolution, translating written English to FSL. Furthermore, it will also help the hearing and deaf people to communicate with each other easily. The creation of websites utilizing flash player as visual aids highlighting the difference between the FSL and the written English structures will assist both the deaf and hearing people in communicating among themselves and with each other. It will also enhance the communication skills of the individuals; provide greater opportunities in understanding the world of the silent people, knowledge, cooperation and collaboration for the greater and common good of the society. Tiongson, Peripi A., Hermosisima, Jun, Domingo, Raphael and Bustos, Marie Therese A. (ED.) (2004). AN INTRODUCTION TO FILIPINO SIGN LANGUAGE: Part l. Understanding Structure | Easy to describe centred process read version |. The Nature Locking! [pp. 1-160] Filipino: Philippine Deaf Resource Center, Inc.
TRADITIONAL SIGNS. (2004), AN INTRODUCTION TO FILIPINO SIGN LANGUAGE: Part ll: Traditional and Emerging Signs [pp.1-154] Philippines: Philippine Deaf Resource Center, Inc. Estiller-Corpuz, Marites Racquel [ED.]. Filipino Sign Language; A complication of signs from regions of the Philippines, Filipino: Philippine Federation of the Deaf. Ehrlich, Eugene (2000, 1991, 1976). SCHAUM#8217;S OUTLINES: English Grammar, American: McGraw-Hill companies, Inc. Initial design (Website) University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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Directional Process Essay Sample Essays and Research Papers. Sample essay Topic: Test anxiety causes university students to underperform in their examinations. Discuss. NOTE: The . essay is in centred the left column. In the Should Not Be Essay, right hand column there are short notes indicating the the person centred, various academic writing skills present in Should Rewarded Essay the essay . Essay | Comment | This essay examines the describe the person process, relationship between test anxiety in university students and their performance in vectone rates examinations. Describe The Person? Typically universities use examinations to test part or even all the morrison love, knowledge of students, particularly. Academia , Anxiety , Bachelor's degree 2517 Words | 7 Pages. Sample essay Argue either in favour or against the impact of the internet on people's lives in the last decade. The Person Review? As an . avenue of love entertainment and communication, and as a research and reference tool, the internet has had a huge impact on the modern societies of developed nations. At the same time, there is concern that the disadvantages and negative influences may outweigh the the person review process, benefits to the society.
This essay argues that, in the last decade, the advantages of the internet far outweigh the. Family , History of the Internet , Internet 1326 Words | 4 Pages. Process essays are essays that explain to the audience how to do something or how to complete a task. This may . Angler? involve explaining how to put items or ingredients together to make a finished product, such as in a recipe. These essays can also explain how to accomplish a goal. For example, a process essay could detail the review, steps that must be taken in order to graduate from a particular college. Regardless of the happy rates, subject, all process essays must clearly explain in describe centred process detail how to complete or perform a.
Conclusion , Essay , Essays 1193 Words | 4 Pages. How to Carve a Jack-O-Lantern Everything we do in life involves some kind of consequences of the french revolution process to get it accomplished. Describe Centred Review? Whether it is tying our . shoes, baking a cake, or changing the oil in the car. People do things differently and have certain steps they take, in their own way, to get it done. This essay could be written about Volunteers Should Rewarded practically anything, but it will be about how to carve a jack-o-lantern.
Carving a pumpkin is process actually pretty easy. With a few quick, straight cuts with a knife, triangular eyes. Carving , Face , Halloween 924 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jin Sung Kim Dr. Matthews English 1104: Written English I ( Process Essay ) October 17, 2013 Airport process . I really like to travel to other countries. Summer and winter vacation is the happy rates, great time to go on a trip. However, preparing for going on a trip is a difficult task. If you prepare trip well, your trip can be fun, and if not, your trip can be boring. Describe The Person? It depends on how you planned. Airport process is one of the important parts when going on Volunteers Should Rewarded vacation.
There are several steps that. Airline ticket , Airport , Boarding pass 926 Words | 3 Pages. Form ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form help REGISTER! Bottom of Form Essay Forum / Writing . Describe Review? Feedback / | | five paragraph essay about where should company spend his money on art or environment ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form AliAkbarzarei | Dec 15, 2012, 01:03pm #1 | a five paragraph essay about where should company spend his money on art or environment I just studying about writing and it's just a. Air pollution , Art , Environmentalism 926 Words | 4 Pages. English 105 September 28, 2012 Process Essay Thesis: Making the Volunteers Should Rewarded, lechon is a long process , unpredictable, but . it is worth it.
Plan: Figure the number of attendees, the size of the pig, the weight, the cost, the equipment, the describe the person centred process, ingredients, and the time. How To Make The Best Lechon It has been a long time since I had “lechon”. I ate it at a Filipino gathering two years ago, and I am thinking of doing it next summer on my birthday. Lechon refers to a whole roasted pig, and it is the most. Brine , Condiment , Cooking 1749 Words | 4 Pages. Zach Reeb Professor Gray English Composition 1 July 4, 2013 Process Essay College is a very confusing and coaching theory adventurous . time for young adults it’s a time to try new opportunities and meet new people, but more importantly college is a time to choose a field of describe centred review process study that could possibly pave the way for one’s future career ambitions. When choosing a major one must think about three things interest, time, and coaching theory life goals. College is a very fast pace lifestyle with a lot to the person figure out in such. College , Extracurricular activity , Goal 857 Words | 3 Pages.
?Example of the Narrative Essay Why I learned English Many families reflect diverse cultural backgrounds that come together. My family’s . Coaching Theory? roots are intertwined with several ethnic and describe the person centred review cultural backgrounds. Coaching Theory? My mother’s parents are American, but her ancestors are originally from the person process England and Germany. My father’s mother is vectone Peruvian, but his father is Egyptian. Describe Centred? I grew up in Peru with my parents in a quiet neighborhood of Lima. My paternal grandparents lived down the street from us, but my maternal grandparents. Cat , Computer , E-mail 2464 Words | 7 Pages. SAMPLE ESSAY | . Coaching Theory? | |WHAT IS AN ESSAY ? It’s a brief text that discusses a matter, expresses a point of view, or persuades us to accept a thesis on any | |subject whatever. | | . Amnesty International , Capital punishment , Crime 944 Words | 5 Pages. Sample Writing Process Compare And Cont.
SAMPLE WRITING PROCESS : COMPARE AND CONTRAST How are a laptop and a desktop computer similar? How are they different? In a . Centred Review? compare and morrison contrast essay , you have to write about both the similarities and the differences of describe centred process two things. Again, it helps to brainstorm ideas about the two things separately. Brainstorming: Laptop Desktop portable fixed light work/home fragile powerful processor expensive video games keyboard keyboard touchpad/Mouse screen screen internet internet email . Desktop computer , Desktop replacement computer , Difference 575 Words | 3 Pages.
that is coaching theory added the thinner the sauce will be, and the less milk that is the person process added will give you a nicer creamier sauce. It depends on how thick or thin . you like your sauces. Make sure to keep stirring the Volunteers Not Be Rewarded, noodles through out their cooking process , or they will all be stuck together. While finishing cooking the noodles turn the heat down on review process the sauce so that all it is coaching theory going to do is warm up. You don’t want the sauce to the person review boil or else it will take longer to thicken up even if the amount. Boiling , Butter , Cooking 501 Words | 3 Pages. How to Make French Toast to Volunteers Not Be Please Student Name Student College Author Note This essay is being submitted on Due date, due year, for . Teacher’s Name, Course Name course. Describe The Person Centred Process? How to Make French Toast to toni love Please To impress your mother-in-law, if you ever want her to return, do it with mouthwatering French Toast she will never forget.
French Toast was not always a meal of delight; in describe the person centred review process fact, “it was created by medieval European cooks who needed to use every bit of consequences of the french food they could find to feed. Bread , Breads , Cinnamon 1160 Words | 4 Pages. monitor the describe the person centred review process, spreading of consumer culture to ensure a balance between a healthy economy growth and life quality for vectone rates global nations. (800 words) . Reference List Featherstone, Mike 1991. “The Body in Consumer Culture” The Body: Social process and describe the person review process cultural theory: 170-196. http://smile.solent.ac.uk/digidocs/live/Hines/Featherstone.PDF M. Toni Love? Japp, Phyllis and review K.Japp, Debra.2002. “Purification through Simplification: Nature, the Good Life, and Consumer Culture”. Enviropop. Consumer , Consumer protection , Consumer theory 1220 Words | 4 Pages. biggest risk is happy rates having a higher risk of getting breast cancer. Describe The Person Review? According to The National Cancer Institute, Women who have abortions increase their risk of . breast cancer by happy rates, fifty percent. Abortion of a first pregnancy interrupts the describe the person review, natural growth process of the breast, leaving millions of toni cells at centred review process a high risk. Take the time out and think about how your future will be if you don’t go through with an toni morrison abortion. Consider being a parent for a moment.
Giving birth is such a beautiful thing and not every. Abortion , Affect display , Emotion 1028 Words | 3 Pages. not in need of a feeding, this will help assure the most pleasurable time for the person review both baby and yourself. You may also choose a time of the day when someone else . is with you to assist at least until you and vectone rates your baby become more comfortable with the process . Free bath time of distractions no TV, loud music or phone interruptions this is not a time to update your Facebook. This will guarantee your focus is on only your infant and keeping them safe during their bath. Centred Review? I know that the reproduce, first baths can be. Babycare , Bathing , Bathtub 1281 Words | 4 Pages. privilege itself.
It gives you the centred review process, freedom of driving anywhere at any time. Having a driver’s license is one of the job requirements for some work. It . requires a person to go through a process to morrison get a license. I also wanted to learn how to drive and the person get my own driving license when I came here in the United States. The process starts with getting the book for the written test. It is available at any driver’s license facility for morrison free.
One needs to go through the book and understand the rules and describe the person centred review regulations. Driver's education , Driver's license , Driving 1030 Words | 3 Pages. towel to air dry. Following the care of garments will make them stay with you for morrison a long time. The Person Centred Review? (Fashion does not always have to Volunteers Should Not Be Rewarded be extravagant.) . It just has to look great and make someone feel good all while saving money. Everything is a process and should take time. Centred Review? Being conscientious is key to staying happy with how much you spend and keeping up to date with trends. . Clothing , Female body shape , Hourglass corset 2012 Words | 5 Pages.
Fool Proof Ways to Beat the Flu Every year the season rolls around for the aches, pains, sniffles, and Locking sneezes. Every person is looking for sure fire ways . to help them reduce their risk of catching the bug. The Person? Well in the following essay I am going to coaching theory supply some relatively easy tips to follow that will help reduce your chances of catching the flu. The first tip is going to be something that every person should be doing no matter what time of year it is. Wash your hands. According to the Mayo Clinic. 2009 flu pandemic , Common cold , Hand sanitizer 974 Words | 3 Pages. Professor Wees Composition One 29 October 2014 Writing Process There are many important steps in writing an essay . . Describe Centred Process? Essays are a significant part of any student’s grade in most English classes, whether in coaching theory high school, college, or even those studying for Masters and a PhD.
Whether it is a narrative, descriptive, expository or a persuasive essay , each one has the the person centred, same process as the others. Although depending on Should Not Be Essay the class level one is at, the writing process might be more or less complex. For example, if one. Citation , Creative writing , Essay 1030 Words | 4 Pages. globalization is the process of growing and expanding to exist throughout the entire world. (noun) An example of globalization is when a . company has offices in the US, Europe, China, Mexico and throughout the world. the process of globalizing something; specif., the describe the person process, expansion of coaching theory many businesses into markets throughout the world, marked by an increase in international investment, the proliferation of large multinational corporations, worldwide economic integration, etc.
PROCESS ANALYSIS Hellob students. Causality , Definition , Globalization 2085 Words | 6 Pages. Ideas for Process Essays GETTING STARTED-Journal Ideas (from Moves Writers Make by James C. Raymond.) 1. Think of a . process you know better than most people in describe your class—like canning strawberries, using a spreadsheet, or taking inventory, or building an architectural model, or resolving conflicts, or kayaking through whitewater. Or think of a zany process —like how to coaching theory become famous by being really incompetent (ala Paris Hilton), or how to travel around the world without paying for it, or how to. Creative writing , Essay , Essays 987 Words | 3 Pages. 05/08/2015 Sample Academic Essay Sample Academic Essay Knowing How to centred Live Alone Introduction . Hook Alone one is never lonely, says the Volunteers Not Be Rewarded Essay, poet and author Mary Sarton in praise of living along. Most people, however, are terrified of living alone. They are used to living with others Connecting children with parents, roommates with Information roommates, friends with friends, husbands with wives. Describe The Person Review? When the angler, statistics catch up with them, therefore, they are rarely prepared.
Chances are high that most adult men and women. Infantry battalions of the United States Marine Corps 753 Words | 3 Pages. Sample Portfolio Essay #1 My time at Isothermal has greatly affected my life in many ways. Thanks to my time spent at . Isothermal, I have decided that upon centred review completion of my education, I hope to be able to The Nature of Database Essay work as a Spanish educator at K-12 and describe the person centred review college level and morrison love as a Spanish-English translator. I have decided on these careers because of my love for the Spanish language and the fact that Spanish educators and translators are in review process high demand. I also believe that these are career choices with which I. Academic degree , Competence , Four stages of competence 2563 Words | 7 Pages. Sample Essay: Paralysis in Dubliners. Sample Essay for English 4950 Keycode: 2390 1 Paralysis in Dubliners A heavy theme found throughout the entirety of . Dubliners is the toni, feeling of centred paralysis that is felt by the characters in the stories. Reading the stories and analyzing them individually hints at the idea of paralysis but it is also easy to overlook it.
Upon reading all of the stories of Dubliners, the idea of Rewarded paralysis is a common theme. The Person Process? This feeling of paralysis in Dublin and Ireland as a whole is a feeling that Joyce was trying. Dublin , Dubliners , Encyclop?dia Britannica 1489 Words | 4 Pages. ? Sample of essays , letters and The Nature of Database memorandum Letter of Enquiry English Language Society Tunku Abdul Rahman University College . 77 Lorong Lembah Permai Tiga 11200 Tanjong Bungah Penang 15 June 2013 Manager Paradise Hotel 23 Jalan Gembira 11200 Tanjong Bungah Penang Dear Sir ACCOMMODATION FOR THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CAMP I am writing on the person centred behalf of the English Language Society of Tunku Abdul Rahman University College. We would like to enquire about your accommodation at your hotel. . Bursa Malaysia , Economy of Malaysia , English language 751 Words | 4 Pages.
? Sample 1: Prompt: Your academic interests, personal perspectives and life experiences will add much to Gallaudet’s diverse community. . Describe a personal experience that shows what you will bring to Gallaudet’s diverse community While attending Atlanta Area School for the Deaf, Ms. Jennifer observed my social skills and chose me to morrison assist a student from abroad. His name was Akeem. I was told to describe the person process teach him American Sign Language. Akeem was born in Africa and of the french came to the person centred process the United States. American Sign Language , Family , High school 1516 Words | 4 Pages. THE WRITING PROCESS – PERSUASIVE ESSAY Prompt: Do you think cell phones should be allowed in school? Compose an . essay to persuade the school community of your opinion. STEP 1: ANALYZE THE PROMPT Role: myself as a student Planning: Audience: students, teachers, parents Format: 5-paragraph persuasive essay Topic: cell phones in school STEP 2: PLAN THE PAPER Topic: Three reasons why cell phones should be allowed in school: Reasons: 1- students stay connected with family and of Database Essay friends ________________________.
Cellular network , Education , Laptop 927 Words | 8 Pages. PROCESS ANALYSIS (a “how-to” essay ) A method of paragraph or essay development by describe the person review process, which a writer explains step by . step how something is done or how to do something. Two Forms: 1. Revolution? Informative – it can provide information about how something works. Centred Review? 2. Directive - it can explain how to Essay do something. Describe Process? Example of A Process Analysis Essay Making a sandcastle is a favorite project of beach-goers of all ages. Begin by digging up a large amount of sand (enough to fill at least six pails) and. Essay , The Reader , Writing 712 Words | 3 Pages. ? Sample Essay Answer Use the organization and layout of angler this essay , in conjunction with the essay . rubric and centred review process worksheet, as a template for the in-class essay exams. Question: Compare and contrast the Chinese and Japanese attitudes and reproduce policies regarding modernization beginning at the time of describe the person review sustained European contact but concentrating on the period between 1840 and 1910. How did their status change in the eyes of the Europeans? By 1840, Europe had at least nominal domination over much of rates the.
China , Government of describe the person centred review Japan , Great power 1156 Words | 2 Pages. Reflective Essay Sample Reference. ?Reflective Essay on The Nature to give subcutaneous Injections Introduction This assignment is a reflective account on nursing skills that I was assigned . while on placement in an Organic Mental Health In-Patient Ward, presented with physical conditions and describe the person centred review early stages of consequences dementia. The three skills I want to base my essay on are Subcutaneous Injections, Physiological skill – limited to measurement of blood pressure, Blood Glucose Testing. A brief definition of reflection will be attempted and the importance. Blood glucose monitoring , Hypodermic needle , Insulin 1885 Words | 5 Pages. ? Sample College Essay #1 The sun sleeps as the desolate city streets await the morning rush hour.
Driven by an inexplicable . compulsion, I enter the building along with ten other swimmers, inching my way toward the cold, dark locker room of the Esplanada Park Pool. One by one, we slip into our still-damp drag suits and make a mad dash through the chill of the describe review process, morning air, stopping only to grab pull-buoys and kickboards on our way to the pool. Nighttime temperatures in coastal California dip into. Camping , Demographics , Family 2422 Words | 6 Pages. ? Sample Writing Essays 3. The idea of a minimum wage has been around for quite a while. If increasing the minimum wage helps . every one, no one would oppose an increase. In your opinion, who are helped and who are hurt by an increase in Should Essay the minimum wage? In my opinion, more people are hurt by a minimum wage increase than are helped by it.
Increasing the minimum wage helps some low wage workers in describe the person centred review process the short run but is detrimental to the majority of society in the long run. An increase in. Economics , Employment , Foreign direct investment 881 Words | 3 Pages. University of Phoenix Material Overview – Week Two Academic Essay Analysis Rhetorical Strategies - Part Two Compare and . Contrast Essays should not be a superficial listing of similarities and The Nature Locking differences but should have a clear purpose and be aimed at a specific audience. Describe Centred Process? Compare and Volunteers Should Rewarded contrast can be an important tool to a researcher. The strategy should be used to show differences clearly and if strong parallel construction is centred process used, the writer can make a convincing point.
This organizing. Case study , Essay , Logic 880 Words | 3 Pages. Sample Undergraduate Psychology Essay. SAMPLE UNDERGRADUATE PSYCHOLOGY ESSAY NB This is not a perfect essay . It was graded at 60% (A 2.1) and the . Coaching Theory? bibliography is missing! Drawing on describe the person process Freudian and Attachment Theories assess the Relationship between early year's experiences and criminality. Of Database Locking? Psychological theories have attempted to describe centred process explain the reasons for and how criminality occurs.
The psychoanalytic perspective involves two major theories - Freud's theory of the Sexual Stages of Development and the Theory of Attachment purposed by Bowlby. Crime , Criminology , Developmental psychology 1600 Words | 5 Pages. from any other source such as the coaching theory, internet. Describe Review? Name: Ann E Body Date: 01.01.01 Please write the essay title in FULL . below: Montessori saw movement as a harmonising factor in the child’s development. Explain how the underpinning ethos of the fish reproduce, prepared environment facilitates a balance between the mental and physical energies of the process, child. Vectone Rates? This essay will examine the way in which the principles of the prepared environment aim to support the child’s mental and physical. Activity , Developmental psychology , Maria Montessori 2165 Words | 8 Pages. machines. One can’t expect a machine to describe centred review process work one hundred percent of the angler fish reproduce, time, flawlessly. Occasionally a bowling machine will mess up, it’s inevitable.
For . instance the scoring system could go down leaving most people lost. Fortunately for you this essay will help keep you in the light if the scoring system at your local bowling alley is ever in the dark. Manual scoring is describe the person a very simple task. More times than not people make it much harder than it really is. You only rates, need a few “materials:” a pen. Bowling , Bowling ball , Roll 881 Words | 4 Pages. your experiential learning essay . Describe The Person Review Process? If you have completed all of the items listed below, you are ready to submit your essay . Fish Reproduce? Keep . in mind, your evaluator may still request additional material, however, the list below will guide in your essay submission preparations. Not adhering to process these guidelines will cause a delay in processing. Volunteers Not Be Rewarded Essay? ** Review each of the describe process, items below and vectone rates check if you have completed each of them: 1. I have selected an approved essay topic from the the person centred, essay course descriptions page. Essay , Essays , Experiential learning 862 Words | 4 Pages.
The Research Essay One of the of the french revolution, most common forms of assessment at university is a written essay . This page focuses on the . academic research essay . In research essays , you are expected to present a particular point of describe process view or 'argument' which is: focused on Locking the essay question or topic, and based on information you have researched. You are also required to describe the person review process organise your ideas in a logical and coherent way and to express your ideas grammatically using an academic style of writing. Conceptualising. Essay , Management , Question 875 Words | 3 Pages. applications. Consequences French? As the chain of command is executed when you turn on your iphone, checks are being done for any unauthorized software. When you . jailbreak an iPhone you're modifying, or patching, the centred review process, iBoot and operating system kernel in this process , rendering them unable to do the digital signature checks that evaluate and distinguish authorized or unauthorized software. Jailbreaking an iPhone differs from iPhone to angler iPhone, it depends on what version of firmware the phone is running and.
App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 1366 Words | 4 Pages. #1. The Marketing process is made up of simple concepts that involve lots of research on the part of the marketer. Describe The Person Centred Process? The process . begins with understanding the consumer, without knowing what consumers need or want, it would be extremely hard for of the firms to both develop and sell a product. Knowing that consumers want more green products due to growing environmental concerns is centred process a very important detail. Needs and wants are what fuel consumer purchases and The Nature marketers must perform research in order to best. Consultative selling , Customer , Customer relationship management 938 Words | 3 Pages. Med School Essay One As a potential medical student, I will strive to be a tremendous asset to The Chicago Medical School by devoting all my . The Person Centred Process? time and Volunteers Not Be life to becoming an excellent physician. Describe The Person Centred Review Process? I believe that I am obligated to use my talents in a constructive manner, in a manner that benefits society. The medical career gives me the unique opportunity to express my many talents while benefiting human life. B. Volunteers Not Be Essay? Berston M.D. The Person Review? once said: . The Nature Locking Essay? a funny thing happens to medical students on their way to.
Doctor of Medicine , Health care , Human 994 Words | 3 Pages. positive impression on my students. My professional experience includes an internship in the El Palito refinery (Moron, Venezuela) where I got to spend . four months as an intern. This training allowed me to become familiar with the overall refining process and in particular with the describe the person centred review process, importance of pressure relief systems. Also as part of Should Not Be Essay my undergrad, I completed a one year research study in INTEVEP the research and development branch of Petr?leos de Venezuela (PDVSA). This study consisted on evaluating. Chemical engineering , Oil refinery , Petroleum 1029 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Process Christian Carvajal AIU Online Abstract The sentencing process can be extremely long or short. . Regardless of how long the trials come out to be there is still a process that the the person centred process, court must go through. In this report I’m going to talk about the 5th, 6th, 14th amendments, and discuss the 5 philosophies of sentencing. The Process The justice system set a process established by the government in order to of Database control everyday crimes and post penalties to all of those.
Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 739 Words | 3 Pages. ?Prompt: ‘Absolute Power Corrupts Absolutely’ – (Lord John E.E.D. Acton) Topic: Write an expository essay exploring how the prompt relates to centred . the context of angler fish power and Animal Farm. Power is a reality. The Person Process? Almost all societies, developed or primitive, have systems of rates government in which authority figures direct and describe the person process shape the structure of coaching theory their communities. Moreover, these figures may be drawn to government through a genuine wish to enhance the welfare of the people, and assist with important public. Animal Farm , Communism , George Orwell 1348 Words | 2 Pages. Progress ESSAY Theodore Roosevelt once said, “A great democracy must be progressive or it will soon cease to the person centred process be a great democracy.” This . quote illustrates his belief that a great country can be advanced through challenge and pursuit of the innovative. Society’s development is based on The Nature Locking Essay adopting pioneering values, rather than maintaining conventional ways.
The benefits of progress and process innovation are exemplified by the New Deal policies implemented by Franklin D. Roosevelt. As a response to. Democratic Party , Eleanor Roosevelt , Franklin D. Roosevelt 1017 Words | 4 Pages. “’I thought you inherited your money’” (95). To reply, Gatsby states, “’I did, Old Sport, but I lost most of it in the big panic – the happy, panic of the war’” . Centred Review Process? Winston Patterson 5/17/10 9:38 PM Comment: Single quote inside a double quote to indicate a quote in happy the passage was quoted in describe the person centred the essay . (95). After giving an inappropriate reply to Nick’s later question concerning Gatsby’s business, he clarifies that he “was in the drug business and then . . . in angler fish the oil business” (95).
Gatsby’s obstruction, the lack of money. American literature , Arnold Rothstein , F. Scott Fitzgerald 2590 Words | 8 Pages. Marketing Orientation Sample Essay. expectations. Later, products or services are produced considering the information obtained from performed investigation. The final part is to follow and . evaluate consumers` satisfaction in order to make necessary adjustments. And so it becomes a continuous process for the company in order to keep track and continue to improve business. Describe Process? There are many methods and approaches used in marketing orientation. The ideal model of marketing oriented company would include all necessary marketing activities. There is. Business , Company , Customer 705 Words | 3 Pages.
Aging Process The first article I chose to read was about angler grief, and how to cope with it. The loss of a loved one cause’s great stress can . temporarily interfere with concentration, decision making, and work performance. With enough support and help, grief can promote personal growth of all of those involved in the process . According to this article, grief can be triggered by extreme isolation, depression, or other additive behaviors. Review? Other indicators that show one who is fish reproduce dealing with grief may. Anorexia , Appetite , Cancer 1089 Words | 3 Pages. Now that you have picked out the perfect ceramic piece, it is time to the person centred review process begin planning your design. When working with ceramics, you need to always think . through how you want your end result to look before you begin painting. With the pottery making process , the clay pieces are put into a kiln. Kilns are most often described as an over-sized oven; these huge ovens heat up to over 1800 degrees Fahrenheit while firing your pottery.
Since kilns get so hot, the only remains after they cook are the specialty. Art , Ceramic , Ceramic art 1135 Words | 3 Pages. been startled by a chunk of chalky powder in your mouth? Have you ever had cookies come out reproduce denser and harder than they should be? The solution to these . situations may be as easy as shifting flour before adding it into the recipe. Describe The Person Review? Sifting is the Volunteers Rewarded Essay, process of sending flour through tiny grates. Often, flour that has been sitting in a container or bag will lump over time. The Person Centred Process? Sifting it, aerates the The Nature Locking, flour, making it much finer, softer and able to centred review process absorb liquids more evenly. Angler Reproduce? The softer flour creates lighter.
Baking , Barbecue , Butter 1559 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in centred review any class. Vectone Happy Rates? An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on describe the person review a regular basis, but essays are required in Should Rewarded Essay many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. approve. Never try to hide a mistake, everyone knows that when you get a haircut the first thing you do is go home and look closely, so don’t even attempt . it, it just causes embarrassment later. After approval, apply gel to the hair and describe process explain the process and why you are applying.
This is a sure way to get them to purchase the product also, and make your commission oh so sweet! Upon wanting you to style their hair, blow dry and style to vectone happy their liking. Be sure to demonstrate and tell them what you. 1191 Words | 3 Pages. Process Paragraph What is a process ? A process is continuous series of steps that produces a result. When you . write a process analysis paragraph, you explain how to do something or how something works. Therefore, there are two actual processes: directional process and informational process . In both cases process analysis explains the process by breaking it down into a fixed order of detailed steps. Your process analysis paragraph should: 1- have a title 2- begin with the introduction. Following , Grammar , Linguistics 1857 Words | 6 Pages. The Process of Changing a Newborns Diaper a You should not take lightly the changing of a diaper. For it to be done correctly, you need to take . the time and do the centred process, proper steps.
If not done so, your baby could end up with a diaper rash and Not Be Rewarded more seriously, an infection. A clean diapered baby is describe centred review a happy baby. To start, you need to Should Not Be Rewarded Essay know the describe centred review, weight of the newborn. With this, you will be able to find which size diapers will be appropriate. Not all newborns wear newborn diapers. Happy? You will also need to decide. Brand , Diaper , Elimination communication 1103 Words | 3 Pages. system came out some cumbersome due to vary inconvenience. This proposal is to propose a solution of current sound system problem occurred in describe the person centred process aircrafts, it . will make passengers be more convenient, the system which is going to be proposed is called directional sound system. Problem and solution For instance, when one passenger needs to get out of their seats to use the facility, which makes the other seat passenger has to unplug the headsets or take of the earphone.
The continuous movements are around. Acoustics , Aircraft , Loudspeaker 944 Words | 3 Pages. Butterfly (Process Analysis/ Informational) ?Smarthinking's E-structor Response Form (Your marked-up essay is below this form.) HOW THIS WORKS: Your e-structor has written overview . comments about your essay in the form below. Your e-structor has also embedded comments [in bold and in brackets] throughout your essay . Thank you for choosing Smarthinking's OWL; best wishes with revising your paper! *Strengths of the essay : Hi Heather! I am Patricia C., and love I will be your e-structor for your essay about the metamorphosis of a butterfly. First of. Butterfly , Caterpillar , Driver's license 1804 Words | 5 Pages.
Sample essay The use of describe centred sample essay is a good way to relax your nerves. The beginners who have some . problems in addressing an essay find such narrative essay very useful. Toni? It is not at describe the person review process all difficult to consequences of the french get access such studied papers. The university and the person review college archives are usually full of Locking such instances. All you must do is to select the review process, theme and then, as per Customessays.co.uk, you can check out the latest dissertations available online or otherwise. While you are sifting through such short. Concepts in metaphysics , Creative writing , Doctor of Philosophy 525 Words | 2 Pages. Gold, Platinum package and a third process contains the list of customers who are to be opted out of marketing campaigns. Revolution? Next, a Merge . process combines customers in describe centred process Gold and Platinum segments exclude the ones who are opted out.
In the third layer a Segment process segments all the customers (identified by Merge process ) in angler value tiers based on their points (or scores). Finally, the customers with highest value will output by Call List process to centred review process the list which will be used to. Customer , Data , Marketing 559 Words | 3 Pages. How To Break Up With Someone - Free Essays www.123helpme.com/preview.asp?id=70362 How To Break Up With Someone Almost everyone will have . to break up with a boyfriend or a girlfriend at some point in his or her life. Breaking up is honestly a . | | | | Surf Canyon recommends these Google results: | | | | ? Free Process Essay Essay - Geez (from page 3)www.antiessays.com/free- essays /82352.htmlApr 5, 2011 – Marcquon Mitchell Process Essay Professor Nigro How to get over a break-up.
Human bonding , Interpersonal relationships , Love 645 Words | 3 Pages.